The Padma Purana

by N.A. Deshpande | 1951 | 1,261,945 words | ISBN-10: 8120838297 | ISBN-13: 9788120838291

This page describes description of manu periods which is chapter 7 of the English translation of the Padma Purana, one of the largest Mahapuranas, detailling ancient Indian society, traditions, geography, as well as religious pilgrimages (yatra) to sacred places (tirthas). This is the seventh chapter of the Srishti-khanda (section on creation) of the Padma Purana, which contains six books total consisting of at least 50,000 Sanskrit metrical verses.

Chapter 7 - Description of Manu Periods

[Sanskrit text for this chapter is available]

Bhīṣma said:

1. How did Maruts, the sons of Diti; become dear to gods, and how did they have excellent intimacy with gods?

Pulastya spoke:

2. Formerly, in the war between the gods and the demons, when, by Hari and gods, her sons and grandsons were killed, Diti, afflicted with grief, went to the excellent terrestrial globe.

3. At the great sacred place in Puṣkara, on the auspicious bank of the Sarasvatī, Diti the mother of the Daityas, intent upon propitiating her husband, practised a severe penance.

4-6. She, of a good vow, afflicted with old age and grief, subsisting on fruit, performed fully, for a hundred years, a penance, with vows like Kṛcchra-cāndrāyaṇa, for the sages. Then she, tormented by penance, asked Vasiṣṭha and others: “Tell me a vow that will remove my grief for my sons and will cause good luck in this and the next world”.

7. Vasiṣṭha and others told (her) about the vow of the full-moon night of Jyeṣṭha, due to the auspiciousness of which she became free from the grief for her sons.

Bhīṣma said:

8. O brāhmaṇa, I wish to hear about the vow of the full-moon of Jyeṣṭha, by which Diti got back her forty-nine sons.

Pulastya said:

9. Hear from me in details the vow which was formerly told by Vasiṣṭha and others to Diti.

10-13. In the bright fortnight of Jyeṣṭha, on the full-moon day, one, of a pure vow, should place an unbruised pitcher filled with white rice, and having many fruits and sugarcanes, covered with a couple of white clothes, and besmeared with sandal; then one should put on it a copper-vessel, containing gold according to one’s capacity, and various kinds of eatables and jaggery; in a hollow of a lotus, one should instal a golden image of Brahmā. To his (i.e. Brahmā’s) left, one should fashion (the image of) Sāvitri made of sugar.

14. To them he should offer perfume and incense and have vocal and instrumental music. How can one do it without it since Brahma lives in the lotus?

15-18. Having fashioned an auspicious image made of jaggery and called Brahmā, one should worship Brahmā with white flowers, sacred grains and sesamum; one should worship him, saying ‘Salutation to Brahmā’ while worshipping his feet; saying ‘Salutation to Saubhāgyada’ while worshipping his shanks; saying ‘Salutation to Viriñca’ while worshipping his hair of thinghs[?thighs?]; saying’ ‘Salutation to Manmatha’ while worshipping his waist; saying ‘Salutation to Svacchodara’ while worshipping his belly; saying ‘Salutation to Atandra’ while worshipping his chest; saying ‘Salutation to Padmamukha’ while worshipping his face; saying ‘Salutation to Vedapāṇi' while worshipping his arms: saying ‘Salutation to Sarvātman’ while worshipping his head; and one should also worship the lotus. Then in the morning one should present the pitcher to a brāhmaṇa.

19-20. With devotion one should feed the brāhmaṇa and oneself eat saltless (food), and devoutly cicumambulate and recite this hymn: ‘The revered one, the grandsire of all the worlds, who lives in the hearts of all people, and who is called Ānanda (joy), may be pleased now’.

21. With this rite one should practise the vow every month; and observing a fast, one should worship the immutable Brahma on every full-moon day.

22-23. Eating one fruit (only) one should at night sleep on the ground. Then in the thirteenth month one should give a bed to Viriñca with ghee and a cow and with all ingredients, and fashioning a golden image of Brahmā and (an image of Savitri) of silver.

24-25. (One should say:) ‘May the creator born from a lotus obtain Sāvitrī.’ Honouring a brāhmaṇa with his wife, by (giving them) garments and ornaments, one should give a cow etc. according to one’s ability and should say: ‘Be pleased’. One should perform a sacrifice with white sesamum and utter the names of Brahma.

26. One, knowing the religious practices, should, along with ghee made from cow’s milk, give money and a garland of flowers to brahmaṇas according to one’s capacity.

27. One, who—even ladies (can observe this vow)—observes (the vow) according to the rite on a full-moon day, being free from all sins, gets identity with Brahman.

28. In this world (such a) one certainly obtains excellent sons and good fortune. He, who is Brahma, is known to be Viṣṇu, to be the essence of joy, and Maheśvara.

29. One who desires happiness should remember the lord in any form one likes. Having heard this, Diti did everything fully.

30. Kaśyapa, due to the great virtue of her vow, having come there with great joy, made that rough (lady) full of form and beauty.

31. He persuaded her (to ask for) boons, and she chose an excellent boon: “I desire a powerful, very lustrous, magnanimous son, capable of killing all gods, to murder Indra.”

32-34. Kaśyapa uttered these words: “With this (boon) I shall give you a powerful son who will kill Indra; but, O you auspicious one, do this: O you of beautiful breasts, I shall today perform the Āpastamba sacrifice for (obtaining) a son. Then I shall deposit my semen (into you) after touching your breasts, O auspicious one. O lady, you will have a son capable of killing Indra.”

35. Then he performed the Āpastamba sacrifice with (i.e. spending) great wealth for (obtaining) a son, and hurriedly offered the oblation saying: “O enemy of Indra, be (conceived).”

36. The gods fainted and the demons and the fiends turned away their faces. Kaśyapa then put the semen into Diti, and again said to her:

37. “Your face is like the moon; your breasts resemble the bilva-fruit (are stout). Your lips have the form of corals and your complexion is very lovely.

38. Seeing you, O you lady of large eyes, I forget my own body. Therefore, O lady, of charming hips, I have, with my own hand (i.e. myself), deposited my seed into your body.

39-41. You should, O lady, having an excellent face, take care of this foetus in a penance-grove for one hundred years. During pregnancy you should not eat in the evening; you should not remain under, or go to the roots of, trees. You should not resort to (i.e. handle) instruments like mortar, pestle etc.; you should not plunge into water, and should avoid a vacant dwelling.

42. You should not remain on ant-hills; you should not be dejected in mind; you should not write (i.e. scratch) with nails on the ground, on charcoal, or ashes.

43. You should not always be sleepy, and should avoid (acts causing) fatigue. You should not come to rest upon charcoal or ashes of husk or bowls of bones.

44. You should avoid quarrel with people, and should avoid smearing your body with oily substances; you should not remain with loose hair and should never remain impure.

45. You should never sleep either by raising or lowering your head; should not be without garments (on your person); should not be dejected or with wet feet.

46. You should not utter inauspicious words; you should not laugh excessively Intent upon auspiciousness, you should everyday perform worship along with the elders.

47-48. You should take bath with water connected (i.e. mixed) with all herbs; having protected yourself and with a desire to serve, and intent upon worshipping with vows, you should keep a pleasing face, and be engrossed in the things dear to your husband; should never condemn (your) husband in any condition.

49. Should never say: ‘I am emaciated, weak; old age has come upon me; my breasts have moved (away) from their place, and face is curled with folds. You have made me like this’.” (Before departing, he said:) “may it be well with you. I shall go (now)”.

50-51. When she said “All right”, he, in the presence of all beings, vanished there only. Then she took to the vow as told by her husband.

52-57. Knowing that and leaving gods’ residence, Indra came near her and remained there desiring to hear what she said. Indra wanted to know the weak points of Diti. He was acting in a false manner, distracted interanally and having a smiling face outwardly, as it were not knowing her mission and doing (only) what was good for him. She regarded herself as blessed, and with a proud mind, through joy, not cleansing her feet, lay anywhere by day, with hair let loose and with her head raised. when only three days were left for hundred years to be completed. Then, taking that opportunity, the lord of Śacī, and the ruler of gods, entering inside (her body), cut the foetus into seven parts with his bolt; then those (pieces) were born as sons, as bright as the sun.

58-59. Those seven boys who were crying were suppressed (i.e. appeased) with the water of libation. Again Indra, with the bolt in his hand, cut each of the crying ones, who were in the womb, into seven pieces. Thus cut into forty-nine (in number) they cried very much.

60-62. Again and again Indra suppressed (i.e. appeased) them by saying, ‘Do not cry’. Then the killer of Vṛtra conjectured: ‘Due to the virtue of which act have they survived? He knew by means of (his) religious merit that this was the fruit of the Paurṇamāsī (vow), or indeed this happened as a result of the worship of Brahmā; (so) though struck by the bolt, they did not perish.

63. Even one became many. Since the foetus was protected, and they indeed could not be killed, let them be gods.

64-65. Since, when born from the womb, they were told not to cry, there fore, let them be named Maruts, and let them be happy’. Then the lord of gods, having propitiated Diti, (said to her): “Forgive me; resorting to the rule of need, I did this bad act.”

66. The lord of gods, making the group of Maruts equal to gods, and putting Diti along with her sons in an aeroplane, went to heaven.

67. Since then all the Maruts enjoyed a share in the sacrificial offerings. They did not have unity with the Asuras; therefore, they were dear to gods.

Bhīṣma said:

68. O brāhmaṇa, you have explained to me in detail the initial creation. Tell me what is the second ary creation and (who are) the lords (and) of which (species).

Pulastya spoke:

69-70. When Pṛthu was crowned (as the king) of all the kingdom, he became the lord on the earth; Brahmā made Soma (the moon) having radiance within, the lord of the herbs, sacrificial vows, and austerities and of constellations, stars, brāhmaṇas, clumps of trees and spreading creepers. Similarly he made Varuṇa the lord of waters, and Vaiśravaṇa (i.e. Kubera) the lord of wealth.

71. He made Viṣṇu the lord of the suns and Vasus, and Agni the lord of the worlds; made Dakṣa the lord of Prajāpatis, and Śakra the lord of Maruts.

72. He made Prahlāda the lord of the kings of Daityas, and of Dānavas. He made the trident-holder the lord of demons, fiends, beasts, spirits, Yakṣas and vampires.

73. He made Himālaya mountain the lord of mountains, and ocean the lord of rivers. He made Citraratha the chief of the Gandharvas, Vidyādharas and Kinnaras.

74. He appointed Vāsuki of strong power as the lord of serpent-demons, and Takṣaka as the lord of snakes. He made the lordly elephant, Airavata by name, the lord of the quarter-elephants.

75. He made Suparṇa the lord of birds and Uccaiḥśravas the lord of horses. He made lion the lord of beasts, bull the lord of cows, and the fig tree with waving leaves the lord of plants.

76. Then Brahmā consecrated these as the lords of quarters: He consecrated Suvarman, eminent as a foe, as the lord of the eastern quarter.

77. Then he made him—Śaṅkha by name—the lord of the south. Brahmā made Ketumanta the lord of the (western) direction.

78. Then Prajāpati made Hiraṇyaroman, the son of Megha, the lord of the northern direction.

Even now, the lords of quarters always carrying upon them (the responsibility of the protection of the earth) protect the earth.

79. Along with these four, he first installed as the king of the earth (a man) Pṛthu by name. When the period of Manu named Cākṣuṣa was over, he made this (period) of Vaivasvata (Manu) on the earth.

80. When the period of Manu by name Cākṣuṣa was over, and when the period called Vaivasvata set in, he, born in the solar family, became the king, with his insignia, of this movable and immovable (creation).

Pulastya said:

81-82. O son of Kuru, listen, in short, with concentrated and gracious mind, to all the periods of Manus and their lives, the measure of a Kalpa, and the creation in it. Formerly in the period of Svāyambhuva Manu, there were gods called Yāmā.

83-84. And also seven sages only like Marīci and others were said to be there. These ten increased the race of Manu: Āgnīdhra, Agnibāhu, Vibhu, Savana, Jyotiṣmat, Dyutimat, Bhavya, Medhā, Medhātithi, Vasu.

85. These, having brought about secondary creation, reached the highest place. Thus is described the Svāyambhuva period; after this comes the Svārociṣa.

86. Svārociṣa’s four sons, having god-like lustre were: Nabha, Nabhasya, Bhāvana, and Kiītivardhana.

87. The seven sages were: Datta, Agni, Cyavana, Stambha, Prāṇa, Kaśyapa and Arvābṛhaspati.

88-93. Then, in the Svārociṣa period, gods were called Tuṣita. The seven sons of Vasiṣṭha were then the Prajāpatis: Havi, Indra, Sukṛta, Mūrti, Āpa, Jyotiratha, and Smṛta. This is said to be the second period of Manu.

After this I shall narrate the next auspicious period of Manu. In it the Manu named Auttami produced ten sons; Iṣa. Ūrja, Tanūja, Śuci, Śukra, Madhu, Mādhava, Nabhasya, Nabha, Saha, Sahasya and excellent Kīrtivardhana were the twelve Ādityas. Gods were (then) called Ūrja. The seven sages were:

Kaukabhiṇḍa, Kutuṇḍa, Dālbhya, Śaṅkha, Pravāhita, Miti and Sammiti; and these seven increased the contemplation of the supreme spirit.

94-95. The fourth period of Manu is known as Tāmasa. The names of the seven sages in it (are): Kapi, Pṛthu, Agni, Akapi, Kavi, Janya and Dhāman. The hosts of gods in the Tāmasa period were called Sādhyas.

96-98. All the ten sons of Tāmasa, viz. Akalmaṣa, Tapa, Dhanvi, Tapomūla, Tapodhana, Taporāśi, Tapasya, Sutapasya and Parantapa increased the race. Similarly, listen to the fifth, i.e. the Raivata:

Devabāhu, Subāhu, Parjanya, Samaya, Muni, Hiraṇyaroman, Saptāśva are said to be the seven sages.

99-102. The gods Bhūtarajas are similarly said to be the elements. These ten are the sons of Raivata, (they are) endowed with piety, vigour and power:

Avaśa, Tattvadarśin, Vītimān, Havyapa, Kapi, Mukta, Nirutsuka, Sattva, Nirmoha, and Prakāśaka.

Bhṛgu, Sudhāma, Viraja, Sahiṣṇu, Nārada, Vivasvān and Kṛti were the seven sages in the Cākṣuṣa period; and the gods were known as Lekhā; and the Vibhus also were separately termed as gods.

103-104. When the Cākṣuṣa period set in, the gods had the fifth world: and similarly Cākṣuṣa had ten sons—Ruru and others. They have already been mentioned by me in the Svāyambhuva family. Thus I have described the Cākṣuṣa period to you.

105-106. I shall (now) tell you about the seventh which is called Vaivasvata. Now the seven great sages are: Atri and Vasiṣṭha, Kaśyapa and Gautama, the contemplative Bharadvāja, the valorous Viśvāmitra and Jamadagni.

107. After setting the religious order, they will reach the highest place. I shall describe to you the future period of Sāvarṇya Manu.

108. The sages (of this Manvantara) are said to be: Aśvatthāman, Śaradvān, Kauśika, Gālava, Śatānanda, Kāśyapa and Rāma.

109-110. Dhṛti, Varīyān, Yavasu, Suvarṇa and Dhṛti (again), Variṣṇu, Vīrya, Sumati, Vasu and powerful Śukra are said to be the sons of the future Sāvarṇi Manu. Raucya and others also are said to be Manus.

111. Raucya, the son ef Prajāpati Ruci will be a Manu; and also Bhautya, the son of Bhūti, will be a Manu.

112. Then Merusāvarṇi, son of Brahma, is said to be a Manu. And also Ṛbhu, Ṛtudhāman, Viśvaksena will (each) be a Manu.

113. Past and future Manus are (thus) described (by me). O prince, a thousand yugas will be occupied by (each one of) these.

114. Having created all these mobile and immobile beings in their own periods, they will, at the end of the kalpa, obtain release along with Brahmā.

115. At the end of a thousand yugas they will again and again perish, and led by Brahma will then be absorbed in Viṣṇu.

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