The Skanda Purana

by G. V. Tagare | 1950 | 2,545,880 words

This page describes Events Connected with Baladitya which is chapter 46 of the English translation of the Skanda Purana, the largest of the eighteen Mahapuranas, preserving the ancient Indian society and Hindu traditions in an encyclopedic format, detailling on topics such as dharma (virtous lifestyle), cosmogony (creation of the universe), mythology (itihasa), genealogy (vamsha) etc. This is the forty-sixth chapter of the Kaumarika-khanda of the Maheshvara-khanda of the Skanda Purana.

Chapter 46 - Events Connected with Bālāditya

[Sanskrit text for this chapter is available]

Note: Bālāditya is the name of the Sun-god installed in the name of the boy who enlightened Nandabhadra. The object of this chapter is to glorify the Barkarika Tīrtha and Mahī-Sāgara-Saṅgama.

Nārada said:

1-2. After worshipping the excellent Kapileśvara Liṅga situated on the bank of Bahūdaka Kuṇḍa, Nandabhadra, the highly intelligent one, bowed down and stood in front of it with palms joined in reverence. He sang these verses because he was somewhat miserable on account of the way of the world.

3. “If I see Sadāśiva, the creator of this universe, O Lord, I shall embarrass him by asking many questions.

4. What deficiency would there have been without (in the absence of) creating the world? O desireless Lord, the universe was created in various ways like Bhārgava (a potter).

5. Why was something like yourself not created by you who are conscious, pure and devoid of attachment etc.? An insentient (world) has been created (by you).

6. Why is this universe beginning with Brahmā and ending with an insect being subjected to stress and strain due to (succession of) birth and death as well as happiness and misery by you who are impartial and devoid of enmity?

7. What benefit do you derive, O Sadāśiva, by placing some persons in heaven and some in hell? Tell me, why do you do like this?

8. These human beings separated from their beloved sons and others scream and howl, O Karuṇāsāra (one whose essence is mercifulness). Won’t you ever have mercy on them?

9. This is highly improper in every respect that your own devotees too sink and submerge in the ocean of misery along with the sinners.

10-11. Enchanted and confounded by the conduct of the world in this manner, I do not wish to go to any other place. I will not eat. I will not drink water. I will meet my death. I will stay here thinking about this.” Pondering thus in his mind Nandabhadra stayed there.

12. On the fourth day thereafter, a certain boy of seven years who (appeared to be) afflicted with all sorts of pains came to that splendid bank of Bahūdaka.

13. He was extremely emaciated. He suffered from leprosy and the wounds were dripping and oozing pus. At every step he lost consciousness. But the boy controlled himself with great difficulty and said to Nandabhadra:

14. “O handsome man with fine features in every limb, why are you too miserable?”

Thereupon, Nandabhadra told the cause (to him) completely.

15. On hearing all of it the boy said with dejected mind: “Alas, this is indeed painfully terrible in case of learned men that they are not wise!

16. (It is a pity) that persons with perfect sense organs desire to die in vain. Within a short while, Khaṭvāṅga[1] attained the path of salvation in this world.

17. Who will abandon Bharata Khaṇḍa when he has his life still left? I am I think firm though I have been abandoned by my parents.

18. I am unable to walk about, still I do not wish to die. The Vedic statement that all acquisitions are immeasurable is true.

19-22a. In your case, as your body is strong and firm, contentment is proper and befitting.

If somehow my body becomes free from ailments, I will do that (such) act every minute which can be enjoyed in Yuga after Yuga.

If a person has all the sense organs under his control, if his body is firm and strong, but if he desires for something else (death), who else is more senseless than he?

Thousands of occasions of grief and hundreds of occasions of pleasure come to a foolish fellow everyday, but not to a learned one.

22b-26a. Learned men like you do not get involved in those activities which are contrary to wisdom and knowledge, the activities that are beset with many dangers and that destroy their very roots.

They say that intellect has eight adjuncts. It destroys all calamities and woes. You possess intellect which is pure and not opposed to the Vedas and the Smṛtis.

People like you do not become dejected and frustrated on account of physical and mental miseries caused by distresses, calamities and difficulties, by the mishaps of one’s own kith and kin.

Men of wisdom and intellect do not desire what is unattainable. They do not bewail what is lost nor do they lose their sense on account of misfortune and adversity.

26b-30a. The world is assailed by miseries arising from the physical body as well as from the mind. Listen to the means of assuaging them both in detail as well as briefly.

The physical and menial sufferings are caused mainly by four things.[2] (Again) mental suffering is due to gain of the undesirable and loss of the desirable. Thus mental suffering is of two types. The examples have been stated. The body is pained and afflicted with mental suffering in the same manner as water kept within a pot (becomes heated) by (association with) a heated ball of iron.

30b-35. Vyādhi (physical illness) and Ādhi (mental illness) are overcome in a two-fold way of applying immediate remedies and taking continuous preventive measures (avoidance). Hence, one shall subdue mental suffering by means of knowledge in the same manner as one subdues fire by means of water.

When mental suffering is subdued, physical suffering too becomes subdued. Affection is found to be the root cause of the suffering of mind. It is due to affection that a good person gets involved and experiences misery. Miseries have their roots in affection and fears too have their origin in affection. Sorrow, joy, fatigue and weariness—everything results from affection. It is from affection that sensual attachment as well as greed for objects of pleasure take their origin. Both of them tend to produce unhappiness. The former one is known as very serious.

36. Hence a person who sacrifices and who has no enmity is not miserable. A person who does not sacrifice and who has no restraint (on himself) undergoes birth and death again.

37. Hence one should not yearn for affection from friends or by hoarding money. One should counteract (suffering) that has come out of the body by knowledge.

38. Like water that does not stick to the leaves of lotus, affection does not contaminate persons of spiritual achievement, persons equipped with wisdom, those who are conversant with scriptural texts and those who have realized their souls.

39. A person overcome by attachment is dragged by lust. Desire is kindled in him and thereafter his thirst increases.

40. Thirst (greed) is indeed the most sinful of all. It is considered to be the cause of perpetual suffering. It is full of evil and it results in terrible forms.

41. One who eschews thirst (greed) attains happiness—thirst that cannot be abandoned by vicious men, that does not diminish even when persons grow old and perish, that is a sickness that causes the end of vital airs (i.e. death).

42. Thirst has neither beginning nor end; it penetrates the entire body of a man. On coming into existence, it destroys in the same manner as rust of iron destroys iron itself.

43. Just as firewood perishes due to the fire originating from itself (by friction), so also a person who has not realized the soul perishes on account of greed originating from himself.

44. Hence one should not be covetous on account of the body or kinsmen. One should not be unduly delighted on acquiring things nor shall one bewail on losing them.”

Nandabhadra said:

45. O boy, I do not think that you are a boy (in reality). I bow down to you. I am extremely satisfied with your utterances. I shall ask you something.

46. Men censure lust, anger, arrogance and the sense-organs. In that connection arises this desire to speak:

47. ‘I am so and so. This is my task. I am a person of this sort.’ This and similar assertions (born) of self-consciousness are proclaimed Ahaṃkāra (egotism).

48-49. If this has to be avoided, one without it will be proclaimed as insane.

Kāma is called desire. If that is eschewed by a man, how is heaven attained or the desire to get liberated (to take root in us) as in the case of a piece of rock? If anger is to be abandoned, how can enemies be eliminated?

50-52. Without anger one cannot discriminate between external and internal enemies. People will be considered as insignificant as a blade of grass. If one suppresses the sense-organs after thinking them to be vicious and restraining them, how can one listen to pious discourses? How can one even live? In this matter my mind is, as though, pierced. It is dejected due to the danger of ignorance. Similarly, why was this insentient universe created by the sentient or conscious Soul? It is afflicted in various ways. Alas, why is this?

The boy replied:

53. You have aptly put the question. This is where creatures lose sense and become deluded. Listen with attention to what I have understood from Dvaipāyana.[3]

54. We have formerly heard that Prakṛti and Puruṣa are eternal, without a beginning. Before the creation (of the universe) these two that have neither death nor old age, remain with the sameness of nature.

55. Then, urged by time and nature, at the outset Prakṛti desired a union with Puruṣa. For want of it, it became agitated.

56. That Prakṛti which is of Tāmasa nature was sportingly viewed by the Lord. The faulty one then became Rājasa (of Rajas nature). Then it became Sāttvika (of Sattva nature).

57. Thus on account of the glances of the Lord, Prakṛti became possessed of three qualities (Guṇas). Presiding over it, the Supreme Lord became Trimūrti (i.e. having three forms).

58. (The Lord) activized a part of his Self in order to stimulate it (i.e. Prakṛti). It produced the principle of Mahat. Learned men know that it has three qualities (Guṇas).

59. Ahaṃkāra (‘Cosmic ego’) which is of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas nature was evolved from it. The quality of Tamas turns into the quality of Rajas and Rajas may lead to the quality of Sattva.

60-61. Learned men say that liberation takes place when it is of pure Sattva nature.

Hence for the purification of Tamas and Rajas in every respect, the Supreme Lord divided his own (self into) parts under the name Jīvātmans (Individual Souls). There are as many Kṣetrajñas (Individual Souls) as there are physical bodies.

62-66. Just as sparks come out from a heated (piece of) iron, similar is the creation of subtle and gross elements from Ahaṃkāra of the Tāmasa nature. The creation of sense-organs is from (the Ahaṃkāra) of Sāttvika nature. They too possess three qualities. Through the glance of the Supreme Being (an embodiment of existence, consciousness and bliss) and (as if) with a perfect machine (saṃsiddha-yantreṇa) the qualities of Rajas and Tamas are purified with Sattva by seekers of liberation (from Saṃsāra).

Hence one attains the Sāttvikī Siddhi (achievement of Sattva nature) by properly regulating love, anger, activities of the sense-organs and Ahaṃkāra. Love and other things of the Rājasa and Tāmasa nature should be abandoned. But those of Sattva nature should always be resorted to by those who desire to conquer Saṃsāra (i.e. to attain liberation from the cycle of births and deaths).

I shall succinctly state the characteristics of the three Guṇas unto you.

67. The characteristic features of the Sattva Guṇa are: Regular study of scriptural texts, the knowledge (gained) thereby, purity, exercising restraint on the sense-organs, performance of pious and holy rites and meditation on the Soul.

68. Acquiring wealth through unjust means, lethargy, atheism, cruelty, beggary etc. are the characteristic features of the Tamas Guṇa.

69. Hence, one should attain the status of a deity through these Sāttvika characteristics beginning with intellect: through Rājasa characteristics he would attain the status of a human being and that of a stump through Tāmasa characteristics.

70-75. Liberation shall be through intellect etc. and through these (others) alone suffering etc. If these were not to be present, nothing will be possible. Just as a goldsmith purifies gold by means of his ingenuity etc., similarly the Rajas and Tamas qualities should be purified by the Sāttvika qualities.

It is through the beginningless conglomeration of Guṇas that living beings (even though) seers (knowers) of Śāstras, become happy or miserable.

The Lord allotted two million eight hundred thousand species of creatures to each of these three Guṇas. Thus there are eight million four hundred thousand species of living beings. They are evolved out of the mind as well as the Soul. All of them are parts of the Supreme Lord (but) are deluded by the Guṇas of Prakṛti. They suffer from distress and pain as destined by the Lord,

76. For the sake of the good of food-grains, waters and living beings, the knowers of truth say that human nature is infused with devotion to Śiva.

Nandabhadra asked:

77-79. It is so. But O highly intelligent one, I shall ask you once more. Gods are the bestowers of everything. Why do they not save the men who are their devotees, from sorrow and misery?

Some persons who are deeply devoted to gods are seen particularly immersed in miseries (despite their devotion to gods). On account of this, my intellect is deluded. O boy, what do you think?

The boy replied:

80. Devotees of a deity are declared to be of two types: Aśuci (impure) and Śuci (pure). A person who is devoted to the Lord physically, verbally and mentally is called a Bhakta (devotee).

81. When an impure man worships deities, the spirits take possession of him. He loses sense at the very same moment.

82-84. Having lost sense and becoming deluded, he takes to different kinds of unworthy and sinful activities. Thereafter he perishes quickly. Therefore, one should not worship (when one is) unclean.

If a clean, pure man worships and if something inauspicious befalls him, obviously it is caused by one of his previous actions. Thus crores of Karmas become released (? they are wiped off).

Even Maheśvara, since he was afraid of (the demon of) Brāhmaṇa-slaughter, had to run about here and there. He took holy dips in Tīrthas. How can another escape (the effect of Karma) as in the case of Nārada after abducting the daughter of Ambarīṣa[4] from Parvata?

85. Even Rāma had (to bear the insult of) the abduction of Sītā. How can another escape? Even Brahmā had to bear the cutting off of his head as he (illicitly) loved his daughter.

86. Indra, Candra, Ravi (Sun-god), Viṣṇu had got the fruit of their acts (Karmas). Hence, what has been committed by them must always be experienced by men.

87. It is the conclusion in the Vedas that no one can escape from what has been done by him. But, thanks to the grace of the Lord, one thing can be obtained by persons who undergo religious observances.

88. What should be experienced in the course of many births can be experienced in a single birth. After experiencing it, one can attain one’s objectives. This is the considered decision.

89. Those who are pure and undergo religious observances, those who perform austerities with their sins dispelled, rejoice here along with their sons and grandsons and rejoice in the other world as well.

90. Hence Devas should always be worshipped by pure persons endowed with faith and (one’s) nature should be purified by performing duties assigned to one’s own caste.

91-92. Without Śiva, even a duty performed duly and perfectly shall lead only to stress and strain in the case of one of evil conduct—so says Lord Hara. Hence the fruit of what has been done by oneself (i e. one’s Karma) must be experienced, and Sadāśiva should be worshipped. Undue attachment and (unnecessary) hatred should be eschewed by one with perfect conduct. This is the greatest thing.

Nandabhadra said:

93. O one endowed with pure intellect! What is this that even sinful men can be seen rejoicing along with their wives and possessing plenty of wealth?

The boy said:

94-96. It is obvious that charitable gifts had been offered by them in their previous births under (the influence of) Tamas (guṇa) and Śaṃbhu had been worshipped with Rajas (guṇa). That fruit of their own action has been obtained by them.

But due to the influence of what had been performed by them through Tamas, they will have no interest or zeal for pious acts, O most excellent one among men of knowledge.

There is no doubt about this that after enjoying the fruit of the merit, they go to hell. In this doubtful case, what has been said by Mārkaṇḍeya is cited here.

97. “To one (enjoyment) is (had) only here, not hereafter (in the other world after death); to another (enjoyment) is (had) only hereafter and not here; to one there is enjoyment both here and hereafter; and to another there is no enjoyment either here or hereafter.

98. (In the first case) there was merit acquired in his previous (births) that has resulted in enjoyment (now). But he does not acquire any fresh merit. This is called Ihabhoga (‘enjoyment here’). (It is the case) of an unfortunate fellow of very deficient intellect.

99. (In the second case) he has no merit acquired beforehand (in his previous birth). But by means of austerities, he does acquire merit (now). Obviously that sensible one will have enjoyment in the other world as a result of his pious acts.

100. (In the fourth case) he has no merit acquired previously. He does not acquire merit here too. Therefore, he gets no enjoyment either here or hereafter. Fie upon that base man!”

101. After knowing this, O noble one of exalted dignity and good fortune, eschew all thorns and darts (i.e. sins). Worship Rudra. Observe the special duties (scrupulously) of your caste. Indeed there is nothing greater than this.

102. If anyone bewails when desired objects are lost or becomes delighted when they are acquired, that certainly becomes a bondage (and the cause) of another birth.

Nandabhadra said:

103. Obeisance to you, to the intelligent one in the form of a boy but who is learned (not an ignorant one in reality). Who are you? I wish to know you (your real self), you with pure smiles.

104. Many old men have always been seen by me and worshipped. But such an intellect as this has neither been seen nor heard by me in them.

105. Since my life-long doubts have been dispelled sportingly (by you), it is my opinion that you are certainly not an ordinary person.

The boy said:

106-111. A great deal has to be said. Listen to the story with attention and concentration.

In my life, fourteen lives prior to this, in the city of Vidiśā,[5] I was a Brāhmaṇa by the name Dharmajālika. I was conversant with the principles of Vedas and Vedāṅgas. I was the most excellent one among those conversant with the subject-matter of Smṛīis and (other) scriptures. I was an expounder of Dharmaśāstras like Bṛhaspati himself. I expounded the different Dharmas to the people very well. But I myself was of extremely bad conduct. I was a king (the worst) among sinners. I regularly ate meat and drank liquor. I hankered after the wives of others. I was a liar. I was an imposter. I was always roguish and a religious hypocrite. I was greedy and vicious. I spoke good things but never followed them in action. Just as a fisherman spreads the net, so also I threw the net of fraud against the people. Therefore the persons knowing the truth called me Dharmajālika.

112. When my life came to an end, I died and went to the abode of Yama. I was thrown in Kūṭaśālmali hell on account of my many accumulated sins.

113. I was dragged and reminded of my acts by the messengers of Yama. Cut and pierced by swords, I died and became alive again (to undergo the punishment).

114-118a. I remained in the hell for many many long years, censuring myself in various ways. Blessed is the man who has, albeit for a short while, the same good sense of piety and virtue as he has while undergoing the torture in the hell.

ī bow to the land of Karmans. The good or evil action one performs here for a short while does not perish even after many Yugas. Thereafter, my learned father liberated me from the hell. Along with them (other hell-dwellers) I was also liberated, but still I suffered pain and sorrow. I underwent the life of an immobile being too with its numerous stresses and strains. Afterwards I became a worm on the splendid banks of the river Sarasvatī.

118b-120. I lay down and slept soundly on the pathway itself. By chance a chariot came that way and I heard its loud rumbling sound. On hearing that thunder-like sound suddenly I became afraid. I quickly left the pathway and fled far away from that path. In the mean time, Vyāsa came there by chance.

121-122. That sage saw me frightened and took pity on me. Since, during my life as a Brāhmaṇa, different kinds of holy rites had been expounded by me to the common people, I could meet Vyāsa then as a result of that holy deed. Then the venerable one conversant with all sorts of cries (of animals etc.) spoke to me in the language of insects.

123. “O worm, why do you run away like this? Why are you afraid of death? Well, in the case of a man the fear is proper. How is it so in your case?”

124-126. On being told thus, I became wise, thanks to the previous merit. I told Vyāsa thus:

“O (Sage) worthy of being saluted by the universe, I am not afraid of death in any respect. O venerable one, this alone is my fear that I shall (have) to go to a still lower species. There are crores and erores of lower species other than this despicable life (of a worm). I am afraid of the suffering to be had in the womb of those species and not of anything else.”

Vyāsa said:

127. Do not be afraid. I will liberate you from all these species even if it takes a long time. I will certainly make you attain the birth as a Brāhmaṇa.

128. On being told thus by the son of Kālī (i.e. Vyāsa) I bowed down to that preceptor of the universe. I came to the pathway. Crushed by the wheel, I met my death.

129. Thereafter I was born in different species of animals and birds such as crow, jackal etc. On all those occasions, Vyāsa met me and reminded me of the same.

130. Thereafter, I was thrown into various species of beings. Ultimately in the course of this life, I was born in the house of a Brāhmaṇa. I am extremely miserable.

131. Ever since my birth, I have been avoided and abandoned by my parents, since I undergo this great pain due to leprosy and the dripping wounds thereof.

132-133. During my fifth year, Vyāsa came to me and repeated the Sārasvata Mantra into my ears. Thereby I am able to remember the scriptural texts not learned (now) as well as the whole of the Vedas and holy rites. This was told to me by Vyāsa: “Go to the shrine of Guha. There you console the highly intelligent Nandabhadra.

134-135. Cast off your vital airs (body) in Bahūdaka. Make someone immerse your bones in the waters of Mahī. Thereafter, you will become the good sage Maitreya. Then you will attain salvation.”

So said Vyāsa to me. Then I came here with great difficulty from the land of Vāhīkas.[6]

136. Thus the whole of my story has been narrated by me to you Always avoid, O Nandabhadra, painful life of sin in this manner.

Nandabhadra said:

137. Oh! exceedingly wonderful is your life whereby my mind has become hundred times firmly established in the pursuit of virtue (Dharma).

138. But I wish to do something in return for the righteous acts recounted by you. Remember Dharma and order me to do something specific.

The boy said:

139. I will remain at this Tīrtha without food for seven days. I will repeat the Mantras eulogizing the Sun-god. Then I will give up my life.

140. Thereafter, I should be cremated by you at the holy Barkarikā Tīrtha. My bones should be cast into the ocean here.

141. If your mind is full of love for me, I shall direct you to do a greater task. Listen to it.

142. In this Bahūdaka Tīrtha where I shall cast off my life, Lord Sun should be installed by you with ray name as its designation.

143. Lord Bhāskara on being propitiated will bestow health, wealth, food grains, sons, wives and riches—these are the words of the Vedas.

144. Savitṛ is the Supreme God. He is all in all unto the twice-born castes. He is eulogized by the Vedas and Vedāṅgas. You too should always worship him.

145. This Bahūdaka Kuṇḍa should always be resorted to by you. I shall recount its greatness succinctly as indicated by Vyāsa.

146. If any man takes his holy bath in the excellent Kuṇḍa of Bahūdaka in accordance with the injunctions, he will have health, wealth, food grains etc. in all his births.

147. If anyone bathes in Bahūdaka on the seventh day in the month of Māgha and offers rice balls to the Manes, they will attain everlasting satisfaction.

148. If anyone remains pure and performs a sacrifice on the banks of Bahūdaka, it will have the benefit of a hundred sacrifices. There is no doubt about it

149. He who abandons his life on the banks of Bahūdaka, rejoices in the world of the Sun. He shall be born as a son of virtuous people.

150. If anyone practises Japa on the banks of Bahūdaka, it is proclaimed that it yields one hundred thousand times more (fruits). Japa, Homa and worship are likewise (in merit).

151. If anyone feeds one Brāhmaṇa on the banks of Bahūdaka with sweet food, it is as fruitful as feeding a crore of Brāhmaṇas.

152. If a woman feeds auspicious Gaurikā girls (each eight years of age) on the banks of Bahūdaka, Umā will welcome her splendidly.

153. If anyone practises Yogic exercises on the banks of Bahūdaka, he will achieve final beatitude within six months. There is no doubt about this.

154. If anything is given on the banks of Bahūdaka with the dead ones in view, it shall reach them and yield everlasting benefits.

155. Holy bath, charitable gifts, Japa, Homa, study of the Vedas, libations to the Manes—all these performed on the banks of Bahūdaka shall yield very great results.

156. O Nandabhadra, this benefit spoken by Vyāsa with regard to Bahūdaka Kuṇḍa should be retained in your mind, O highly intelligent one.

157. After saying this he became silent. After taking bis bath in the Kuṇḍa, the pure one resorted to a rocky slab on the banks and began to repeat the Mantras.

Śrī Nārada said:

158. Thereafter, at the end of seven days, the boy cast off his life. He was cremated by Nandabhadra and the Brāhmaṇas in the manner indicated (by the boy).

159. He installed the Lord well-known as Bālāditya at the place where the boy cast off his vital airs eagerly engaged in the repetition of the Mantras.

160. If anyone takes his bath in Bahūdaka and worships Bālāditya, Lord Bhāskara will be pleased with him. He will obtain the means of liberation.

161-162. Nandabhadra begot other sons of another wife exactly like him. The intelligent one engaged in meditation on Śiva and Sūrya (Sun), entered Rudra’s body, from where it is very unlikely that people would return, O son of Pṛthā. Such is the great Kuṇḍa known as Bahūdaka.

163. Vallīnātha will release a part of himself on its bank. He will be a Yogin, an incarnation of Dattātreya.

164-168. By worshipping that Lord, one shall attain Yogic powers. He will have prosperity in cattles. This Lord is a refuge unto cows.

O descendant of Bharata, King Purūravas, the son of Budha, installed a shrine to the west, dedicated to the Sun-god. This Sun-god is on a par with Bhaṭṭāditya. He bestows all desired things. His holy spot is on a par with Bahūdaka, O descendant of Bharata.

The greatness of this holy spot should be whispered into the ears of a son or a disciple, but not to an atheist at any cost.

If anyone listens to this with faith, Bhāskara will be pleased with him. If this is held in the heart he is liberated from the ocean of worldly existence.

Footnotes and references:


Khaṭvāṅga—Son of Ilavilā; another name Dilīpa, famous for performing sacrifices (Mbh, Droṇa 61.1-10). But as per BhP, he was the son of Viśvasaha (IX.9.41). When he learnt that he was to die after one Muhūrta, lie devoted it to Lord Hari and got liberation (BhP III.1.2-13).


viz, sickness, contact with the undesirable, weariness and giving up the desirable.


VV 54-76 onwards give an exposition of the Sāṅkhya school regarding the evolution of the universe etc.


According to Mbh, Droṇa 55.9-14, it was King Sṛñjaya’s daughter and not that of Aṃbarīṣa.


In Madhya Pradesh, 26 miles north-east of Bhopal. Formerly it was the capital of Daśārṇadeśa (Meghadūta 1.25).


Vāhīkas—Vālhika, Bāhlika—Baluchistan south of Quetta and the Bolan Pass, consists of the valleys of Bolon, Nari and Gokh rivers and not Bactria—AGP 142.

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