The Skanda Purana

by G. V. Tagare | 1950 | 2,545,880 words

This page describes The Manifestation of Bhairava which is chapter 31 of the English translation of the Skanda Purana, the largest of the eighteen Mahapuranas, preserving the ancient Indian society and Hindu traditions in an encyclopedic format, detailling on topics such as dharma (virtous lifestyle), cosmogony (creation of the universe), mythology (itihasa), genealogy (vamsha) etc. This is the thirty-first chapter of the Purvardha of the Kashi-khanda of the Skanda Purana.

Chapter 31 - The Manifestation of Bhairava

[Sanskrit text for this chapter is available]

Note: This chapter deals with the creation and exploits, of Kālabhairava. He is known as the Kotwal, the Police Chief, of Kāsī. Though our text locates Kālabhairava on the bank of Kapālamocana Tīrtha (v 138) in the Oṃkāreśvara area north of Maidagin, that side was destroyed during Muslim invasions. Now his temple (“Bhaironath Temple”) is located in the maze of lanes between Chaukhamba Lane and Maidāgin Park (BCL 189-193).

Agastya said:

1. O Skanda, O delight unto the heart of the omniscient Śiva, O destroyer of Demon Tāraka, I am not fully satisfied on hearing the story of Vārāṇasī.

2. If I am worthy of being blessed, if I deserve to hear it, O Lord, tell me the detailed story of Bhairava in Kāśī, O Lord.

3. Who is this (deity) named Bhairava established in the city of Kāśī? Of what form is he? What is his activity? What are his names?

4. How is he to be propitiated so that he will bestow success unto the aspirant devotees? When is he to be worshipped so that Bhairava will be quickly propitiated?

Skanda said:

5. O blessed one, I think no one else has as much love and devotion to Vārāṇasī as you have. Hence I shall narrate everything without omission.

6. The manifestation of Bhairava is destructive of all great sins. One shall obtain the benefit of residence in Kāśī without any hindrance on hearing this.

7. May the great Bhairava who performs the dance of Tāṇḍava in a highly excited manner, protect the three worlds from all adversities. With his pair of hands he squeezes the worlds of the Cosmos all-round as though they were a ripe juicy mango.

8. It is called Prākṛta Pralaya (‘the dissolution of Prakṛti’) wherein God Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Rudra cease to exist. The all-destroying Supreme Lord understands easily that Supreme Person.

9. O Brāhmaṇa, there is nothing mysteriously surprising in this. The Māyā of Lord Śiva is very difficult to cross over. All are deluded by it and hence do not comprehend that great Lord.

10. If that great Īśvara of his own accord makes himself understood, Brahmā and others come to know him. They do not know him by themselves, at their will.

11. Though he is omnipresent, the great Īśvara revelling in himself, is not seen. He is thought as though he is like an ordinary god by deluded persons. He is beyond the pale of mind and speech.

12. Formerly, O Brāhmaṇa, on the peak of Meru, the great sages bowed down to Pitāmaha (Brahmā), the lord of the worlds, and said, “What is that single Principle which is immutable?”

13. Deluded by the Māyā of Maheśa, the progenitor of the worlds, who did not comprehend the great Being, mentioned himself as the most excellent one.

14-15. He said, “I am the source of origin of the universe; I am the only self-born Īśvara (Godhead). I am the Absolute Brahman without a beginning. No one gets liberated without worshipping me. I cause the worlds to function. I am the only one who causes them to recede. It is the truth that no one else among the gods is superior to me, O excellent ones.”

16. Even as the Creator was saying thus, Kratu, the deity born of a part of Nārāyaṇa, spoke these words laughingly, his eyes being copper-coloured due to anger:

17-19. “What is this that is propounded without comprehending the Supreme Principle. This ignorance on your part is not proper as you (are reputed to be) one endowed with the practice of Yoga. I am the maker of the worlds. I am Yajña, the great Nārāyaṇa. O unborn Vidhi, the very existence of the worlds is not possible if I am ignored. I am the supreme brilliant lustre. I am the ultimate goal. The activity of creation is carried out by you on being urged by me.”

20. In this eagerness to excel each other, these two deluded ones acting antagonistically, asked the four Vedas, the knowers of means of proof or cognition.

Vidhi and Kratu said:

21. O ye Vedas who have gained credence everywhere as the greatest authority undoubtedly, what is it that you accept as the truth?

Śrutis said:

22. If we are to be honoured, O lords who are the cause of creation and sustenance, we shall mention an authority that shall dispel your doubts.

23. On hearing what was declared by the Śrutis they too told them: “What is uttered by you is authority unto us? What is the truth? Let this be clearly stated.”

Ṛk said:

24. It is Rudra alone within whom the Bhūtas (elements, living beings) abide; it is from him that everything comes out and functions; it is he whom they call the highest reality.

Yajus said:

25. It is Siva alone who is all-surveying (omniscient). It is that Īśa who is adored by all Yajñas and through Yoga; we gain authoritativeness through him.

Sāman said:

26. It is the great Tryaṃbaka (Three-eyed Lord) by whose lustre the entire universe shines; it is he who is meditated upon by Yogīns and the whole cosmos whirls about due to him.

Atharvan said:

27. They call him Śaṅkara (‘Bestower of weal’), the Kaivalya (‘Salvation’), the remover of miseries, the only Lord (of Devas) whom blessed people realize through devotion.

28. On hearing what was uttered by the Śrutis, Kratu and Vidhi (Nārāyaṇa and Brahmā) who had been completely overwhelmed by delusion and blindness, O sage, smiled and said:

29-30. “How did that Lord of Pramathas (Goblins) attain the status of Supreme Brahma, the Lord who in a nude state regularly sports about with Śivā (Pārvatī) in a cremation ground, who has become grey with dust, who wears matted hair and despicable dress and serpents as embellishments or ornaments, who moves about on a bull? What a lot of difference between him and Supreme Brahma which is devoid of contacts and association!”

31. On hearing what was spoken by them, the eternal Praṇavātman (‘the Soul in the form of Oṃkāra’), though unembodied, took up a form and laughingly said to them:

Praṇava said:

32. Never does this Lord Rudra, Hara, assuming a sportive form divert himself with the Śakti who is not different and distinct from him.

33. This Īśa is the great lord, self-luminous and eternal. Śivā, bliss personified, is his eternal Śakti (and not adventitious).

34. Although this was (clearly) stated, the ignorance of Makhamūrti (Nārāyaṇa, embodiment of Yajña) and Aja (Brahmā) did not perish because of the Māyā of Śrīkaṇṭha (Śiva).

35. Thereafter, in between them a great refulgence appeared filling the space between heaven and earth through its own brilliance.

36. A being in the form of a man was seen in the middle of the luminous orb. Then the fifth head of Brahmā blazed with fury.

37-38. Even as Vidhi was reflecting, ‘who can be this that has assumed the form of a man (and stands) in between us both?’, the great Puruṣa, Nīlalohita, was seen by the Creator in a moment. The great person had the trident in his hand, an eye in the forehead and was wearing serpents and the Crescent Moon as ornaments.

39-40. Hiraṇyagarbha (Brahmā) said to him, “I know you, the moon-crested one. Formerly you came out as Rudra from the region of my forehead. Since you cried then, you had been named Rudra by me formerly. O son, seek refuge in me alone. I shall accord protection unto you.”

41-42. On hearing the arrogant words of the Lotus-born Lord, Īśvara, out of anger, created a Puruṣa of terrifying appearance. He said to him, “O Kālabhairava, this Lotus-born One deserves to be chastised by you. You shine like veritable Kāla. Hence you are Kālarāja.

43. You are capable of bearing the universe. You are known as (i.e., called) Bhairava through your capability to bear (Bharaṇa) the universe.[1] Even Kāla will be afraid of you. Hence you are (called) Kālabhairava.

44. Since you, on being enraged[2], will suppress the wicked-minded ones, you will earn reputation everywhere as Āmardaka.

45. Since you will be eating up the sins of your devotees within a moment, you will have the name of Pāpabhakṣaṇa (‘Devourer of sins’).

46. O Kālarāja, forever you will have the over-lordship of Kāśī which is mine, the city of liberation, greater than all others.

47. You will be the sole one to admonish and chastise those who commit sins here. Citragupta will not be recording their auspicious or inauspicious activities.”

48. After receiving these boons, Kālabhairava plucked off a head of Vidhi in a moment with the tip of the nail of finger of his left hand.

49. Punishment should be meted out only to that limb that has committed the offence. So the fifth head which uttered the words of censure was cut off.

50. Then Viṣṇu, in the form of Yajña, eulogized Śaṅkara. Hiraṇyagarbha (Brahmā) who was terrified recited the Mantra Śatarudriya.

51. Mahādeva who is pleased with those who bow down to him, became delighted and so consoled them both. He then told Bhairava having matted hairs, who is another form of his own self:

52-53. “This Adhvara (i.e., Nārāyaṇa) and Śatadhṛti (Brahmā) are worthy of being respected by you. O Nīlalohita, hold the skull of Brahmā and go abegging as a part of holy observance for the purpose of dispelling the sin of Brāhmaṇa-slaughter and thus you personally demonstrate it to laymen.” After saying this, Śiva of brilliant form vanished.

54-55. Further (before vanishing) he had created a feminine form (a girl) well-known as Brahmahatyā. She was clad in red and had red garlands, scents and unguents. She also was red in complexion. Her face was hideous with curved fanglike teeth. The lolling tongue made her terrible in appearance. The extremities of her feet were in the firmament. She was drinking up much of blood.

56. She had a knife and a broken pot in her hand. Her tawny-coloured ferocious eyeballs were bright. She was roaring with rapidity. She was terrifying even unto Bhairava.

57-58. “O terrible one, by the time he goes to Vārāṇasī follow Kāla, O lady of hideous form. Excepting the city of Vārāṇasī, you will have easy access everywhere.” Saying thus, Śiva employed her on a special task and vanished.

59-60. Due to her close proximity, though he was himself Kālakāla (‘Kāla unto Kāla’ [death]), Bhairava became black in colour. At the behest of the Lord of Devas, he observed the Kāpālikavrata and travelled the three worlds guiding the common people. The highly terrible Brahmahatyā did not leave off that deity (Bhairava).

61-62. The lord of the three worlds, Ugra, the sole administrator of the three worlds, despite his terrible observance, was never left alone by Brahmahatyā in the course of his wanderings in Satyaloka, Vaikuṇṭha and the cities of Mahendra and others and in every holy spot.

63. O Pot-born Sage, from this alone let the greatness of Kāśī as the dispeller of the sin of Brāhmaṇa-slaughter be known.

64. There are many holy places and divine shrines all over the three worlds. But they do not deserve even a sixteenth part of the greatness of Kāśī.

65. The sins of Brahmahatyā etc. may very well roar but only until they hear the name of Kāśī which acts like a thunderbolt in the destruction of the mountains in the form of sins.

66. Attended upon by his Pramathas, Hara, Kālabhairava with a skull in his hand, walked all over the three worlds. He then stepped into the abode of Nārāyaṇa.

67-68. On seeing the Three-eyed Lord, Mahākāla with serpents for earrings, who is part of Mahādeva, but was called Bhairava the terrible, coming, the Garuḍa-emblemed Lord fell down on the ground like a log of wood in prostration. So did the Devas, sages and the celestial damsels all round.

69-70. They fell down by way of prostration. With his joined palms kept over the head and eulogizing by means of different kinds of prayers, the Lord of Kamalā (Goddess Lakṣmī), Hari, spoke to Padmā who emerged at the time of the churning of the Ocean of Milk: “O highly blessed, blameless, dear, lotus-eyed one, you are lucky.

71. I too am lucky, O lady of excellent buttocks, because we see the Lord of the universe directly. He is the creator and dispenser of the destiny of all the worlds. He is the lord and ruler of all the worlds.

72. He is beginningless. He is the sole refuge. He is quiescent. He is supreme Absolute, the twenty-sixth principle. He is omniscient. He is the lord of all Yogins. He is the sole lord of all Bhūtas (goblins or beings).

73-78. He is the immanent soul within all living beings. He is the perpetual bestower of everything unto all. Let him be seen now, whom those engaged in meditation, those who are calm and tranquil, those who have cast off their sleep, those who have curbed their breaths, see in their heart by means of their intellect. He who is formless, whom only Yogins of perfectly controlled minds and those who know the principle of the Vedas realize, who is omnipresent, comes here in an embodied form. Oh! Wonderful indeed is the activity of Parameṣṭhin (‘Dweller in the Absolute’). He has a body while those who repeat his names become bodiless. Here comes the Lord, the Three-eyed One with the moon as his ornament. On seeing him rebirth on the earth is not got by the men of the world. My eyes large and wide like the petals of a lotus are blessed now. Fie upon the status of Devas, for even after seeing the great Śaṅkara here salvation that puts an end to all miseries, is not obtained!

79. There is nothing more inauspicious in the world of gods than their own god-hood, because even after seeing the Lord of all the Devas, we do not get salvation.”

80. After saying this with joyous horripilation all over his body Hṛṣīkeśa bowed down to Mahādeva. He thus spoke to the Bull-emblemed Lord:

81. “O Lord, the remover of all sins, O immutable one, what is this that is being done by you, the omniscient one, the Lord of Devas, the creator of all the worlds?

82. O Lord of Devas, O three-eyed Lord of great intellect, is this your sport? O odd-eyed (three-eyed) one, O destroyer of Smara, what is the reason of this act of yours?

83. O Lord Śaṃbhu, why do you go abegging? This is my doubt, O Lord of Śakti, O Lord of the worlds, you who bestow the kingdom of the three worlds to those who bow down to you.”

84-86a. On being addressed thus, Śaṃbhu spoke thus to Viṣṇu: “Brahmā’s head was cut off by me with the nail at the tip of my finger. O Viṣṇu, it is to remove that sin that I am observing this auspicious expiatory holy rite.”

On being told thus by Maheśa, the lotus-eyed Lord smiled a little. With head bent down he then spoke:

86b-88. “O Lord of all worlds, sport about as you please. O Mahādeva, it does not behove you to overwhelm me with your Māyā. O mighty Lord, at your behest, I create in every Kalpa crores of lotus-seated ones (Brahmās) out of the lotus from the navel. O Lord, eschew this Māyā very difficult to wade through by those who have not realized their souls.

89-91. O Mahādeva, persons including me are deluded by your Māyā. Hence, O Lord of Śivā, I understand your act as it truly is.

When the time of annihilation comes, when you destroy all the worlds along with the Devas and sages of all castes and in all stages of life, then O Mahādeva, whence unto you is the sin of Brāhmaṇa-slaughter etc.? O Śaṃbhu, you have no dependence on anyone else. Hence you sport about as you please.

92. The garland of the bones of all previous Brahmās shines round your neck. O sinless one, where then had the (sins of) Brahmahatyā gone?

93. If anyone remembers you with emotional fervour, despite the commission of great sins, his sin becomes destroyed (as) you are the support of all the worlds and the mighty lord thereof.

94. Just as darkness does not stay in the proximity of the sun, so also does the sin of a devotee of Bhava. His sin duly becomes reduced.

95. If anyone of meritorious soul meditates upon the pair of your lotus-like feet, even the sin of Brāhmaṇa-slaughter and the like becomes reduced and destroyed.

96. O Lord of the universe, if the speech of any man is devoutly attached and engrossed in your names, no sin harasses him, even if it be on a par with the peak of great mountain.

97. Where will stay the sin that causes great distress on being immensely increased by means of Rajas and Tamas Guṇas as against your auspicious name of Śiva, the panacea enlivening all, the cure for the ailments of all the worlds?

98. If the names Śiva, Śaṅkara, Candraśekhara etc. of the enemy of Andhaka come out of the lips even casually, one will never have worldly existence again.

99. O supreme soul, O greatest refulgence, O you who have assumed a body out of your own will, this is only a curious whim of yours, O Lord. How can there be dependence on others in the case of a great Lord?

100. Today, I am blessed, O Lord of Devas, for I see that great immutable Lord, the root-cause of the universe whom even the Yogins do not see.

101. I have secured a great acquisition today. I have attained the greatest auspicious achievement. To me who have been satiated by the nectar of your vision, even heavenly pleasures and salvation are like a mere blade of grass.”

102. While Govinda was saying thus, certain alms of sacred nature called Manorathavatī (‘full of keen desire’) were offered unto his bowl by Padmā (Goddess Lakṣmī).

103. With great joy, the Lord too set out from there for begging. On seeing Brahmahatyā following him, Janārdana requested her: “Leave off the Trident-bearing One (Śiva).”

Brahmahatyā said:

104. Under this pretext, I shall attend upon the Bull-emblemed Lord and sanctify myself. Where can I have the vision of Bhava (Lord Śiva or Saṃsāra, the cosmos) once again?

105. Though addressed (and requested) by Murāri (Viṣṇu), she did not leave his side. Then with his face beaming with smile, Śaṃbhu spoke these excellent words to Hari:

106. “O sinless Govinda, O bestower of honour, I am satisfied by drinking your words resembling nectar. Choose your boon. I am the bestower of boons on you.

107. Mendicants do not get so elated with highly consecrated alms as with nectarine drinks of honour, (because thereby) their pain of wandering for alms becomes eradicated.”

Mahāviṣṇu said:

108. This itself is the most esteemed boon that I see you, the Lord of Devas who have gone beyond even the ken of wishful thinking.

109. According to the view of saintly persons, the bliss of seeing you, O Hara, is on a par with a shower of nectar without any cloud, a great festivity without undergoing any strain, the acquisition of a treasure-trove without any effort.

110. O Lord, let me not be separated from the pair of your feet. O Śaṃbhu, this is the boon; I do not choose any other boon.

Īśvara said:

111. O Ananta (the infinite one), let what has been wished by you be so, O highly intelligent one. You will become the bestower of boons to all the Devas.

112. Thus blessing the enemy of the Daityas, he wandered through the worlds of Brahmā, Indra and others and resorted to the city named Vārāṇasī, the mother of liberation.

113. Even the regions of Brahmā and other Devas are not equal to a sixteenth part of Vārāṇasī as the creatures staying there too are subject to adversities.

114. A resident of Vārāṇasī is far better, even if he be a mendicant with matted hair, tonsured head and completely nude, than an emperor of the entire earth with a royal umbrella staying elsewhere.

115. The alms received at Vārāṇasī is far better, (but) not the state of possessing a hundred thousand (Niṣkas) elsewhere. The lord of a hundred thousand enters the womb (Saṃsāra), but not he who consumes the alms thereof (of Vārāṇasī).

116. The alms there at Kāśī offered to mendicants, even if it be of the size of a fruit of Emblic Myrobalan, shall be weightier, if weighed against Sumeru (mountain).

117. A person who gives food for the period of a year to one the members of whose family suffer, is honoured in heaven for as many Yugas.

118. The best among men who gives annuity for food to a man without means of sustenance, never becomes miserable due to thirst and hunger.

119. A person who gives accommodation to others in Vārāṇasī obtains the full merit of those who live in Vārāṇasī.

120. Brāhmaṇa-slaughter and other sins leave off the sinner even when the name of Kāśī is uttered. With what can that Kāśī be compared?

121. The moment the holy place (Vārāṇasī) was entered into (by Śiva), at the sight of Bhairava of terrible form, Brahmahatyā screamed “Alas! Alas!” and entered into the lowest of nether worlds.

122. Even as all the people stood watching, the skull of Brahmā fell down from Rudra’s hand. On seeing it fallen, he danced with great joy.

123. While Hara was wandering, the excessively unbearable skull of Brahmā did not leave off his hand at any other place, but at Kāśī it fell instantaneously.

124. The sin of Brahmā-slaughter of the Trident-bearing Lord which was never separated anywhere, became destroyed in a moment at Kāśī. How then is Kāśī not: a rare city to be obtained?

125-127. Hence this city should be circumambulated and adored. A creature that repeats this great Mantra “Vārāṇasī”, “Kāśī” thrice a day, throughout his life, is never born again. He who casts off his life remembering the great holy shrine Avimukta even while he is very far off is never reborn.

128. He whose mind always remembers Ānandakānana (Kāśī) is never reborn, thanks to the (merit of) hearing the name of that holy spot.

129. A man should always reside in the abode of Rudra with the mind fully controlled. Even after committing a mass of sins, he gets liberated in due course.

130. After reaching Mahāśmaśāna (i.e., Kāśī) if one dies accidentally, one never meets with the eventuality of lying in a cremation ground again.

131. If men remember the holy spot of Kapālamocana at Kāśī, their sins committed here or elsewhere perish instantaneously.

132. After arriving here and performing ablution in this excellent Tīrtha (called Kapālamocana) and offering libations to the manes and gods, one gets liberated from the sin of Brāhmaṇa-slaughter.

133. If people reside in Vārāṇasī after fully realizing that this (worldly existence) is evanescent, Śaṅkara will bestow the supreme knowledge on them at the time of their death.

134. O Brāhmaṇa, this city of Kāśī is the great physical body of Rudra himself. It is Anirvācya (‘cannot be adequately expressed in words’). It accords the greatest bliss. It is difficult of access for those who are antagonistic to Īśa.

135. I know the reality of this (city). Or one who is engrossed in devotion to Śiva (also may know it). Creatures get liberated here itself like Yogins by means of Yoga.

136. This Kāśī is the greatest region. This city is the greatest bliss. This itself is the supreme knowledge. This should be resorted to by those who desire salvation.

137. If anyone of crooked intellect stays here and becomes antagonistic to the devotees of Śiva or maliciously and deludedly hates this city, he has no redemption here or elsewhere.

138. Honouring the holy spot Kapālamocana, Bhairava stood there itself eating up the heap of sins of his devotees.

139. Though he might have committed hundreds of sins, why should a devotee of Kālabhairava be afraid of sins after resorting to Pāpabhakṣaṇa (‘the devourer of sins’).

140. This Kālabhairava became well-known as Āmardaka, because he subdues sins as well as the ambitious desires of the wicked ones.

141. He always puts an end to the influence of Kali on the residents of Kāśī. Hence he became highly famous with the name Kālabhairava.

142. The terrible messengers of Yama are always afraid of his devotees. Hence he is remembered as Bhairava.

143. On the eighth lunar day of the dark half of Mārgaśīrṣa, one should observe fast and keep awake in the presence of Kālabhairava. He is rid of great sins (committed at Kāśī) as sins committed outside are (already) destroyed while entering Kāśī.

144. What little inauspicious deed was committed due to human weakness of the mind, becomes dissolved at the sight of Kālabhairava.

145. The sin committed by creatures in the course of hundreds of thousands of (previous) birth becomes dissolved quickly on seeing Kālabhairava.

146. By performing different kinds of adoration elaborately with plenty of provisions on the eighth lunar day in the dark half of the month of Mārgaśīrṣa, a man gets rid of (all the) hindrances of a year.

147. By performing the festival of the procession of Bhairava on the eighth and fourteenth lunar days as well as on Sundays and Tuesdays, one gets rid of all the sins committed.

148. A fool who puts obstacles before the devotees of Kālabhairava, the permanent residents of Kāśī, will meet with wretchedness (i.e., hell).

149. Those who are devotees of Viśveśvara but not of Kālabhairava will encounter obstacles at every step at Kāśī.

150. By taking the holy bath in the sacred waters of Kālodaka and performing the libations without haste, and visiting Kālarāja, one will redeem one’s Manes from the hell.

151. By circumambulating Pāpabhakṣaṇa eight times everyday, a man prevents getting smeared with sins mental, verbal and physical.

152. By performing the Japa of any of his desired deities seated near the pedestal of Āmardaka for six months, the aspirant achieves supernatural powers (or desired objects)—that is the command of Bhairava.

153. If after staying in the city of Kāśī, a man does not worship Bhairava, his sins go on increasing like the moon in the bright half.

154. By resorting to the service of Pāpabhakṣaṇa with oblations, Pūjā and presents, the devotee obtains whatever he desires.

155. If a person does not worship Kālarāja at Kāśī on every eighth and fourteenth lunar days and on Tuesdays, his merit declines like the moon in the dark half.

156-157. By listening to this meritorious chapter which is named Bhairavotpatti (‘Birth of Bhairava’) and which dispels the sin of Brāhmaṇa-slaughter, one is freed from all sins. Even a person kept in prison, one in great danger becomes rid of difficulties by listening to the manifestation of Bhairava.

Footnotes and references:


As stated commonly, ‘Bhairava’ is derived from bhī, ‘to fear’ and’Bhairava’ means one whose roar (rava) is ‘terrible’. This Purāṇa writer derives it from bhṛ, ‘to bear, to support’. In order to suit his (Bhairava’s) function vv 44-46 give the derivations of other epithets of Kālabhairava.


The reading ruṣṭa, being more appropriate than tuṣṭa, is adopted here.

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