The Mahabharata (English)

by Kisari Mohan Ganguli | 1,309,022 words | ISBN-10: 8121505933

The English translation of the Mahabharata is a large text describing ancient India. It is authored by Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa and contains the records of ancient humans. Also, it documents the fate of the Kauravas and the Pandavas family. Another part of the large contents, deal with many philosophical dialogues such as the goals of life. Book...

"Dhritarashtra said,—

'Tell me truly (O Sanjaya) of this Varsha that is called after Bharata, where this senseless force has been collected, in respect of which this my son Duryodhana has been so very covetous, which the sons of Pandu also are desirous of obtaining, and in which my mind too sinks. O, tell me this, for you are, in my judgment endued with intelligence.

"Sanjaya said,—

'Listen to me, O king The sons of Pandu are not covetous about this country. On the other hand, it is Duryodhana that is covetous, and Sakuni the son of Suvala, as also many other Kshatriyas who are rulers of the provinces, who being covetous of this country are not able to bear one another.

I will now will you, O you of Bharata’s race, of the tract of land known by Bharata’s name. This land is the beloved one of Indra, and, O you of Bharata’s race, this land, O monarch, that is called after Bharata, is also the beloved land of Manu, the son of Vivasvat, of Prithu, of Vainya, of the high-souled Ikshwaku, of Yayati, of Amvarisha, of Mandhatri, of Nahusha, of Mucukunda, of Sivi the son of Usinara, of Rishava, of Ila, of king Nriga, of Kusika, O invincible one, of the high-souled Gadhi, of Somaka, O irrepressible one, and of Dilipa, and also, O monarch, of many other mighty Kshatriyas.

I will now, O chastiser of foes, describe to you that country as I have heard of it. Listen to me, O king, as I speak of what you have asked me. Mahendra, Malaya, Sahya, Suktimat, Rakshavat, Vindhya, and Paripatra,—these seven are the Kala-mountains[1] (of Bharatvarsha). Besides these, O king, there are thousands of mountains that are unknown, of hard make, huge, and having excellent valleys. Besides these there are many other smaller mountains inhabited by barbarous tribes.

Aryans and Mlecchas, O Kauravya, and many races, O lord, mixed of the two elements, drink the waters of the following rivers, viz., magnificent Ganga, Sindhu, and Sarasvati; of Godavari, and Narmada, and the large river called Yamuna; of Dhrishadwati, and Vipapa, and Vipasa and Sthulavaluka; of the river Vetravati, and that other one called Krishna-vena; of Iravati, and Vitasta, and Payosyini, and Devika; of Vedasmrita and Vedavati, and Tridiva, and Ikshumalavi;[2] of Karishini, and Citravaha, and the river called Citrasena; of Gomati, and Dhutapada and the large river called Gandaki[3], of Kausiki, and Niscitra, and Kirtya, and Nicita, and Lohatarini;[4] of Rashasi and Satakumbha, and also Sarayu; of Carmanvati, and Vetravati,[5] and Hastisoma, and Disa; of the river called Saravati, and Venna, and Bhimarathi; of Kaveri, and Culuka, and Vina, and Satavala; of Nivara, and Mahila, and Suprayoga, O king; of Pavitra, and Kundala, and Rajani, and Puramalini; of Purvabhirama, and Vira, and Bhima, and Oghavati; of Palasini, and Papahara, and Mahendra, and Patalavati, of Karishini, and Asikni, and the large river Kusacira: of Makari, and Pravara, and Mena, and Hema, and Dhritavati; of Puravati, and Anushna, and Saivya, and Kapi, O Bharata; of Sadanira, and Adhrishya, and the mighty stream Kusadhara; of Sadakanta, and Siva, and Viravati; of Vatsu, and Suvastu, and Kampana with Hiranvati; of Vara, and the mighty river Pancami, of Rathacitra, and Jyotiratha, and Visvamitra, and Kapinjala; of Upendra, and Vahula, and Kucira, and Madhuvahini: of Vinadi, and Pinjala, and Vena, and the great river Pungavena; of Vidisa and Krishna-vena, and Tamra, and Kapila, of Salu, and Suvama, the Vedasva, and the mighty river Harisrava; of Sighra, and Pischala, and the river Bharadvaji, of the river Kausiki, and Sona, and Candrama; of Durgamantrasila, and Brahma-vodhya, and Vrihadvati; of Yaksha, and Rohi, and Yamvunadi; of Sunasa and Tamasa, and Dasi, and Vasa, and Varuna, and Asi; of Nila, and Dhrimati, and the mighty river Parnasa; of Pomasi, and Vrishabha, and Brahma-meddhya, and Vrihaddhani. These and many other large rivers, O king, such as Sadonirmaya and Krishna, and Mandaga, and Mandavahini; and Mahagouri, and Durga, O Bharata; and Citropala. Citraratha, and Manjula, and Vahini; and Mandakini, and Vaitarani, and Kosa, and Mahanadi; and Suktimati, and Ananga, and Pushpaveni, and Utpalavati; and Lohitya, Karatoya, and Vrishasabhya; and Kumari, and Rishikullya and Marisha, and Sarasvati; and Mandakini, and Supunya, Sarvasanga, O Bharata, are all mothers of the universe and productive of great merit. Besides these, there are rivers, by hundreds and thousands, that are not known (by names), I have now recounted to you, O king, all the rivers as far as I remember.

"After this, listen to the names of the provinces as I mention them. They are the Kuru-Pancalas, the Salvas, the Madreyas, the Jangalas, the Surasena, the Kalingas, the Vodhas, the Malas, the Matsyas, the Sauvalyas, the Kuntalas, the Kasi-kosalas, the Cedis, the Karushas, the Bhojas, the Sindhus, the Pulindakas, the Uttamas, the Dasarnas, the Mekalas, the Utkalas; the Pancalas, the Kausijas, the Nikarprishthas, Dhurandharas; the Sodhas, the Madrabhujingas, the Kasis, and the further-Kasis; the Jatharas, the Kukuras, O Bharata; the Kuntis, the Avantis, and the further-Kuntis; the Gomantas, the Mandakas, the Shandas, the Vidarbhas, the Rupavahikas; the Asvakas, the Pansurashtras, the Goparashtras, and the Karityas; the Adhirjayas, the Kuladyas, the Mallarashtras, the Keralas, the Varatrasyas, the Apavahas, the Cakras, the Vakratapas, the Sakas; the Videhas, the Magadhas, the Swakshas, the Malayas, the Vijayas, the Angas, the Vangas, the Kalingas, the Yakrillomans; the Mallas, the Suddellas, the Pranradas, the Mahikas, the Sasikas; the Valhikas, the Vatadhanas, the Abhiras, the Kalajoshakas; the Aparantas, the Parantas, the Pahnabhas, the Carmamandalas; the Atavisikharas, the Mahabhutas, O sire; the Upavrittas, the Anupavrittas, the Surashatras, Kekayas; the Kutas, the Maheyas, the Kakshas, the Samudranishkutas; the Andhras, and, O king, many hilly tribes, and many tribes residing on lands laying at the foot of the hills, and the Angamalajas, and the Manavanjakas; the Pravisheyas, and the Bhargavas, O king; the Pundras, the Bhargas, the Kiratas, the Sudeshnas, and the Yamunas, the Sakas, the Nishadhas, the Anartas, the Nairitas, the Durgalas, the Pratimasyas, the Kuntalas, and the Kusalas; the Tiragrahas, the Ijakas, the Kanyakagunas, the Tilabharas, the Samiras, the Madhumattas, the Sukandakas; the Kasmiras, the Sindhusauviras, the Gandharvas, and the Darsakas; the Abhisaras, the Utulas, the Saivalas, and the Valhikas; the Darvis, the Vanavadarvas, the Vatagas, the Amarathas, and the Uragas; the Vahuvadhas, the Kauravyas, the Sudamanas, the Sumalikas; the Vadhras, the Karishakas, the Kalindas, and the Upatyakas; the Vatayanas, the Romanas, and the Kusavindas; the Kacchas, the Gopalkacchas, the Kuruvarnakas; the Kiratas, the Varvasas, the Siddhas, the Vaidehas, and the Tamraliptas; the Aundras, the Paundras, the Saisikatas, and the Parvatiyas, O sire.

"'There are other kingdoms, O bull of Bharata’s race, in the south. They are the Dravidas, the Keralas, the Pracyas, the Mushikas, and the Vanavashikas; the Karanatakas, the Mahishakas, the Vikalpas, and also the Mushakas; the Jhillikas, the Kuntalas, the Saunridas, and the Nalakananas; the Kankutakas, the Colas, and the Malavayakas; the Samangas, the Kanakas, the Kukkuras, and the Angara-marishas; the Samangas, the Karakas, the Kukuras, the Angaras, the Marishas: the Dhvajinis, the Utsavas, the Sanketas, the Trigartas, and the Salvasena; the Vakas, the Kokarakas, the Pashtris, and the Lamavegavasas; the Vindhyaculakas, the Pulindas, and the Valkalas; the Malavas, the Vallavas, the further-Vallavas, the Kulindas, the Kalavas, the Kuntaukas, and the Karatas; the Mrishakas, the Tanavalas, the Saniyas; the Alidas, the Pasivatas, the Tanayas, and the Sulanyas; the Rishikas, the Vidarbhas, the Kakas, the Tanganas, and the further-Tanganas.

Among the tribes of the north are the Mlecchas, and the Kruras, O best of the Bharatas; the Yavanas, the Cinas, the Kamvojas, the Darunas, and many Mleccha tribes; the Sukritvahas, the Kulatthas, the Hunas, and the Parasikas; the Ramanas, and the Dasamalikas. These countries are, besides, the abodes of many Kshatriya, Vaisya, and Sudra tribes.

Then again there are the Sudra-abhiras, the Dardas, the Kasmiras, and the Pattis; the Khasiras; the Atreyas, the Bharadvajas, the Stanaposhikas, the Poshakas, the Kalingas, and diverse tribes of Kiratas; the Tomaras, the Hansamargas, and the Karamanjakas. These and other kingdoms are on the east and on the north. O lord, alluding to them briefly I have told you all.

Earth, if its resources are properly developed according to its qualities and prowess, is like an ever-yielding[6] cow, from which the three-fold fruits of virtue, profit and pleasure, may be milked. Brave kings conversant with virtue and profit have become covetous of Earth. Endued with activity, they would even cast away their lives in battle, from hunger of wealth. Earth is certainly the refuge of creatures endued with celestial bodies as also of creatures endued with human bodies.[7] Desirous of enjoying Earth, the kings, O chief of the Bharatas, have become like dogs that snatch meat from one another. Their ambition is unbounded, knowing no gratification.[8] It is for this that the Kurus and the Pandavas are striving for possession of Earth, by negotiation, disunion, gift, and battle, O Bharata. If Earth be well looked after, it becomes the father, mother, children, firmament and heaven, of all creatures, O bull among men.'"

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

i.e. mountains forming boundaries of divisions.

[2]:

The Bombay text reads Ikshula and Krimi for "Ikshumlavi" occurring in Bengal texts.

[3]:

The Bengal texts have Gandakincha mahanadim. The Bombay text reads Vandananca mahanadim with a ca immediately before. The Burdwan Pandits read Chandananca mahanadim.

[4]:

The Bombay texts read Tridiva for Niscita; this is incorrect, for Tridiva occurs in the Bombay text itself a little before. The name Lohatarini occurs in various forms.

[5]:

For Vetravati, the Bengal texts read Candrabhaga. Both Candrabhaga and Vetravati, however occur before.

[6]:

Kamadhuk is that species of kine which always yield milk.

[7]:

Nilakantha explains this in this way. The gods depend on sacrifices performed by human beings; and as regards human beings, their food is supplied by the Earth. Superior and inferior creatures, therefore, are all supported by the earth; the Earth then is their refuge. The word Earth in these slokas is sometimes used to signify the world and sometimes the element of that name.

[8]:

I render the last line a little too freely. If the saying is intended to be general, the translation should run thus: "Up to this day there is no man whose desires can be satiated."

Conclusion:

This concludes Section IX of Book 6 (Bhishma Parva) of the Mahabharata, of which an English translation is presented on this page. This book is famous as one of the Itihasa, similair in content to the eighteen Puranas. Book 6 is one of the eighteen books comprising roughly 100,000 Sanskrit metrical verses.

FAQ (frequently asked questions):

Which keywords occur in Section IX of Book 6 of the Mahabharata?

The most relevant definitions are: Bharata, Kiratas, Kuntalas, Marisha, Mleccha, Kshatriya; since these occur the most in Book 6, Section IX. There are a total of 314 unique keywords found in this section mentioned 378 times.

What is the name of the Parva containing Section IX of Book 6?

Section IX is part of the Jambukhanda Nirmana Parva which itself is a sub-section of Book 6 (Bhishma Parva). The Jambukhanda Nirmana Parva contains a total of 10 sections while Book 6 contains a total of 3 such Parvas.

Can I buy a print edition of Section IX as contained in Book 6?

Yes! The print edition of the Mahabharata contains the English translation of Section IX of Book 6 and can be bought on the main page. The author is Kisari Mohan Ganguli and the latest edition (including Section IX) is from 2012.

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