The Padma Purana

by N.A. Deshpande | 1951 | 1,261,945 words | ISBN-10: 8120838297 | ISBN-13: 9788120838291

This page describes the pacification of the sun (bradhna, sura, ravi, aditya, etc.) which is chapter 78 of the English translation of the Padma Purana, one of the largest Mahapuranas, detailling ancient Indian society, traditions, geography, as well as religious pilgrimages (yatra) to sacred places (tirthas). This is the seventy-eighth chapter of the Srishti-khanda (section on creation) of the Padma Purana, which contains six books total consisting of at least 50,000 Sanskrit metrical verses.

Chapter 78 - The pacification of the Sun (Bradhna, Sūra, Ravi, Āditya, etc.)

Vaiśampāyana said:

1. O revered sir, through your favour I have heard the purifying vow. I desire to hear another (vow) which is dear to the Sun (bradhna).

Vyāsa said:

2. Skanda, saluting, with his head touching the ground, Śiva, seated comfortably on the Kailāsa-peak, said these words:

3. “I have heard in detail from you the vow called ‘Arkāṅga’. O lord, I (now) desire to hear correctly about the fruit of the day etc.”

The lord said:

4. A man who observes (this) vow should offer a respectful oblation with red flowers on Sunday. By eating only at night food fit to be eaten during days of fast, he is not deprived of heaven.

5. The highest lord, along with his attendants, is pleased with him, who performs all auspicious rites on the seventh day (which falls) on a Sunday only.

6. (Even) by observing the vow once on the seventh day (falling) on a Sunday, he gets the status of a brave man, as long as the Sun (sūra) is (i.e. shines) in the sky.

7. The vow performed on the seventh day (falling) on a Sunday satisfies all desires, is auspicious, (gives) prosperity, destroys diseases, gives (i.e. takes one to) heaven and salvation and is beneficial.

8. On the auspicious seventh day with (i.e. falling on) a Sunday and Saṃkrānti day, all the worship or vow would become inexhaustible.

9. On a bright Sunday (a man should) worship the chief of planets. He should keep him (i.e. draw his figure) in a circle with an unwashed point, setting it out with energy.

10. Having meditated upon him, having two arms, seated on a red lotus, of a charming neck, dressed in red garments, adorned with red ornaments, he should drop in the northeastern direction the flower held in both his hands, after having smelt it.

11. (He should recite the sacred hymn:) ‘We make an offering to Āditya; we meditate upon Bhāskara. May Bhānu impel us.’

12-13. Then he should do the anointment according to the rite told by his preceptor. At the end of (i.e. after) anointment, (he should present) incense; after the incense (he should present) the lamp; after the lamp (he should make) an offering of eatables; then he should present water. Then he should mutter sacred hymns, do mudrās,[1] and salute (the deity).

14. The first mudrā is añjali, the other one is known as dhenukā. He who would worship the Sun (ravi) would be absorbed into the Sun.

15. Due to the favour of that Sun, the (Brahmā’s) skull clinging to my hand and the (sin due to) the murder of Brahman dropped on the bank (of the Ganges) at Vārāṇasī.

16. There is no greater deity than the Sun in the three worlds. Due to his favour I was absolved of the terrible sin.

Skanda said:

17. O lord, having heard (these) words from you I am amazed. There is no other deity like you. How (did you commit the sin of) the murder of Brahman?

18. (For) you are the chief among the wise; you are given to abstract meditation; you are the enjoyer, the imperishable and the immutable one. You alone are great among the gods; you have filled (every) form, and are a great deity.

19. You are omniscient, the giver of boons and the lord of all beings. How then, O lord, is there the possibility of a bad act and especially of anger in your case?

Śiva said:

20. O son, we, Brahma, Viṣṇu and Śiva, getting separated in each yuga for the well-being of the worlds, do everything.

21. We have neither bondage nor salvation; we have nothing which ought to be done or which ought not to be done. But, for the protection of the worlds we move according to rules.

22. Every (form of ours) is great, removes obstacles and diseases, and accomplishes all objects.

23. This uncensured Sun, though one, divided himself into many (forms) due to difference in time. He shines month by month; and being one becomes (i.e. divides himself into) twelve (forms).

24-26. He is Mitra in the month of Mārgaśīrṣa. He is eternal Viṣṇu in the month of Pauṣa. He is Varuṇa in the month of Māgha; and he is Sūrya in the month of Phālguna. He would shine as Bhānu in the month of Caitra. He is called Tapana in Vaiśākha. He would shine as Indra in the month of Jyeṣṭha. He shines as Ravi in Āṣāḍha. He is Gabhasti in the month of Śrāvaṇa; similarly he is Yama in Bhādrapada. He is Hiraṇyaretas in Āśvina, and Divākara in Kārtika.

27. These are the twelve Ādityas said (to shine) in each month. They are of large forms, of great lustre and have the brilliance of the fire at the time of the end of the world.

28. He who recites this everyday, incurs no sin, nor does he contract any disease; he does not suffer from poverty, nor from insult.

29. He obtains (i.e. lives in) heaven eternally; he gets, one by one, pleasures of heaven, kingdom and fame. I shall (now) tell the great sacred hymn, causing all happiness:

30-33. ‘Om, (my) salutation to Āditya, having a thousand arms. (My) salutation to you, having lotus-like hands. (My) repeated salutation to Varuṇa. (My) salutation to Timiranāśa (i.e. the dispeller of darkness); (my) repeated salutations to Śrīsūrya. (My) salutation to Sahasrajihva (i.e. having a hundred tongues); (my) repeated salutation to Bhānu. You are Brahma; you are Viṣṇu; you are Rudra. Salutation to you. You are the fire and the wind in all beings. Salutation to you. You are present in all beings. In this world of mobile and immobile there is nothing (that exists) without you. You are settled in all bodies.’

34-35. Repeating like this, he would obtain (i.e. satisfy), one by one, his desires like that for heavenly pleasures etc. Āditya, Bhāskara, Sūrya, Arka, Bhanu, Divākara, Suvarṇaretas, Mitra, Pūṣan and Tvaṣṭṛ—(these are) your ten (names). (The eleventh is) Svayambhū and the twelfth is said to be Timirāśa.

36. A man, who, after having purified himself, repeats these (twelve) names of the Sun, becomes free from all sins and diseases and gets the highest position.

37. I shall again tell (you something) else about the magnanimous Bhāskara, viz. the bodies called red, resembling blood (i.e. red), and like red led and tawny.

38-4la. O Skanda, listen to the principal names (of the Sun): Tapana, Tāpana, and Kartā, Hartā and Graheśvara; he is Lokasākṣī (i.e. observing the people in all the three worlds), Vyomādhipa (lord of the sky), Divākara, Agnigarbha, Mahāvipra, Svarga, Saptāśvavāhana, Padmahasta, Tamobhedī, Ṛgveda, Yajus and Sāmaga. For him who would always devoutly remember Kālapriya, Puṇḍarīka, Mūlasthāna (the original place), sanctified by meditation, wherefrom can there be fear from disease?

4lb-42a. O Skanda, listen carefully to (the sacred hymn) which removes sin and is auspicious. O you highly intelligent one, do not have the slightest doubt about Āditya.

42b-43. ‘Om, salutation to Indra, salutation to Viṣṇu.’ This should be repeated; a rite should be performed and so also the (three daily) prayers. This prayer pacifies everything, and removes all obstacles.

44. It would destroy all diseases like boils, small-pox etc., also jaundice etc., and those diseases which are terrible.

45-47. So also fever lasting for one day, three days or four days; so also leprosy, consumption, colic, and fever; so also stone in the bladder, strangury; so also (similar) other diseases. All those diseases like gout or diseases of the womb, so also great, serious, painful and tormenting diseases, disappear by the uttering of (the name of) Āditya.

48. ‘O lord of gods, protect me from the diseases and fears due to the planets.’ When (the names of) the Sun (are) recited all of them disappear.

49. I shall tell (you) the original sacred hymn of the magnanimous Sun, which fulfils all desires, which always gives enjoyments and salvation.

50. The sacred hymn is (like) this: ‘Om Hrām, Hrīm, my salutation to the Sun.’ Due to this sacred hymn, everything would certainly be obtained.

51-52a. Diseases never afflict him, nor would any undesirable (thing) come to him. A man, who takes the water from the sun-flower, gradually gets free from the disease by merely drinking it.

52b-53. (The sacred hymn) should not be given or told to those who are not devotees, who have no children or to the heretics and should be carefully recited. O son, the water from the sun-flower should be mixed with bitter oil and given for being smelt or for drinking.

54. (The man who uses it) is free from all diseases; and the original sacred hymn should be recited at the time of the daily prayer and at rites.

55. When it is recited, diseases and cruel planets perish (i.e. are ineffective). What is the use of many other sacred texts or very lengthy sacred hymns?

56. O child, this (hymn) is all-pacifying and brings about all (desired) objects. It should not be given to an atheist, nor to one who censures gods and brāhmaṇas.

57-58. It should be given to him who is devoted to his preceptor; but should never be given to others. A man who, getting up in the morning, recites this, is free from all sins (even though) he has killed a cow or he is ungrateful. He, who would please the Sun, becomes one having good health, wealth, prosperity and success.

59-61a. There is no doubt about this. He, who would recite this hymn. once, twice or thrice everyday in the presence of (i.e. by attending upon) the Sun, would obtain the desired fruit. One desiring a daughter gets a daughter, one desiring knowledge gets it, and one desiring wealth gets wealth.

61b-63a. He who, of a pure conduct, would devoutly listen to it, is free from all sins and even goes to the Sun’s heaven. If one would recite this sacred hymn at the time of the vow in honour of the Sun, or at the time of observing other vows and sacrifices, at auspicious and sacred places, it would be a crore times fruitful.

63b-65. To a brāhmaṇa who recites this ṃ the presence of brāhmaṇas at the time of appeasing a planet, or at the time of meals or worship or meals served to brāhmaṇas, would have endless fruit. He, the very intelligent one, who recites or causes it to be recited in front of ascetics, brāhmaṇas or deities, is honoured in heaven.

Footnotes and references:


Mudrā—Name of certain positions of the fingers practised in devotion or religious worship.

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