by N.A. Deshpande | 1951 | 1,261,945 words | ISBN-10: 8120838297 | ISBN-13: 9788120838291
This page describes the dynasty of yadu which is chapter 12 of the English translation of the Padma Purana, one of the largest Mahapuranas, detailling ancient Indian society, traditions, geography, as well as religious pilgrimages (yatra) to sacred places (tirthas). This is the twelfth chapter of the Srishti-khanda (section on creation) of the Padma Purana, which contains six books total consisting of at least 50,000 Sanskrit metrical verses.
1. O learned one, tell me now how the Soma dynasty came up and which kings were born in that family that increased its fame.
2-3. Formerly Atri was ordered by Brahmā to create. Then the lord practised penance for creation. (It was) delightful, removing the trouble of Brahmā, nearest to Brahmā, Rudra, Indra and Sūrya and supra-sensual.
4-5. Having made his mind tranquil Atri then remained restrained. Even the greatness of penance causes great delight. Since the chief of the dynasty then stood out it increased by half and since Soma having seen him reported it he became mighty.
6. Then from Atri’s eyes water of tears, illuminating all the mobile and immobile things with its moonlight, flowed.
7. The quarters in the form of ladies drank it up; it turned into an embryo generated by Atri and remained in their uterus.
8-9. Then the quarters unable to hold it dropped it. Brahma then took the embryo and put it together and (thus) fashioned a youth skilled in using all weapons.
10. Having put him with his own hands in a chariot, full of the power of Vedas, he took him to the world. Then the brāhmaṇic sages said: Let him be our lord.
11. Then the interior of that (Soma) who was being praised by sages, Gandharvas and celestial nymphs became very great.
12. From that expanding lustre the host of herbs sprang on the earth; his lustre is great; so he always is (i.e. shines) during the night.
13-15. Therefore Soma became the lord ofherbs; he is also counted among the brāhmaṇas; as he is the Vedic lustre and the fluid. The auspicious disc in the dark and bright (fortnights) wanes and waxes. Prācetasa Dakṣa gave him (his) twenty-seven brilliant daughters endowed with form and beauty and then ten thousand of thousand (-fold) powers.
16-17. Soma intent on meditating upon Viṣṇu practised penance. Then the lord, Nārāyaṇa-Hari, thesupremejanārdana was pleased with him and said to him, “Ask for a boon.” Then Soma asked for a boon: “I shall perform a sacrifice in the world of Indra.
18-1 9. The groups of gods with the four led by Brahmā should in person enjoy (the offerings) in my house, at the Rājasūya. The trident-holder god, Hara, should be our protector.” When Viṣṇu said, “Let it be so” he performed the Rājasūya.
20. Atri was the Hotṛ (the priest reciting the prayers of the Ṛgveda). Bhṛgu was the Adhvaryu (an officiating priest). Brahmā became the Udgātā (one who chants the hymns of Sāmaveda), and Hari himself was the superintendent.
22. He gave the three worlds as the sacrificial fee to the priests. Having obtained splendour which was difficult to obtain, and which was honoured by the world, Soma, by means of his penance, got the sovereignty of the seven worlds.
23-24. Once he saw in a garden Bṛhaspati’s wife, Tārā, adorned with many flowers and ornaments, of large hips, oppressed with the burden of breasts, so feeble (i.e. delicate) (that she would not) even (tolerate) the plucking of flowers, charming like Cupid’s arrows and having broad and beautiful eyes.
25. In that secluded region, the lord of stars, being smit with love, seized her with her hair. She too, (equally) love-sick with her mind attracted by his form and handsomeness, enjoyed with him.
26. Having sported for a long time Soma took Tārā to his house; then even in his own house he, attached to Tārā, was not satisfied with the (sexual) pleasures.
27-28. Bṛhaspati, scorched by the fire of the separation had his mind contemplating on her only. He was unable to curse him (i.e. Soma), nor was (the lord of speech) able to harm him by means of many chants, missiles, fire or poisons; or by various stratagems or by magical spells. Being tormented with love, he besought god Soma to (return) his wife.
31. Then, Śiva the trident-holder, along with his disciples, bound by love for Bṛhaspati, resorted to by the lords of spirits, and Siddhas, taking his bow called Jagava, went (forth) to fight with Soma.
32-34. He, especially brilliant, of a terrible form and terrible and cruel due to the fire in his third eye, and the eighty lords of his attendants and with the lords of Yakṣas seated in a war-chariot, and Soma too, with his anger, and with a thousand billions of Vetālas, Yakṣas, Snakes and Kinnaras, so also of serpents, so also with thirty-six thousand chariots, with his lustre increased by Śani and Aṅgāraka came there, accompanied by the army of the Nakṣatras, demons and fiends.
35. The seven worlds, earth, forests, islands and the interiors of the oceans got frightened. The trident-holder, who had taken the blazing missile and great fire went forth to (fight) Soma.
36. Then took place a great war between the terrible armies of Rudra and Soma. Capable of destroying all animals, it (i.e. the war) of the form of intensive and pre-eminent fire, escalated.
37. The full armies of both with sharp and poignant missiles met destruction. Bright missiles, capable of burning heaven, earth and the nether region were discharged.
38. Through anger, Rudra released the missile Brahmasiras; Soma too released the missile ‘Soma’ of infallible power. By the fall of the two (missiles) fear spread in the ocean, on the earth, in the atmosphere.
39. Then seeing that war escalating and capable of destroying the worlds, Brahmā along with gods, entering there, somehow averted it.
40-41. “O Soma, why are you, without any cause, doing this ignoble deed, leading to the destruction of people? Since you waged this terrible war for taking away the wife of someone else you will be (taken to be) an evil planet among people; you are a sinner; you will be equal to the eaters of brāhmaṇas. Honouring my word, restore this Bṛhaspati’s wife to him.”
42. Saying ‘let it be so’, Soma, being tranquilled, kept away from fighting; Bṛhaspati taking Tārā and being delighted, went home; so also Rudra.
43-45. Then at the end of a year, a boy resembling twelve suns, wearing a divine yellow garment, adorned with divine ornaments, and like the sun, was born to Tārā. He knew all the sciences, and was the propounder of the science of elephants. Named Rājaputra he was a well-known royal physician. He was known as Budha, being the son of king Soma.
46. He, the powerful one, snatched all the lustre of all people. Brahma and others came there; so also gods with the divine sages came to the house of Bṛhaspati at the time of the ceremony performed at the birth of the child.
47. The gods asked Tārā by whom was the boy begotten (i.e. who was his father—Soma or Bṛhaspati)?
48-49. She, ashamed of them, did not say anything, at that time. The excellent lady, being again asked, replied shamefully after a long time that the son was Soma’s. Then Soma took the son, named him ‘Budha’ and gave him a kingdom on the earth.
50-51. Then having consecrated him, the supreme lord Brahmā offered him a seat in the planets; having given it he, along with the brāhmaṇic sages, disappeared there only even as all beings were watching. Buddha produced the most religious son in (i.e. from) the womb of Ilā.
52. He (i.e. the son) fully performed a hundred horse-sacrifices, and due to his lustre was known as Purūravas and was honoured by all people.
53. Having propitiated Brahmā on the peak of the Himālayas, he, the lord of the seven islands, obtained the lordship of the world.
55. Desiring the good of all the people, he justly protected the earth having seven islands, with mountains, forests and groves.
56. Due to the favour of Brahmā (he obtained) fame that became his carrier and waiting girl holding the chowrie. The lord of gods offered him half (of his) seat.
58. Dharma, Artha and Kāma came to see him with curiosity, desiring to know how he maintained them equally. With devotion he then offered them offerings, water for washing feet etc.
59. Having brought three seats adorned with gold, and seating them on the seats, he offered them worship, (offering) slightly superior worship to Dharma.
60. Kāma and Artha then became very angry with the king; Artha cursed him: “You will perish due to greed.”
62-64. Dharma too said: “You will have a long life and will be religious; O lord of kings, your progeny will increase hundred times as long as the sun and the moon stay (in the sky) and will not perish on the earth. The madness caused by (the longing for) Urvaśī will last for sixty years; and that celestial nymph, your wife, will soon be won over by you”. Saying so all of them disappeared.
65-66. Purūravas everyday went to see Urvaśī. Once while moving in the sky in the southern direction seated in the chariot with Indra he saw Urvaśī and Citralekhā being taken (away) in the atmosphere by the lord of demons, Keśin.
67-68. Having in a battle vanquished him (i.e. Keśin) who had formerly vanquished in battle even Indra by throwing various missiles (at him), he (i.e. Purūravas) became friendly with Indra and gave Urvaśī to him. Since then Indra became his friend.
69. Indra being pleased, with Purūravas, excelling (everyone) in the world, said to him: “You take her”.
72. She, while dancing, seeing Purūravas, became oppressed by love and forgot all acting that was directed before.
73-74. Bharata angrily cursed her that separated from him (i.e. Purūravas) she would turn into a creeper, live on the earth for fifty-five years. Then Urvaśī having gone to him, made him her husband for a long time. After experiencing the curse, Urvaśī gave birth to eight sons by (Purūravas), the son of Budha.
75-77. Listen to their names from me (as I tell them). Āyu, Dṛdhāyu, Vaśyāyu, Balāyu, Dhṛtimān, Vasu, Divyajāyu, and Śatāyu—a ll were having divine strength and vigour. Nahuṣa was the son of Āyu, so also was Vṛddhasarmā; and Raji, Daṇḍa and Viśākha; these five were brave warriors. A hundred sons were born to Raji; they were known as Rājeya.
78. Raji propitiated pure Nārāyaṇa; Viṣṇu who was (thus) propitiated by penance, gave a boon to the king.
79. He then became the conqueror of gods, demons and men. Then the war between gods and demons continued for three hundred years.
81. “Who will be victorious out ofthe two?” He said: “He, where (i.e. on whose side) Raji is (will be victorious).”
82. The demons requested the king, “Help us to victory”. He said: “If I shall be your lord (I shall help you); otherwise enough of it (i.e. I shall not help you)”. The demons did not accept it; but the gods did.
83. “Be our lord and destroy the enemy’s army.” Then he destroyed all that were to be killed by Indra.
84. By that deed of his, Indra then became his son. Then giving the kingdom to Indra, Raji went (to perform) penance.
85. Then, Raji’s sons endowed with the merit of penance and power, forcibly snatched the kingdom from Indra and his portion in the sacrifice.
86-87. He, deprived of the kingdom and oppressed by Raji’s sons, being helpless, said to Bṛhaspati: “O Bṛhaspati, lam harassed by Raji’s sons; I who am oppressed, am not having the kingdom nor the portion in the sacrifice; master of intellect, strive to get the kingdom for me.”
88. Then Bṛhaspati, by means of the rite to pacify the planets and to promote welfare, made Indra haughty with power.
89-91. Bṛhaspati, having gone to Raji’s sons, stupefied them. The lord of intellect (i.e. Bṛhaspati) who knew religion, resorting to the religion of the Jainas, which was out of the Vedic fold, made them fallen from the three Vedas. Knowing them to be out of the Vedic fold and endowed with disputation, Indra with his bolt killed them all—who were excommunicated from the (Vedic) religion. I shall tell you about the seven pious sons of Nahuṣa:
93. Yati became an anchorite even in his boyhood. Yayāti, always given to piety, ruled his kingdom.
95. Yayāti had five sons; I shall mention them by names. Devayānī gave birth to a son (named) Yadu and also (another son) Vasu.
97-98. O King, (now) I shall describe the Pūru-race, in which you are born. From Yadu the Yādavas were born, among whom were (born) Bala (-rāma) and Kṛṣṇa for taking down the burden of Pāṇḍavas and for their welfare. Yadu’s five sons were like god’s sons.
102-104. The king named Mahiṣmān was Saṃhata’s son. Brave Bhadrasena was the son of Mahiṣmān. He was a king in Vārāṇasī, who has already been mentioned. The religious son of Bhadrasena was Durdama by name. The terrible son of Durdama was named Dhanaka. Dhanaka had four sons well-known in the world.
106. By means of his thousand arms the king became the lord of seven islands. Then the lord of the earth practised penance for ten thousand years.
108. The best king, first chose a thousand arms. (By the second boon he chose that) one thinking impiously would incur fear and be warded off.
109. (By the third boon) he would conquer the earth by fighting and would get strength by means of religious acts; and by the additional (i.e. the fourth boon) he would kill anyone that would stand before him in a battle.
110. He conquered this earth by his heroism with its seven islands and cities and surrounded by seven seas.
111. Of him, the intelligent one, a thousand arms were produced as desired by him; he performed all sacrifices in which large fees were paid.
112. All of them had golden sacrificial posts and golden altars; all were attended by gods seated in aerial cars and adorned.
113-116. They were always attended by the Gandharvas and the celestial nymphs also. In his sacrifice Gandharva and Nārada sang a verse, after having seen the greatness of the royal sage Kārtavīrya. Kings would never attain to the position of Kārtavīrya by means of sacrifices, gifts, austerities, valour or learning. Moving swiftly on the seven islands the king, comparable to wind, became the sovereign emperor of the earth with seven islands, for eighty-five thousand years.
117. He became the protector of beasts; he alone was the protector of fields; he alone became cloud by means ofshowers and became Arjuna by means ofhis diligence (assiduity),
118. By means ofhis thousand arms, and with skin rugged on account of the strokes of the bowstring he shone like the autumnal sun with thousand rays.
119. In Māhiṣmatī he was (a man) of great brilliance among men; in the rainy season he would meet the agitation of the ocean.
120. He sports (i.e. sported) against the current, for his own pleasure; sporting with the lashes he tied down the sea.
121-123. Narmadā, frightened and having a series of knittings of her eye-brows in the form of her ripples flowed to him. He alone, from Manu’s family, would, plunge into the sea, by drawing out, with one hand the ocean and plunging into it by pleasing the beautiful ladies. When by his thousand arms the great ocean would be agitated, the great demons of the nether region would hide themselves and remain motionless.
124-128. The great serpents stunned by the agitation of his thighs, and suspecting that nectar was being churned out, bent down keeping their heads motionless. This archer discharged arrows against Rāvaṇa. This archer taking a bow, having (with force) stupefied and vanquished the haughty lord of Laṅkā—Rāvaṇa, with five arrows and having arrested and brought him to Māhiṣmatī imprisoned him there. Then to propitiate that Arjuna, I went to him; having made friendship with my grandson (i.e. Rāvaṇa) he released him. The sound of the bow-string of him having a thousand arms was like that of the fire, that would spread on the earth at the end of a Yuga (the age of the world).
130. “Since, O Haihaya, you burnt my well known grove, so someone else will destroy your wicked deeds.
131. That powerful ascetic brāhmaṇa Bhārgava, having powerfully cut off your thousand arms (and thus) having harassed you, will kill you.”
132-134. Paraśurāma was thus the killer of that intelligent (Kārtavīrya). O very powerful (Bhīṣma), he had a hundred sons; out of them (the following) five were great warriors, trained in the science of missiles, mighty, brave and religious: Śūrasena, Śūra, Dhṛṣṭa, Kṛṣṇa and Jayadhvaja; he was the builder of Avantī and the lord of the earth. Tālajaṅgha of great might was Jayadhvaja’s son.
138-140. The great king Kārtavīrya by name having a thousand arms protected the subjects sincerely, who with his bow vanquished the earth bounded by the oceans; and a man who getting up at daybreak utters his name, never loses his wealth; he regains what is lost. One who narrates the life of the intelligent Kārtavīrya, becomes honoured in heaven like a donor or a sacrificer.