by N.A. Deshpande | 1951 | 1,261,945 words | ISBN-10: 8120838297 | ISBN-13: 9788120838291
This page describes the deeds of the avatara (incarnation) which is chapter 13 of the English translation of the Padma Purana, one of the largest Mahapuranas, detailling ancient Indian society, traditions, geography, as well as religious pilgrimages (yatra) to sacred places (tirthas). This is the thirteenth chapter of the Srishti-khanda (section on creation) of the Padma Purana, which contains six books total consisting of at least 50,000 Sanskrit metrical verses.
Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.
4-5. About him this verse containing the genealogical table was formerly sung. The hundred sons of Śatabindu had a hundred sons. From those hundred intelligent, handsome and important sons resplendent with great wealth were born the very mighty kings having the appellation Pṛthu.
7-8. Those well-versed in the Purāṇas praise Pṛthuśravas to be the best. He had sons. (Out of them) Uśanas tormented the enemies. Uśanas’s son was Śineyu by name and was most virtuous. Śineyu’s son was known as Rukmakavaca.
9-10. Rukmakavaca, skilled in fighting, having killed the archers with various arrows and having obtained this earth, gave gifts to brāhmaṇas in the horse-sacrifice. Parāvṛt, the killer of the rival heroes was born from Rukmakavaca.
12. The father put Parigha and Hari in Videha. Rukmeṣu became a king and Pṛthurukma lived with him.
13-14. Jyāmagha, exiled by these two, lived in a hermitage. He, living peacefully in the hermitage and being roused by a brāhmaṇa took his bow and carrying a flag and seated in a chariout went to another country. Being all alone and distressed for want of subsistence he went to the mountain Ṛkṣavān on the bank of Narmadā, deserted by others, and sat there.
15. Śaibyā was Jyāmagha’s chaste wife old (in age).
16-17. The king too, being sonless, thought of taking another wife. He got victory in a war and securing a maiden in the war he through fear said to his wife, “O you of bright smile, this is your daughter-in-law.” When he said this, she said to him: “Who is she? Whose daughter-in-law is she?”
18-19. The king replied, “She will be the wife of the son that will be born to you.” Due to the severe penance of that maiden that old Śaibyā gave birth to the son (named) Vidarbha.
24-25. Daśārha’s son was Bhīma; Bhīma’s son is said to be Jīmūta; Jimūta’s son was Vikṛti; Bhīmaratha was his son; and Bhīmaratha’s son was said to be Navaratha. His son was Daśaratha; his son was Śakuni.
29-30. Vetrakī was Aṃśu’s wife; on her Sātvata (i.e. Aṃśu) endowed with energy and of growing fames generated Sātvatas. One having children and knowing this progeny of the magnanimous Jyāmagha, becomes united with the intelligent Soma.
31-32. Kausalyā gave birth to the sons called Sātvata, endowed with energy. Their creations (i.e. lines) are four; listen to them (as I tell you) in detail: On Sṛñjayī, Bhajamāna got a son named Bhāja. Then Bhājakas were born on the daughter of Sṛñjaya.
33. The two wives of that Bhāja gave birth to many sons: Nemica, Kṛkaṇa and Vṛṣṇi, the conqueror of the enemies’ cities.
35-36. This king was sonless, so desiring ‘I should have a son endowed with all virtues’ and concentrating upon Kṛṣṇa only and touching the water of the Parṇāśā (river), he practised a great penance. Due to his touching the water the river came near him.
37-38. Then the river worried about the well-being of him who was practising penance. With her mind full of anxiety she resolved: ‘Turning myself into a woman I shall go (to him), from whom a son like this (i.e. endowed with all qualities) would be born. Therefore today I shall (be his wife who would) give him a son’.
39. Then becoming a maiden and taking up an excellent body she informed the king (about herself); the king then longed for her.
40. Then from Devāvṛdha, that best river, in the ninth month, gave birth to a great son viz. Babhru endowed with all virtues.
41. We have heard that those who know the Purāṇas, narrating the virtues of the magnanimuos Devāvṛdha, say that:
42. Babhru was the greatest among men; Devāvṛdha resembled gods; from Babhru and Devāvṛdha seventy thousand and six hundred sons were born and they became immortal.
43-46. Bhoja (given to performing) sacrifice, (giving) gifts, (practising) penance, intelligent, pious and of a very strong vow, handsome and very bright (married) Mṛtakāvatī. (This) daughter of Śarakānta gave birth to four sons: Kukura, Bhajamāna, Śyāma and Kambalabarhiṣa. Kukura’s son was Vṛṣṭi and Vṛṣṭi’s son was Dhṛti. His son was Kapotaroman; and his son was Tittiri; his son was Bahuputra. It is said that (his) learned son was Nari; his other name is said to be Candanodakadundubhi.
48. Abhijit was first sonless; but this (king), best among men, encouraged by sages gladly performed the horse-sacrifice to obtain a son.
49. When he was moving in the gathering (at the sacrifice) from it arose blind Punarvasu learned, well-versed in religion and giver at sacrifices.
51-52. In this matter they quote very interesting verses. They had ten thousand armoured and mailed chariots, thundering like cloud and having their bottoms with attachments. The Bhojas never told a lie; they never remained without performing sacrifices; and never gave less than a thousand.
53. There was never a purer or a more learned person than a Bhoja. This family is said to have come down upto Āhuka.
54-55. And Āhuka gave his sister (to the Avanti-king) in Avanti. And the daughter of Āhuka gave birth to two sons; Devaka and Ugrasena who were like divine children; and the sons that were born to Devaka were like gods.
58-60. Ugrasena had nine sons and Kaṃsa was the eldest among them: Nyagrodha, Sunāman, Kaṅka, Śaṅku, and (he) who (was called) Subhū. The other one was Rāṣṭrapāla; so also (were) Baddhamuṣṭi and Samuṣṭika. They had five sisters: Kaṃsā, Kaṃsavatī, Surabhī, Rāṣṭrapālī and Kaṅkā; they were beautiful ladies. Ugrasena along with his children belonged to the Kukura (i.e. Daśārha) country.
61. Vidūratha, best among the warriors, was Bhajamāna’s son. The brave Rājādhideva was Vidūratha’s son.
65-66. Among them Kṛtavarman was the eldest, and best was Śatadhanvan. (Others were) Devārha, Subhānu, Bhīṣaṇa and Mahābala, and Ajāta, Vijāta, Kakara and Karandhama. A son, Kambalabarhiṣa was born to Devārha; (he was) learned.
67. He had two sons: Asamauja and Samauja. Two valourous sons were born to the son of Ajāta.
68. Samauja had three well-known and very religious sons. Their names in order were: Sudaṃśa, Suvaṃśa and Kṛṣṇa.
69. One who everyday glorified this family of the Andhakas, consequently had a large family and progeny.
70-71. Kroṣṭṛ had two wives: Gāndhārī and Mādrī. Gāndhārī gave birth to Sunitra affectionate to his friends; Mādrī gave birth to a son Yudhājit (by name), then to Devamīḍhuṣa, (then to) Anamitra and Śini. These five possessed lucky marks (on their bodies).
73. Prasena had the best and unparalleled gem by name ‘Syamantaka’. It was described as the ‘King of best gems in the world’.
74. Wearing that gem on his chest very many times he shone brightly. Śauri asked for that excellent gem for his king.
75. Govinda too did not obtain it; though capable, he did not snatch it. Some time Prasena, adorned with it went ahunting.
76-77. He heard a sound made by a certain being in a cave. Then entering the cave Prasena encountered a bear (viz. Jāmbavān). The bear attacked Prasena and Prasenjit also attacked the bear and (thus) they, desirous of vanquishing each other, fought.
78-79. The bear, having killed Prasena took that gem. Hearing that Prasena was killed Govinda was suspected by his (i.e. Prasena’s) brother, so also by others that Prasena was killed by Govinda to get the gem.
80-81. Prasena, adorned with that best gem, had gone to the forest; seeing him who was not willing to part with Syamantaka, Kaśava had killed him (Prasena) as he, by not giving the gem, had turned into his enemy. This rumour started by Satrājit spread everywhere.
82. Then after a long time, Govinda who had again set out for hunting, by chance came near the cave.
83-84. Then that mighty lord of bears (viz. Jāmbavān) made a sound as before. Govinda having heard the sound and entering the cave with a sword in his hand, saw the very mighty king of the bears, viz. Jāmbavān. Then Hṛṣīkeśa, with his eyes reddened with rage, at once seized Jāmbavān very violently.
85-86. Then seeing him as Viṣṇu in Viṣṇu’s body due to his (past) deeds the lord of the bears too quickly praised him with Viṣṇusūkta (a eulogy in honour of Viṣṇu). Then the lord being pleased, favoured him with a boon.
87. Jāmbavān said: “It is desirable and auspicious to meet death at your hands with the stroke of your disc. This virgin daughter of mine should have you as her husband.
88. O lord, you should take the gem which I obtained from Prasena by killing him. The gem is here”.
89. Keśava having killed Jāmbavān who had spoken thus with his disc, he of mighty arms, having achieved his purpose, took that daughter.
90-92. Then in the presence of all Yādavas, Janārdana, who was angry due to the false rumour, gave to Satrājit that best gem which he had received from the bear-king. Then all the Yādavas said to Vāsudeva: “We had thought that you had killed Prasena”. Satrājit had ten sons from each one of his ten wives.
94. Satyā, Vratavati and Svapnā, elder to Bhaṅgakāra, gave birth to those boys. Śinīvāla was brave.
96. He was called Anamitra; was well known as a descendant of the Vṛṣṇi family. From Anamitra was born Śini, the youngest member of the Vṛṣṇi family.
99. Then Jayanta’s son was born of Jayantī. He always performed sacrifices, was very courageous, learned and was dear to the guests (or he) liked guests.
100. From him Akrūra, very diligent and giver of large presents was born. Śaibyā was the gem among virgins; Akrūra obtained her (as his wife).
103-106a. And all of them were born (so brave) that they took away gems. Two sons, resembling gods, and delighting the family were born on Śūrasenā from Akrūra: Devavān and Upadeva. From Akrūra twelve sons were born to Aśvinī: Pṛthu Vipṛthu, Aśvagrīva, Aśvabāhu, Supārśva, Gaveṣaṇa, Riṣṭanemi Suvarcas, Sudharman, Mṛdu, Abhūmi and Bahubhūmi; and two daughters: Śraviṣṭhā and Śravaṇā.
106b-107a. An intelligent preson, who knows about this false accusation of Kṛṣṇa can never be assailed by anyone with a false curse.
108-111. Ten brave sons were generated on Bhojā by Mīḍhuṣa: Vasudeva (was born) first, (then)Ānakadundubhi; so also Devabhāga was generated (by Mīḍhuṣa); and Devaśravas, Anāvṛṣṭi, Kunti, and Nandi and Sakṛdyaśa, Śyama, Śamīka (also) known as Sapta. He had five beautiful wives: Śrutakīrti, Pṛthā, and Śrutadevī and Śrutaśravā and also Rājādhidevī. These five were the mothers of heroes. Vṛddha’s wife Śrutadevī gave birth to king Kāruṣa.
117. He worked for gods, and killed all demons; he killed those demons whom even Indra was unable to kill.
120-121. He had (from her) a son Rāma dear to him; so also Sāraṇa, Caraṇapriya, Durdhara, Damana, Piṇḍāraka and Mahāhanu. That who was Māyā Amāvāsyā would be Devakī. First that mighty Prajāpati was born from her.
123-126. All these were born on the subordinate queen. Bṛhaddevī gave birth to the magnanimous Agāvaha. He himself was born by name Mandaka on Bṛhaddevī. Devakī gave birth to her seventh son Romanta, and Gaveṣaṇa unvanquished in battles. While formerly wandering in the forest, Śauri produced in Śrutadevī’s pleasure-house, the eldest son viz. Kusika on a Vaiśya lady. Śrutandharā was one of the queens (of Vasudeva).
127. Vasudeva’s mighty son Kapila, having divine fragrance, the first archer, caused grief to the people.
128b-129. (Obscure) Devabhāga’s son (named) Prastāva together with Budha is remembered. The first and best Devaśravas is said (Bāhu or Prāhuḥ?) to be a scholars. His daughter Yaśasvinī was born from Manasvin of Ikṣvāku family. (Her son was) Śatrughna.
130-13la. (Obscure) His enemies had retreated from him; he was the killer of enemies; Śraddhā was born from him. Kṛṣṇa being pleased gave a hundred children to Gaṇḍūṣā, with the moon, magnanimous, powerful and strong(?)
131b-133. Nandana’s two sons were Rantipāla and Ranti-Śamīka’s four brave and very mighty sons were: Viraja, Dhanu and Vyoma and Sṛñjaya. Vyoma was childless; Dhanañjaya was Sṛñjaya’s (son); he who was born as Bhoja became a royal sage.
134. The man who always narrates or listens to Kṛṣṇa’s birth and rise is freed from all sins.
135. Kṛṣṇa, the great god, formerly the creator, was born even among men.
136. By means of penance Vasudeva produced on Devakī the lotus-eyed (Kṛṣṇa), having four arms, of a divine form and the refuge for people.
137. Having seen him with the sign of Śrivatsa and resembling gods, Vasudeva said to him “O Lord, withdraw your form.
138. O god, I am afraid of Kaṃsa, therefore I am saying this to you. He killed my six pre-eminent sons of terrible valour.”
139. Having heard Vasudeva’s words Acyuta withdrew his form.
140. After he agreed to it, Śauri took him to the house of the cowherd Nanda. Having handed him over to Nanda, he said to him, “Protect him; then only all the Yādavas will be happy.
141. As soon as this embryo (i.e. son) of Devakī will kill Kaṃsa, there will be happiness in the world, which would greatly remove the burden (of the earth).
143. This god himself will be the charioteer of Arjuna; having rid the earth of the Kṣatriyas he will enjoy the rest (i.e. void of the Kṣatriyas) and will take the entire Yadu-race to the divine world.”
144. Who is this Vasudeva? Who is this glorious Devakī?
145. Who is the cowherd Nanda? Who is Yaśodā rigidly observing vows, who nourished Viṣṇu and whom he called his mother?
146a. Who gave birth to (a son) an embryo and brought him up?
147. Kaśyapa was a portion of Brahman and Aditi that of the earth. Nanda was said to be a cloud and Yaśodā was the earth.
148. He satisfied many desires of Devakī, which she had formerly entertained from the great unborn one.
149-150. Soon that great god entered a human body. He (lord Viṣṇu) possessed of magical powers, stupefying all beings with his superhuman faculties came (down) in the family to establish righteousness and destroy the demons, when righteousness and sacrifice had perished.
155-156. The youngest was Cāruhāsa, and a daughter (named) Cārumatī. On Rohiṇī were born Bhānu, Bhīmaratha, Kṣaṇa, Rohita and Dīptimān, Tāmrabandhu, Jalandhama. Among them, four daughters were born and they were younger.
158. The magnanimous one entered the very base (supreme spirit); (then) the god of gods being pleased destroyed his leprosy.
160. Know these and others to be thousands of (Kṛṣṇa’s) sons; the sons of Vāsudeva are eighty thousand.
162. Kāmyā, the daughter of Supārśva obtained Tarasvin from Sāmba. The other five were declared to be good-natured gods.
163. There were three crores of the great Yādavas. Sixty thousand were brave and very mighty.
164-165. Portions of gods were born in the form of all of these of great prowess. Or mighty demons killed in the war between gods and demons were born here among men and harassed all men. For their emancipation they were born in the Yādava-family.
166. There were a hundred families of the magnanimous Yādavas. Viṣṇu was their promoter and was placed as their lord.
167. All those Yādavas remaining obedient to him prospered.
170. How many manifestations of this great one will be there? For which purpose is he born in all fields? For what purpose is Viṣṇu born in the Vṛṣṇyandhaka family? Please tell me who am asking you.
171. O prince, listen, I shall tell you a very great secret as to why Viṣṇu of a divine body is born among men.
172. When the Yuga comes to an end, and time becomes lax, Hari, the lord, is born among gods, demons or men,
173-174. The demon Hiraṇyakaśipu was the ruler of the three worlds; again subsequently when Bali was the ruler of the three worlds there was great friendship of the gods with the demons. Ten complete yugas passed; the world was unperturbed.
175. The gods and demons were obedient to those two. Bali was bound (by Vāmana). His destruction was extremely fearful, (which) brought a great loss both to gods and demons.
176-177. Here (in this world) he is then born among men due to Bhṛgu’s curse to establish religious order for gods and men.
178. Why did Hari take up a body for gods and demons? O you of good vow, tell me the (full account of the war) between gods and demons as it took place.
Terrible battles were fought between them for victory.
179. Ten and two pure incarnations are said (to have been taken) in the period of Manu. Listen to their names as desired to be told by me.
183. The twelfth is known as the terrible Kolāhala. The demon Hiraṇyakaśipu was killed by Narasiṃha.
184. Formerly Bali was bound by Vāmana at the time of overpowering the three worlds.
185. The deities killed Hiraṇyākṣa in an encounter. The Boar (incarnation) made him into two when he dwelt in the ocean.
186. At the time of churning nectar (out of the ocean i.e. during the incarnation as Tortoise) Indra vanquished Prahlāda. Virocana, the son of Prahlāda, was always intent on killing Indra; but Indra having overpowered him killed him in the Tārakāmaya battle.
187-188. When the gods were unable to conquer Tripura, the enemy of gods, they having deluded the demons drank the nectar and came to life again and again. All the demons in the three worlds were killed by Śiva.
189. At the murder of Andhaka gods, men and manes killed demons, goblins and fiends everywhere.
190. In the terrible tumult Vṛtra who was (formerly) sprinkled (with nectar) by the demons was struck and destroyed by Indra with the help of Viṣṇu.
192. The demons and gods who had fully gathered had fought twelve battles causing destruction of gods and demons and leading to the well-being of the beings.
193-194. Hiraṇyakaśipu ruled as a king and enjoyed sovereignty in the three worlds for a hundred and seventy-two million and eighty thousand years.
195. Bali, in turn, became a king (and ruled) for a hundred and twenty million and sixty thousand years.
196. Prahlāda enjoyed with the demons for the same period as Bali was said to have ruled.
197-198. These (wars) of the mighty Indra should be known (to have been fought) for conquering the demons. This entire group of the three worlds is then protected by Indra, when for ten thousand years it was not prosperous. When after a lapse of time Indra obtained the (kingdom) of the three worlds, Yajña left the demons and went to the gods.
200. “Indra has snatched our kingdom; Yajña, deserting us, has gone to gods. We can’t remain here; we shall enter the lower world.”
201. Thus addressed, Śukra said to the dejected demons, consoling them with(these) words: “Do not be afraid, O demons, I shall support you with my might.
202. Whatever chants and herbs are there on the earth all that is with me; only a portion of it is with gods.
203. I shall give you all that is kept for you by me”. Then gods seeing them supported by Śukra and being dejected held consultation with a desire to kill them:
204. “This Śukra will with his might, withdraw all this from us. We shall well go (ahead) before he deprives us (of the kingdom).
205. Having forcibly conquered the remaining (demons) we shall send them to the nether world.”
206. Then the enraged gods approached the demons and the demons being killed by them rushed to Śukra himself.
207. Then Kāvya (i.e. Śukra) seeing them being attacked by gods, brought them together for protecting them who were harassed by gods.
208a. They stopped after seeing Kāvya, and the gods killed them without any fear.
208b-210. Then Kāvya pondering over the beneficial words of Brahman(?) and remembering the former account said to them: “Vāmana snatched the three worlds in three strides; Bali was bound; Jambha was killed; Virocana also was killed. The gods killed the great demons in the twelve battles.
211. With various expedients many prominent demons among them were killed. A few of you have survived; I think this is no war.
212. Political wisdom must be employed by you. I shall stand by you till the times change. I shall go to Mahādeva for (obtaining) a chant that would bring victory to you.
213. Getting from god Maheśvara chants favourable to us we shall again fight with gods; then we shall get victory.”
214. Having agreed (having conversed among themselves) the demons said to gods: “All of us have put down our weapons; we are without armours and chariots.
215. Covered with bark-garments, we shall practise penance.”
216. Gods having heard their words spoken truthfully, being free from heat and being delighted retired from there. When the demons had laid down their weapons, then the demons also retired.
217-218. Then Kāvya said to them: “Being free from pride and endowed with moral virtue pass the time taking care of your bodies. Remaining in the hermitage of Brahmā, wait for me, O demons.” Kāvya approached Brahma for those demons.
219. Śukra said: “For the defeat of gods and victory of demons, O god, I want those chants which Bṛhaspati does not have.”
220. Thus addressed the god said: “O Bhārgava, with your head bent down, you practise the Kaṇadhūma vow for a full thousand years; if you practise it, God bless you, you will obtain the chants.”
221-222. Saying “all right” Śukra, son of Bhṛgu, being permitted by Brahmā and touching the feet of the lord said, “Yes sir, I shall, as ordered by you, practise the vow.”
223.-225. As ordered by the god of gods, sage Bhārgava did (as he was told). Then when that Śukra went for the good of the demons he observed celibacy to get the chants from Maheśvara. Then knowing that joy of them due to political wisdom, at this vulnerable point gods furnished with armours and weapons and led by Bṛhaspati, vehemently attacked them.
226. Seeing the groups of gods holding weapons all demons getting frightened, emerged into view and said to them (these) words:
227. “O gods, while our preceptor is practising a vow we have laid down our weapons. Having promised us security you have now approached us with a desire to kill us.
228. We all are free from jealousy and have remained (here) with our arms laid down. Clothed in rags and deer-skins we have remained inactive and possessionless.
229. In no way we are able to conquer gods in a battle.” (To one another they said:) “We shall surrender to Kāvya’s mother without (waging) war.
230. (And) we shall acquaint her with this misery until our preceptor returns. When Śukra returns we, furnished with armours and arms, shall fight (with gods).”
231. Speaking thus to one another, they who were frightened, took the shelter of Kāvya’s mother. She too granted them security.
232. “Do not be afraid; give up your fear, O demons. Remain with me; (then) you will have no fear.”
233. Gods then seeing the demons protected by her, and without judging their strength or weakness forcibly assailed them.
234. Then that goddess (i.e. Kāvya’s mother) feeing the demons being murdered by gods, got angry and said to the gods: “I shall stupefy you with sleep.”
235. Collecting all materials she then brought about sleep (to the gods); she rich in penance and endowed with meditation stupefied (them) with her power.
236. Then seeing Indra paralysed (by Kāvya’s mother) the army of gods fled. The gods, seeing Indra subdued, ran through fear.
237. When the hosts of gods had fled, Viṣṇu said to Indra, “Enter me, God bless you, O best of gods, I shall protect you.”
238. Indra, thus ad dressed, entered Viṣṇu. Seeing him protected by Viṣṇu the enraged goddess said (these) words:
239. “O Indra, I shall now with force burn you along with Viṣṇu, when all the beings are looking on; see the might of my penance!”
240. The two gods, Indra and Viṣṇu, were overpowered by her. Viṣṇu said to Indra: “How should I get free with you?”
241. Indra said: “Kill her as long as she does not burn us, O lord; I am especially subdued by her; kill her; do not delay.”
242. Then observing her, Viṣṇu determined to do the evil deed of killing a woman (?) and the lord quickly approached the distressed Indra.
243-244. Then Viṣṇu, struck with fear and moving with speed, and knowing the cruel act desired to be done by the goddess got angry, took his disc and through dread cut off her head. Seeing that dreadful murder of the woman Lord Bhṛgu got angry.
245-246. Then Viṣṇu was cursed by Bhṛgu for his wife's murder.
Since you, knowing Dharma, have killed a lady who should not have been killed, therefore you will be born among human beings seven times.
247. Then due to that curse he is repeatedly born among human beings for the well-being of the world, when Dharma disappears from it. Then, after having spoken to Viṣṇu, himself bringing the head, and bringing her body and holding (the head and the body) in his hand he said:
248. “O goddess, I am reviving you, who were killed by Viṣṇu. If I know the entire sacred law or have practised it, and if I am telling the truth, (forsooth) come back to life.”
249. Then having sprinkled her with cold water, he said: “Come back to life, come back to life.”
250. When he spoke (thus) the goddess came back to life.
251. Then all the beings having seen her as if awakened from sleep, uttered the words ‘good! good!’ from all sides.
252. Thus that Bhṛgu then brought back to life that respectable lady. While the gods were watching that wonderful thing took place.
253. Unperplexed Bhṛgu again brought back to life his wife; but seeing it, Indra, through fear of Kāvya, did not get happiness.
254. Then after lying awake at night (i.e. sleepless) Indra, desiring peace said (these) words to his daughter, Jayanti:
255. “This Kāvya is observing a terrible vow to destroy Indra (i.e. me). O daughter, he, the intelligent one, has very much frightened me.
256. O daughter, propitiate him with service pleasing to his mind in such a way that the brāhmaṇa would be pleased.
257-259. Go to him; I have given you to him; make an effort for me.”
Comprehending well the words of her father, Jayantī went to that place where he remained after having undertaken the terrible vow. Seeing him with his face bent down, drinking the particles of smoke, dropped by a Yakṣa from a dripping bowl, seeing Kāvya who remained (there) trying and striving for the destruction of his enemies, reduced to a weak condition, she acted with Kāvya as she was told by her father.
260-263. The sweet-speaking girl praised him with agreeable eulogies. At the (proper) time she gently rubbed his limbs which soothed the skin and in keeping with the practice of the vow served him for many years. When that terrible vow (called Kaṇa-) Dhūma was over after a thousand years, Śiva being pleased granted him a boon. Maheśvara said: “You alone have observed this vow; none else has observed it.
264. Therefore, by your penance, intellect, knowledge and might and brilliance you (all) alone will overcome all gods.
265. O son of Bhṛgu, I shall give you all that I have; do not disclose it to anyone. What is the use of talking much? You will be immune to death.”
266. Having granted those boons to Bhārgava, he also granted him the lordship of beings, ofwealth and immunity from death.
267. Kāvya, receiving these boons was happy with his hair standing on end.
268. Speaking thus to lord Śiva, the god of gods, Śukra, endowed with intelligence, joining his palms bent down before him.
269. Then, when god (Śiva) vanished, he said this (i.e. these words) to Jayantī: “O auspicious one, whom do you belong to? Who are you that you are afflicted when I am distressed?
270. Why do you, endowed with great penance, want to win me over? You have remained (here) with this (i.e. such) devotion, respect and restraint and affection; O you, charming lady of attractive hips, I am pleased with you.
271-272. O you beautiful lady, what do you desire? What wish was arisen (in your mind)? I shall fulfil it even though it is difficult to accomplish.”
Thus addressed, she said to him: “By means of your penance you can know, O brāhmaṇa, what I desire you to do for me. (Now) tell me precisely (what you would do).”
273. Thus addressed, he, looking at her with a divine eye, said to her:
274. “O beautiful young lady, unseen by all beings you desire a union with me for a thousand years.
275. O respectable young divine lady, charming like the blue lotus, having beautiful eyes, and sweet-speaking thus you choose enjoyments.
276-277. Let it be so; O you very beautiful and fascinating lady; we shall go to (my) house.”
Then having come to his house with Jayantī, Uśanas the son of Bhṛgu who had fulfilled his vow, lived for a hundred years unseen by all beings with that respectable lady.
278. All the sons of Diti, having come to know that Śukra had returned after having gained his object, being delighted went to his house to see him.
279. When, after having gone there they did not see their preceptor who had concealed himself by his magical power, and not seeing any sign of his (having returned), they (concluded), ‘Our preceptor has not yet come’.
280. And so they went to their abodes as they had come. Then all the hosts of gods having gone to Aṅgiras, said to him:
281. “You, the revered one, go to the residence of the demons, and after stupefying their army, quickly bring it under your control.”
282. Bṛhaspati said to those gods: “Just so, (just now) I go.” Having gone (there) he subjugated Prahrāda, the lord of demons.
283. Transforming himself into Śukra, he worked there as (their) priest. He stayed there for a full hundred years, when Uśanas came back.
284-285. The demons saw Bṛhaspati in the assembly. “Here there is (already) one Uśanas. Why has the other one come here? It is a great wonder; a great quarrel will ensue (now); what will people say (about) this one who is seated at the door?
286. (And) what will our preceptor, seated in the assembly say to us?” When the demons were speaking like this, Kavi came (there).
287. Seeing there Bṛhaspati who had taken his form and who was seated there, he, being angry said (these) words: “Why have you come here?
288-289. You are confusing my disciples. Is it proper for you (who are) the preceptor of gods? Being certainly stupefied by your trickery, the ignorant ones do not recognise you. So, O brāhmaṇa, it is not proper for you thus to ill-treat another’s disciples.
Go to the abode of gods (and) stay (there). Thus (i.e. by doing so) you will obtain religious merit.
290. O brāhmaṇa, formerly the best of the demons had
killed your son and pupil Kaca who had come here as a student. (So) your entrance here is improper.”
291-293. Hearing those words of him, and smiling, Bṛhaspati said: “There are thieves on the earth, who snatch away others’ wealth; (but) such thieves (like you as) takeaway another’s appearance and body, were not seen. Formerly, Indra by killing Vṛtra committed a brāhmaṇa’s murder. You have surpassed it by (i.e. by teaching) the science of the materialists (like Cārvāka). I know you to be Āṅgirasa Bṛhaspati, the preceptor of gods.
294. O demons, all you observe (him) who has come (here after) taking my form. Through the efforts of Viṣṇu he, capable of infatuating you, has come here.
295. So binding him with chains you should throw him into the salt ocean.”
296. And again Śukra said: “He is the priest of gods. Stupefied by him, you will perish, O demons. O lord of demons, this wicked one has deceived me.
297. Why did you leave me and take up another priest? This is Bṛhaspati only, the preceptor of gods and the son of Sarasvatī.
298. You have been deceived in the interest of gods. There is no doubt (about) it. O magnanimous one, forsake him who would bring victory to the enemies.
299. O lord, through anxiety about my disciples formerly only I went from here and remained in water. I was drunk by the great god Śambhu.
300-301. I indeed passed a complete hundred years in his belly. I was discharged by him in the form of (his) semen through his generative organ. The god, granter of boons said to me; ‘Śukra, choose a boon liked by you.’ O king, I chose a boon from the god of gods, the trident-holder.
302. ‘O Śaṅkara, let all the objects entertained by my mind and desires residing in my mind be (fulfilled) through your favour.’
303-305. Saying ‘Let it be so’ the god sent me to you; (but) thus by the time (I returned) I actually saw this Bṛhaspati to have become your priest. O lord of demons, listen to my words.” Bṛhaspati again said these words to Prahrāda: “I do not recognise him as to whether he is a god or a demon or a human being; he has, after assuming my form, come here to deceive you, O king.”
306. Then all the demons said: “Well-said; we would have the former priest; whosoever he may be; we have nothing to do with this (later); let him go as he has come!”
307-308. Kāvya angrily cursed all the lords of demons that had gathered there: “Since you have abandoned me, I shall see all of you void of wealth, dead (or) leading a miserable life for a long time.
309. And by all means an extremely terrible calamity will very soon befall you.”
Speaking thus Kāvya at his will went to a penance-grove.
310. When that Śukra had (thus) left, Bṛhaspati remained there for some time, looking after the demons.
311-312. O King, then when a long time elapsed, all the demons collecting together asked Bṛhaspati: “Give us some knowledge (useful) in this worthless worldly life, by which we shall obtain release through your favour, O you of good vow.”
313-314. Then Guru, the preceptor of gods, who had then assumed the form of Kāvya said: “I had already the same idea as expressed by you (now); so together you, being composed and pure, find leisure (so that), O demons, I shall tell you that knowledge which will give you release.
316-318. The mean, intent upon material self-aggrandisement, perform sacrifices and Śrāddhas. These unkind ones along with their wives follow the bad practices—practices laid down by Viṣṇu and by Rudra. How will Rudra, whose form is half male and half female, who is surrounded by hosts of goblins and is adorned with bones give release (to a person)? There is neither heaven nor release; people are afficted here.
319. How will Viṣṇu, practising violence, lead one to release? Brahma of the nature of Rajas subsists on his own progeny.
320-321. The others i.e. the divine sages, who have resorted to the Vedic fold are full of violence, always cruel and eat flesh; the gods also are sinners by virtue of their drinking wine. These brāhmaṇas are flesh-eaters. Who will and how will he, by (practising) such observances go to heaven or (get) release?
323. If a person is taken to heaven by performing a sacrifice and causing mire of blood by killing a beast, then what (is it) by which a person is taken to hell?
324. If by one’s eating (food), someone else is satisfied then Śrāddha should be offered to one who has gone on a journey; he should not (then) take food (with him).
325. O demons, (even) brāhmaṇas moving in the sky, fall by eating flesh; for them there is neither heaven nor release here (i.e. in this system of the Vaidikas).
326. For every being that is born his life becomes dear (to him); how would a wise man eat flesh which is like his own flesh?
327. How do these (followers of the Vaidika practices) enjoy the female organ (i.e. have copulation) from which they are born? O lord of demons, by copulation how can they go to heaven? What kind of purity is that which is had by means of clay and ashes?
328-330. O demons, see how very perverse this world (of the Vaidikas) is! After passing urine or after excretion the organ of generation or the anus are cleansed with clay and water, but the same provision is not made in the case of the mouth after eating. Then O king, why are the organ of generation and anus not cleaned in the same way? This state (of things) is perverse (for) they do not do cleansing where (actually) it is enjoined.
331. Formerly Soma went away after snatching Tārā, Bṛhaspati’s wife. A son Budha was born on her (from Soma); and Guru again accepted her.
333. This and other things causing sin are seen in this world. When such kind of religious practices exists then tell me, which is said to be the highest good.
334. O lord of demons, ask me and I shall tell you again.”
Hearing Bṛhaspati’s words full of truth, the demons with curiosity risen in them and being detached from the worldly existence, said:
335-336. “O preceptor, initiate all of us, who have approached you and are firm in our devotion, so that with your instruction we shall not again be infatuated; we shall remain very much detached in this worldly existence causing grief and infatuation.
337. O preceptor, draw us out from the well (of mundane existence) by pulling our hair; O best of brāhmaṇas, which god should we take shelter of?
338-339. O highly intelligent one, show us who have
approached you, a deity by remembering, serving or meditating on, so also by having worshipped which, release will be obtained (by us). We are displeased with the family, and we won’t strive again here (i.e. to have a family).”
340. When Guru, who was disguised, was thus addressed by the best of the demons, he thought about that undertaking: ‘How shall I bring about this?
341. How can I make them sinners (and consequently) denizens of hell, outcast from the Vedic fold due to their ridiculing it and (therefore) being laughed at in the three worlds?’
342-344. Saying thus (to himself) Bṛhaspati meditated on Keśava (i.e. Viṣṇu). Knowing that meditation of his Janardana created Māyāmoha (i.e. a being who would delude the demons with his tricks) and presented him to Bṛhaspati and said to him: “This Māyāmoha associated with you will infatuate all demons, outcast from the Vedic path.” Having instructed thus the lord disappeared.
345. That Māyāmoha went to the demons who were engaged in penance. Bṛhaspati approached them and said:
346. “This naked, clean-shaven ascetic holding a peacock’s feather, being pleased with your devotion has come to favour you.”
347-349. After Guru had spoken thus Māyāmoha said (these) words: “O demons, you who are engaged in penance, tell (me) whether you desire as the fruit of your penance something worldly or otherworldly?” The demons replied: “In our opinion performance of penance is for the acquisition of religious merit in the other world; (so) we have started it; what have you to say in this matter?” The naked one (i.e. Māyāmoha) said: “You act according to my words if you desire release.
351. Remaining here (i.e. in his fold) only you will reach heaven and release.”
352. The demons were taken out of the Vedic path by Māyāmoha (saying) “This leads to merit, this to sin; this is good and this is bad.
353. This leads to release, this would not give release; this is the highest truth.
354. This ought to be done; this ought not to be done; this is not this (i.e. as it is said to be so); this is clear; this is the practice of the naked, this is that of those who put on many garments.”
355. Thus Māyāmoha told the demons the words of the Arhats, and made them give up their own (old) practices.
356. When Māyāmoha told them the words of Arhat, viz. ‘Honour my way of life’, they resorted to him and therefore they became the followers of the Arhats.
357-358. After they had given up (the path of the) three Vedas Māyāmoha made them wholly absorbed in the Arhat way; others also were instructed by him; they instructed others; these instructed still others; these also still others. ‘Salutation to Arhats’ thus they spoke firmly in their congregation.
359. Within a few days the demons almost gave up (the path of the three) Vedas. Māyāmoha with his senses conquered again became the wearer of red garments.
360-361. He too, going to other demons, spoke sweet words: ‘If you have a desire for (going to) heaven or for release, then enough of the wicked practices like killing the beasts. (Please) understand (it). Know this all to be of the nature of worldly knowledge.
362. Understand my words properly; they are said by the wise. This world is propless and erroneous knowledge is preeminent in it.
363. It is very much defiled by passions like attachment and gets one involved in the peril of rebirth.”
364. He said manifold words intended for their release in such a manner that they abandoned their (former) practices. O king, some condemned the Vedas, while others condemned gods.
365. Others condemned the group of religious practices and others brāhmaṇas. These logical arguments do not lead to the practices involving killing (i.e. are against killing):
366-367. “O wise ones, if the oblations burnt in fire be come fruitful, or if it is laid down that a beast killed in a sacrifice obtains heaven, then why does the sacrificer not kill his own father there (i.e. in the sacrifice)? If something eaten by one leads to the satisfaction of someone else, then Śrāddha should be offered to those who are travelling and they should not take (provender etc.) with them.
368-369. After having obtained godhead by performing many sacrifices if wood of Śamī etc. is eaten by Indra then a beast eating leaves is certainly better. Knowing that his words are not to be relied on by men, ignore them, and be pleased (to take) the words uttered by me to be leading to final beatitude.
370. O great demons, those whose words are authoritative do not fall from the sky.
371. Words having propriety should be accepted by me and others like you.”
The demons said:
372-374. We all are resorting with devotion to this statement of facts made by you. If you are pleased, O lord, favour us today. We shall bring all the material necessary for initiation, by doing which, through your favour release would quickly be obtained by us.
Then Māyāmoha said to all these demons: “This my preceptor of best intellect, has betaken himself to this discipline. The best one will initiate you at my direction: ‘O brāhmaṇa, initiate these sons at my instruction’”.
375. The demons, when infatuated, said (these) words to Bhārgava:
376. “O magnanimous one, give us initiation, that will free (us) from the entire worldly existence.” Uśanas said to the demons: “All right, let us go to (the river) Narmadā.
377. O you, strip off your garments, I shall initiate you.”
Thus, O Bhīṣma, the intelligent son of Aṅgiras in the form of Bhṛgu made the demons naked.
378-379. And giving them peacock’s feathers, flags, berries of gunja plant, charming garlands, he got their hair plucked, (for) plucking out hair is a great means of (acquiring) religious merit.
380. God Kubera became the lord of wealth due to having plucked out his hair. By always remaining dress-less (devotees) obtained great superhuman power.
381. Arhat himself has formerly said that in this way (i.e. by following the Arhat-practices) eternity is obtained. Godhead is obtained here (only) by men by plucking out their hair.
382-383. Why then not do it since it gives great reḥgious merit? It was a great desire of gods: ‘When would we be born in the family of a layman in Bhārata country and would be endowed with penance after plucking out our hair.’
384-385. They had adored the twentyfour Tīrthaṅkaras. (For them) Praising with the muttering of incantations the Arhat covered over with the lord of cobras and showing the path of meditation, heaven was (quite) at hand or release would come. Which thought is expressed by them?
386-387. (The thought) is: Being similar to the sun and fire in lustre when shall we be sages? When shall we be passionless by (means of) muttering (incantations) and the five modes (of devotion)? For the heads of those religious people practising penance in that way and having met with death are broken with a stone.
388. When shall we reside in a solitary forest? (When) will the calm layman mutter secretly into our ears:
389-391. ‘O sage, do not go, since you are a traveller on the path to release. Whatever places you have secured cause further activity (and) so they are to be forsaken—these words of ours are true. By means of our penance and various restraints go to the best place and along that path of release which the wise ones, being endowed with penance obtain by means of devotion’.
392. That is said to be the practice of penance where there is the restraint of senses and compassion for all beings; everything else is mockery’.
393. Knowing this you should obtain the highest position worth going to and (should obtain) the same condition which the Tīrthaṅkaras and ascetics have obtained.
394. Thus (only) the deities, the Vidyādharas and the great serpents formerly entertaining desires day and night (obtained that state).
395. If you have entertained a desire to end the course of worldly life then leave (your) wives that are impediments in the path to heaven.
396. How do you enjoy that female organ of generation into which your father entered (i.e. had coitus)? How is it that beings eat flesh which is similar to their own?
397. Then all those terrible demons said (these) words to Guru: “O magnanimous one, initiate us (your) children who are before you!”
398. Having done so the priest at that time said: “You should never salute any other deity (than the Arhat).
399. When you are required to eat at a place you have to eat by putting the food in the cavity of your hands and should look equally upon the water likeable or otherwise (which is) without hair and worms and not contaminated by other’s glance.
400. O lord, one should eat according to this practice. Do like that. Those fit for release and you should remain together.”
401-402. O prince, telling thus the restraints to those best demons, Guru went to heaven, the abode of gods and told them all that he had made the demons to do.
403-406. Then the demons went to Narmada and lived by it. Seeing there those demons except Prahrāda, the lord of gods, being pleased said (these) words ro Namuci: Seeing these—Hiraṇyākṣa, the destroyer of sacrifices and of religious practices and the censurer of the Vedas, so also Praghasa the demon of wicked deeds, and Vighasa, and Muci, and Bāṇa and Virocana, Mahiṣākṣa, Bāṣkala, Pracaṇḍa, Caṇḍaka, so also the shining and very cruel Suṣeṇa, the best among the demons—and others he said to the lords of demons:
407-408. O lords of demons, you were born in olden days; and you ruled over heaven; how is it that now you have started practising this vow destroying the Vedas, (being) naked, cleanshaven (and with) a pitcher and holding the peacock and have remained here?
The demons said:
409. Having given up all our demonhood we have remained in these practices of the sages.
410. We are doing deeds leading to the enhancement of religious practices in all the beings. O Indra, enjoy the kingdom of the three worlds and (now) depart (from here).
411. Saying ‘All right’ Indra again went to heaven. O Bhīṣma, all those (demons) were thus stupefied by (Bṛhaspati) the priest of gods.
412. Going to the river Narmadā the best demons stayed (there). Knowing all that account Śukra again advised them.
413. Then they again entertained the wicked idea of conquering the three worlds.