Vaisheshika-sutra with Commentary

by Nandalal Sinha | 1923 | 149,770 words | ISBN-13: 9789332869165

The Vaisheshika-sutra 5.2.17, English translation, including commentaries such as the Upaskara of Shankara Mishra, the Vivriti of Jayanarayana-Tarkapanchanana and the Bhashya of Chandrakanta. The Vaisheshika Sutras teaches the science freedom (moksha-shastra) and the various aspects of the soul (eg., it's nature, suffering and rebirth under the law of karma). This is sutra 7 (‘other actions of mind...’) contained in Chapter 2—Of Non-volitional Action—of Book V (of investigation of action).

Sūtra 5.2.17 (Other actions of mind...)

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration, Word-for-word and English translation of Vaiśeṣika sūtra 5.2.17:

अपसर्पणमुपसर्पणमशित पीतसंयोगाः कार्यान्तर संयोगाश्चेत्यदृष्टकारितानि ॥ ५.२.१७ ॥

apasarpaṇamupasarpaṇamaśita pītasaṃyogāḥ kāryāntara saṃyogāścetyadṛṣṭakāritāni || 5.2.17 ||

apasarpaṇam—going out, egress; upasarpaṇam—coming into, ingress; aśita-pīta-saṃyogāḥ—conjunctions of what is eaten and drunk; kārya-antara-saṃyogaḥ—conjunctions of other effects or products; ca—and; adṛṣṭa-kāritāni—caused by adṛṣṭa.

17. Egress and ingress (of life and mind, from and into, body), conjunctions (i.e., assimilation) of food and drink, and conjunctions of other products,—these are caused by adṛṣṭa.

Commentary: The Upaskāra of Śaṅkara Miśra:

(English rendering of Śaṅkara Miśra’s commentary called Upaskāra from the 15th century)

[Full title: Other actions of mind, etc. independent of volition, and dependent on adṛṣṭa]

But, if volition were the efficient cause of the action of life and mind, then, when life and mind go out from the body, in the state of death, and, on the production of another body, re-enter into it, there being no volition, both these actions would be impossible. How, again, can be produced action, productive of conjunction of even what is eaten and drunk, i.e., food and drink, which conjunction is the cause of the growth of the body and its limbs, as well as action which causes conjunction and disjunction during life within the womb? In anticipation of this objection, he says:

[Read sūtra 5.2.17 above]

Here the neuter gender in the word ‘adṛṣṭa-kāritāni’ is according to the rule that word of the neuter gender, appearing together with a word of another gender, may optionally entail neuter gender in both. The word, ‘Saṃyoga,’ again, secondarily denotes action which is its cause. ‘Apasarpaṇa,’ i.e., the going out of life and mind from the body alone, on the wearing away of action which originated the body; ‘Upasarpaṇa,’ i.e., the entrance of life and mind into another body as it is produced; action which is the cause of the conjunction (i.e., assimilation) of food, drink, etc.; and action which is the cause of the conjunction (ṛ e., pulsation, etc.) of another product, i.e., the foetus;—all these have as their non-combinative cause conjunction with soul possessing adṛṣṭam. The word, ‘iti,’ implies that the actions of the humours and excreta of the body are also caused by conjunction with, soul possessing adṛṣṭam, as their non-combinative cause.—17.

Commentary: The Vivṛti of Jayanārāyaṇa:

(English extracts of Jayanārāyaṇa Tarkapañcānana’s Vivṛti or ‘gloss’ called the Kaṇādasūtravivṛti from the 17th century)

He mentions other actions dependent on adṛṣṭa.

‘Apasarpaṇa,’ i.e., egress of mind from the body at death; ‘Upasarpaṇa,’ i.e., the ingress of mind into another body when it is produced; action from which conjunctions of what is eaten and drunk, i.e., food and water, are produced; action from which conjunctions of other effects, i.e., the senses and life, with the body, are produced:—all these are caused by conjunction with soul possessing adṛṣṭa, as the non-combinative cause.

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