The Padma Purana

by N.A. Deshpande | 1951 | 1,261,945 words | ISBN-10: 8120838297 | ISBN-13: 9788120838291

This page describes description of krishna which is chapter 77 of the English translation of the Padma Purana, one of the largest Mahapuranas, detailling ancient Indian society, traditions, geography, as well as religious pilgrimages (yatra) to sacred places (tirthas). This is the seventy-seventh chapter of the Patala-Khanda (Section On The Nether World) of the Padma Purana, which contains six books total consisting of at least 50,000 Sanskrit metrical verses.

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Chapter 77 - A Description of Kṛṣṇa

[Sanskrit text for this chapter is available]

Pārvatī said:

1-2. Tell me in detail the importance of the meaning and the words of the hymn; so also (tell me) the nature of the god, and (about) the splendour of his places. O lord of gods, (tell me) all (about) the great abode of Viṣṇu and Hari’s (i.e. Viṣṇu’s) different modes called eternal bliss.

The lord said:

3-6a. In the excellent Vṛndāvana (one sees) Kṛṣṇa surrounded by crores of cowherdesses. Gaṅgā is a great power there. The Ānandakānana is (also) there. It is made fragrant by fragrant breezes (blowing) over many good flowers. It is cool and has the colour of the divine ripples of the daughter of Kalinda (i.e. Yamunā). It has come in contact with the best sages—the devotees of the lord like Sanaka etc. It is adorned with flocks of cows, bellowing joyfully and sweetly. It is covered with boys having charming garlands and ornaments and dancing.

6b-13a. There is a glorious desire-yielding tree, covered with gold. It is rich with many gems and corals. It is bright with many gem-like fruits. At its root is a jewelled altar. It is brightened by the rays of jewels. There (i.e. on it) is an excellent golden throne made of the triad (of the Vedas); (one can see there) the lord of the world who is seated there, who is beyond the three constituents (i.e. beyond Prakṛti), who is immutable, who resembles a crore of moons, who is bright like a crore of suns, whose handsomeness is like that of a crore of Cupids, who illumines the ten quarters, who has three eyes, two hands, who is fair and bright like heated gold, who is always embraced by beautiful women, who is always everywhere respected, who is meditated upon and influenced by Brahmā and others and Sanaka and others, who is always surrounded by crores and crores of scriptures that have obtained the bodies of cowherdesses repeatedly kissing him, embracing him and laughing, and with their hearts set upon the spirituous liquor (coming) from his lotuslike feet.

13b-18. That goddess who among them is bright like heated gold, who brightens up all directions and makes them bright as (with) lightning, is the Pradhāna (i.e. Prakṛti), who has pervaded all this. She is of the nature of creation, maintenance and destruction. She is beyond knowledge, ignorance and the triad (of Vedas). She is of (his) natural form, is of the nature of power, of the nature of illusion (Māyā) and is full of intelligence. She brings about the cause of the bodies of Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva. The entire mobile and immobile world is grasped by illusion. Due to her similarity with Viṣṇu, Rādhā is called Vṛndāvaneśvarī. A man should meditate like this, upon him, god Kṛṣṇa, the lord of Vṛndāvana, who remains embracing her, who is shaking due to the influence of passion for kissing and embracing. He would obtain success.

19-21. That noble one, who knows this best hymn, hymn of (i.e. sacred to) him, and mutters or listens to it, is very difficult to find. (There are) Rādhikā, Citrarekhā, Candrā, Madanasundarī, Śrīpriyā, Śrīmadhumatī, Śaśirekhā, Haripriyā, beautiful like gold, deluding and shining with horripilation due to love, having paleness and perspiration, attached due to love, talking agreeably. (Then there are) Suvarṇamālinī, Śāntā, Surasā and Rasikā.

22-23. She who leads the full life of a woman, who is affectionate to the helpless, who is of a pure heart, who has fully drunk the nectar of (Kṛṣṇa’s) name, is called Rādhā. Rādhā is endowed with a prolonged smile, has the lustre of heated gold, is the river of surging love, a choice collyrium for (better) view.

24a. She who possesses pity and envy, who lives in the empire of charity, who indulges in the joyful battle of copulation, is called Citrarekhā.

24b-27a. She whose body is fair, who is not very tall, who is always engaged in instrumental music, who gesticulates helplessness, who is overcome by swoon and horripilation, who remains on the right side of Hari (i.e. Kṛṣṇa), to whom all hymns are dear, who possesses sweetness due to desire for love (-making), is called Candrā.

27b-30a. She whose gait is sportive and slow, who has charmingly closed her eyes, who is bright and full of the stream of love, who looks charming due to expanded collyrium, who is interested in Kṛṣṇa’s love, who is eager for the sound of Kṛṣṇa’s dance, who possesses egotism, who has condemned the moon with her face, who is clever in (speaking) sweet words, who is the crest-jewel of those who have curbed their senses, who is endowed with a charming smile, is Madanasundarī.

30b-31. She who is interested in the faultless dance of Kṛṣṇa, who is dark (yet) charming, who attracts Hari’s heart through love and affectionate glance, who has conquered her senses, who has curbed her anger, is called Priyā.

32-34a. She whose body is fair like well-heated gold, who has a sportive gait and is beautiful, whose figure is sweet due to the strikingness of the love caused by Cupid and horripilation, whose face endowed with a charming smile has put down the moon, who is skilled in (speaking) sweet words, who is the crest-jewel of those who have restrained their senses, and who is intent upon the fulfilment of love, is Madhumatī

34b-40a. She who is endowed with the fever of delusion, horripilation and stream of love, who diverts herself with charity (looking upon it as insignificant) as dust, who is a great dancer following the sound of Kṛṣṇa’s dance, and who is always Kṛṣṇa’s beloved, is Śaśirekhā. She is Kṛṣṇa’s soul. She is excellent, is dark, has lovely and tawny eyes. She is fascinated by the love for his feet; sometimes she is touched by horripilation. At Śivakuṇḍa she is Śivānandā; on the bank of Dehikā she is Nandinī She is Rukmiṇī at Dvārāvatī; and in the Vṛndāvana-grove she is Rādhā. This goddess of mine has become Devakī at Mathurā; similarly at Citrakūṭa she is Sītā. On the Vindhya (mountain) she is Vindhyanivāsinī. At Vārāṇasī she is Viśālākṣī; and in (i.e. with) Viṣṇu she is Vimalā. Kṛṣṇa who graced her, gave her the rule over Vṛndāvana. At other places she is the goddess and is Rādhā in the Vṛndāvana-grove. Kṛṣṇa has always a happy body, who is called bodiless.

40b-48a. He having Kṛṣṇa’s body is described as the superintending deity of Air, Fire, Sky (i.e. Ether) and Earth, so also of Brahmā. Though the sun is powerful, yet is not designated with power; in the same way Kṛṣṇa endowed with brilliance, certainly deludes time. He does not have a material form, produced from marrow, flesh or bones. He possesses a wonderful power, is another lord, and having an eternal body, is the soul of all. Hardness is accidental as in the case of (particles of) hail and ghee. The surface of the foot of Kṛṣṇa of unlimited primary substance is not a deity (obscure!). In the mass of dust in Vṛndāvana, there are crores of Viṣṇus. In Ānandakiraṇa, the Moon of the universe (i.e. Kṛṣṇa) is surrounded by a group. The souls are parts of his rays as the nature of constituents is present in the soul. Kṛṣṇa is surrounded by (i.e. having) two arms. He never has four arms. There, surrounded by a cowherdess, he always sports. Govinda (i.e. Kṛṣṇa) alone is a man; Brahmā and others are women only. From that nature appears. This lord is a mode of nature.

48b-51. Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are the first Prakṛti and Puruṣa. Except the lord of Vṛndāvana, everything is the product of Prakṛti. Due to their appearance, this world appears, and breaks on their disappearance. As gold does not perish (even though its products may perish), so Kṛṣṇa does not fall even if (his incarnation like) Matsya perishes. This expanse of the three constituents (guṇas) (i.e. the mundane existence) is the expanse of him who sports in Vṛndāvana. The ripple of an ocean turns into a wave; but the ocean is not (newly) produced.

52-55. There is no woman resembling Rādhikā, and no man resembling Kṛṣṇa. There is no (better) age than adolescence; that is the great innate disposition of Prakṛti. Adolescence should be thought upon. Vṛndāvana-grove should bethought upon. The greatest form is (that of) Śyāma, and the greatest delight is the first god. Childhood lasts up to the fifth year. Boyhood is up to the tenth year. Adolescence lasts for eight and five years. The limit (of it) is the fifteenth year. Adolescence, springing up from youth (yauvana) is called fresh youth (navayauvana). That age is his all-in-all; other age (than that) is unreal (prapañca).

56-62. I salute the charming childhood, boyhood and adolescence. I salute the young cowherd Kṛṣṇa who is of the form of Cupid-like cowherd, who is the cowherd-Cupid, of the nature of an adolescent and is wonderful, and whom they call the Cupid-enticer, whose youth has just broken up (i.e. set in), who is the great ocean of continuous, matchless nectar-like joy. The lord of Śrī is victorious. The body of him having the form of youth is hidden. Men of different minds, according to the difference in their likings, see him who is one only, immutable, ancient, who is to be known through meditation in the group of the cowherdesses. I salute him, the lustre of whose nails is Brahmā, who is meditated upon by gods like Brahmā, who is beyond the three constituents (i.e. Prakṛti), who is the lord of Vṛndāvana. Govinda never leaves Vṛndāvana. His body elsewhere is artificial. There is no doubt about it. I worship that Nanda’s son who is easily accessible to the women in Vraja, but difficult to be reached by those who desire salvation. The hymn is the great lustre of his nails.

Pārvatī said:

63. As long as the female imp in the form of the desire for salvation or enjoyment is present in the heart, how can, till then, the delight of love rise there?

The lord said:

64-65. O good one, you have asked well. I shall tell all that there is in my mind. Listen attentively. (A devotee) remembers his virtues, his name, songs pleasing the mind; enlightens himself, and always is merged in (his) love.[1]

Footnotes and references:


Some verses of this charter like 41, 44ff. are not quite clear. Some, e.g. 52bff. seem to be irrelevant.

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