by Kisari Mohan Ganguli | 2,566,952 words | ISBN-10: 8121505933
The English translation of the Mahabharata is a large text describing ancient India. It is authored by Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa and contains the records of ancient humans. Also, it documents the fate of the Kauravas and the Pandavas family. Another part of the large contents, deal with many philosophical dialogues such as the goals of life. Book...
'None is more fortunate than I am; now have I seen my elder brother. It is a great favour shown unto me; and I have been well pleased with you. Now I wish that you mayst fulfil this desire of mine. I desire to behold. O hero, that incomparable form of thine, which you at that time hadst had, in bounding over the main, that abode of sharks and crocodiles. Thereby I shall be satisfied, and also believe in your words.'
Thus addressed, that mighty monkey said with a smile,
'That form of mine neither you, nor any one else can behold. At that age, the state of things was different, and does not exist at present. In the Krita age, the state of things was one; and in the Treta, another; and in the Dvapara, still another. Diminution is going on this age; and I have not that form now. The ground, rivers, plants, and rocks, and siddhas, gods, and celestial sages conform to Time, in harmony with the state of things in the different yugas. Therefore, do not desire to see my former shape, O perpetuator of the Kuru race. I am conforming to the tendency of the age. Verily, Time is irresistible'
'Tell me of the duration of the different yugas, and of the different manners and customs and of virtue, pleasure and profit, and of acts, and energy, and of life and death in the different yugas.'
Thereupon Hanuman said,
'O child, that yuga is called Krita when the one eternal religion was extant. And in that best of yugas, every one had religious perfection, and, therefore, there was no need of religious acts. And then virtue knew no deterioration; nor did people decrease. It is for this that this age is called Krita (perfect). But in time the yuga had come to be considered as an inferior one.
And, O child, in the Krita age, there were neither gods, nor demons, nor Gandharvas, nor Yakshas, nor Rakshasas, nor Nagas. And there was no buying and selling. And the Sama, the Rich, and the Yajus did not exist. And there was no manual labour. And then the necessaries of life were obtained only by being thought of.
And the only merit was in renouncing the world. And during that yuga, there was neither disease, nor decay of the senses. And there was neither malice, nor pride, nor hypocrisy, nor discord, nor ill-will, nor cunning, nor fear, nor misery, nor envy, nor covetousness. And for this, that prime refuge of Yogis, even the Supreme Brahma, was attainable to all. And Narayana wearing a white hue was the soul of all creatures.
And in the Krita Yuga, the distinctive characteristics of Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sudras were natural and these ever stuck to their respective duties. And then Brahma was the sole refuge, and their manners and customs were naturally adapted to the attainment of Brahma and the objects of their knowledge was the sole Brahma, and all their acts also had reference to Brahma. In this way all the orders attained merit. And one uniform Soul was the object of their meditation; and there was only one mantra (the Om), and there was one ordinance.
And although of different characteristics, all of them followed a single Veda; and they had one religion. And according to the divisions of time, they led the four modes of life, without aiming at any object, and so they attained emancipation. The religion consisting in the identification of self with Brahma indicates the Krita Yuga. And in the Krita Yuga, the virtue of the four orders is throughout entire in four-fold measure. Such is the Krita Yuga devoid of the three qualities.
Do you also hear from me of the character of the Treta Yuga. In this age, sacrifices are introduced, and virtue decreases by a quarter. And Narayana (who is the Soul of all creatures) assumes a red colour. And men practise truth, and devote themselves to religion and religious rites. And thence sacrifices and various religious observances come into existence.
And in the Treta Yuga people begin to devise means for the attainment of an object; and they attain it through acts and gifts. And they never deviate from virtue. And they are devoted to asceticism and to the bestowal of gifts. And the four orders adhere to their respective duties; and perform rites. Such are the men of the Treta Yuga.
In the Dvapara Yuga, religion decreases by one half. And Narayana wears a yellow hue. And the Veda becomes divided into four parts. And then some men retain (the knowledge of) the four Vedas, and some of three Vedas, and some of one Veda, while others do not know even the Richs. And on the Shastras becoming thus divided, acts become multiplied. And largely influenced by passion, people engage in asceticism and gifts.
And from their incapacity to study the entire Veda, it becomes divided into several parts. And in consequence of intellect having decreased, few are established in truth. And when people fall off from truth, they become subject to various diseases; and then lust, and natural calamities ensue. And afflicted with these, people betake themselves to penances. And some celebrate sacrifices, desiring to enjoy the good things of life, or attain heaven.
On the coming of the Dvapara Yuga, men become degenerate, in consequence of impiety. O son of Kunti, in the Kali Yuga a quarter only of virtue abides. And in the beginning of this iron age, Narayana wears a black hue. And the Vedas and the institutes, and virtue, and sacrifices, and religious observances, fall into disuse. And (then) reign iti, and disease, and lassitude, and anger and other deformities, and natural calamities, and anguish, and fear of scarcity.
And as the yugas wane, virtue dwindles. And as virtue dwindles away, creatures degenerate. And as creatures degenerate, their natures undergo deterioration. And the religious acts performed at the waning of the yugas, produce contrary effects. And even those that live for several yugas, conform to these changes.
O represser of foes, as regards your curiosity to know me, I say this,—Why should a wise person be eager to know a superfluous matter? (Thus), O long-armed one, have I narrated in full what you had asked me regarding the characteristics of the different yugas. Good happen to you! Do you return.'"
Footnotes and references:
Iti means these six things, unfavourable to crops--excessive rain, drought, rats, locusts, birds, and a neighbouring hostile king.
This concludes Section CXLVIII of Book 3 (Vana Parva) of the Mahabharata, of which an English translation is presented on this page. This book is famous as one of the Itihasa, similair in content to the eighteen Puranas. Book 3 is one of the eighteen books comprising roughly 100,000 Sanskrit metrical verses.
FAQ (frequently asked questions):
Which keywords occur in Section CXLVIII of Book 3 of the Mahabharata?
The most relevant definitions are: yuga, Krita, yugas, Veda, Brahma, Krita Yuga; since these occur the most in Book 3, Section CXLVIII. There are a total of 32 unique keywords found in this section mentioned 95 times.
What is the name of the Parva containing Section CXLVIII of Book 3?
Section CXLVIII is part of the Tirtha-yatra Parva which itself is a sub-section of Book 3 (Vana Parva). The Tirtha-yatra Parva contains a total of 101 sections while Book 3 contains a total of 13 such Parvas.
Can I buy a print edition of Section CXLVIII as contained in Book 3?
Yes! The print edition of the Mahabharata contains the English translation of Section CXLVIII of Book 3 and can be bought on the main page. The author is Kisari Mohan Ganguli and the latest edition (including Section CXLVIII) is from 2012.