The Garuda Purana

by Manmatha Nath Dutt | 1908 | 245,256 words | ISBN-13: 9788183150736

The English translation of the Garuda Purana: contents include a creation theory, description of vratas (religious observances), sacred holidays, sacred places dedicated to the sun, but also prayers from the Tantrika ritual, addressed to the sun, to Shiva, and to Vishnu. The Garuda Purana also contains treatises on astrology, palmistry, and preci...

Chapter VI - Re-incarnation of Daksha in the form of Prachetas

Origin of the different races of men, the progeny of Kashyapa described

Hari said:—Uttanapada begat a son on Suruchi by name Uttama and another on Suniti by name Dhruva who attained to the most exalted station, having adored Janarddana, the god of gods, by the favour of the ascetic. Dhruva’s son Shnisthi was greatly strong and highly powerful. And his son was the greatly intelligent Prachinavarhi. His son was Divanjaya whose son was Ripu. His son was known as the beautiful Manu Chakshusha. His son was Ruru whose son was the beautiful Anga. Anga’s son wras Vena who was an atheist and an irreligious person. Vena, the perpetrator of iniquities, was killed by the Rishis with Kusha. They then churned his thigh for a son and thereat sprang a son, greatly dwarfish and black. They then said “sit down, sit down” and he was called Nishada dwelling on the mount Vindhya. Then the twice-born ones suddenly churned his right thigh. From there sprang a son assuming the mental form of Vishnu, by name Prithu. By that son Vena repaired to the celestial region. The king milched the earth, for giving life to his subjects.

Prithu’s son was Antarddhana whose son again was Havirdhana. His son Prachinavarhi became the Lord Paramount of the world. He espoused the daughter of the ocean of salt water and begat on her ten Prachinavarhis who were called Prachetas and were masters of the science of archery. They all practised the same religious austerities and remained immersed in the bed of the deep for ten thousand years. They attained to the dignity of the Patriarchs; and their wife was Marisha. Of her was born Daksha by the imprecation of Bhava.

As before Daksha again created four classes of beings from his mind. Obstructed by Hara they did not multiply. The Patriarch then desired to carry on the work of creation by sexual intercourse. He then espoused Asikni, the daughter of the Patrirch Varuna. He begat on the daughter of Varuna a thousand sons. The end of the earth being described by Narada they went there to learn it and did not return. On their being lost Daksha created another thousand, named Savalakha, who also followed the foot-steps of their brothers, O Hara. Worked up with anger Daksha cursed Narada saying “You will obtain a birth” and he was again born as the son of the ascetic Kashyapa. On his sacrifice being destroyed Daksha imprecated the terrific Maheshvara, saying “Having worshipped thee with necessary articles the twice born will leave them aside. Even in another birth, your hostilities will not terminate, O Shankara.”

Daksha begat on Asikni sixty beautiful daughters. He gave away two of them unto Angiras. He conferred two on Krishashva, ten on Dharma, thirteen on Kashyapa and twenty seven on Indu. He conferred Suprabha and Bhamini on Vahuputra. And O Mahadeva, he gave unto Aristhanemi, his four daughters viz Manorama, Bhanumati, Vishala and Vahuda. He conferred on Krishashva Supraja and Jaya.

Arundhati, Vasu, Yami, Lamva, Bhanu, Marutvati, Sangkalpa, Muhurta, Sadhya, Vishva, these ten are known as the wives of Dharma. I will now describe the names of the wives of Kashyapa. They were Aditi, Diti, Danu, Kala, Anayu, Sinhika, Muni, Kadru, Pradha, Ira, Krodha, Vinata, Surabhi and Khaga. Vishva gave birth to Vishvadevas and Sadhya to Sadhyas; Murutvati to Marudyant and Vasu to Vasus. From Bhanu were born the Bhanus and from Muhurtta the Muhurttas. Ghosa was born of Lamva and Nagavithi (milkway) was born of Yami (night). All the objects of the world were born of Arundhati and Sankalpa (pious determination) was the son of Sankalpa. Apa, Dhruva, Soma, Dhava, Anila, Anala, Pratyusha and Prabhasa are the names of the Vasus.

Apa’s son were Vaitundya, Srama (weariness), Sranta (fatigue) and Dhani. And the son of Dhruva was the great Kala (Time) the cherisher of the world. The son of Soma was Varchas (light) by whom was generated Varchaswi (radiance). Dhava begat on his wife Manohara Ruhina, Hutahavya, Shishira, Prana and Ramana. Anila’s wife was Shiva. Her son was Pulomya and Avijnatagati (unknowable motion). These were the two sons of Anila. The son of Agni, Kumara, was born in a dump of Sara reeds whose sons were Shakha, Vishakha, Naigameya and Prishtata. The son of Kirtikas was known as Kartikeya. Pratyusha’s son was the ascetic Davala. Vishvakarma, the celebrated architect of the celestials, was the son of Prabhasa. His sons were Ajaikapada, Ahirvadhna, Twastri and Rudra, all very energetic. And the own begotten son of Twastri was the great ascetic Vishvarupa. There are eleven Rudras, the lords of the three worlds. They are Hara, Vahurupa, Tryamvaka, Aparajita, Vrishakapi, Shambhu, Kapardi, Raivata, Mrigavyadha, Sarva, and Kapali, O great ascetic. Soma's wives were twenty seven in number known as stars. Kashyapa begat on Aditi twelve suns. Vishnu, Shakra, Aryama, Dhata, Tvastha, Pusha, Vivashvan, Savita, Mitra, Varuna, Angshuman and Bhaga—these were the twelve Adityas.

Hiranyakashipu and Hiranyaksha were born of Diti. A daughter, by name Sinhika, was also born who was married to Viprachitti. Hiranyakashipu had four very powerful sons viz., Anuhlada, Hlada, the powerful Pralhada and Sanghlada. Of them Pralhada was devoted to Vishnu. The sons of Sanghlada were Sivi, Ayushman and Vashkala. Pralhada,’s son was Virochana who begat Bali, who again had a hundred sons of whom Vana was the oldest, O bull-emblemed deity.

All the sons of Hiranyakasha were also gifted with great prowess—Utkara, Shakoni, Bhutasantapana, Mahanabha, Mahavahu and Kalanabha.

Danu’s sons were Dvimurdha, Shankara, Ayomukha, Shankusira, Kapila, Samvara, Ekachakra, Mahavahu, the highly powerful Taraka, Svarbhanu, Vrishaparva, the great Asura Puloma and the mighty Viprachitti.

Svarbhanu had a daughter by name Suprabha and Sarmistha was the daughter of Vrishaparvan who had two other celebrated daughters, namely Upadanavi and Hayasira. Vaishvanara had two daughters named Puloma and Kalaka who were both married to Maricha, They gave birth to sixty thousand sons, the leading Danavas. Poulamas and Kala Kanjas are known as the sons of Maricha.

Viprachitti begat on Sinhika Vyansha, Shalya the strong, Nabha the powerful, Vatapi, Namuchi, Itvala, Khasrima, Anjaka, Naraka, and Kalanabha.

In the family of the Daitya Pralhada the Nivatakavachas were born. Six daughters, gifted with great energy, were born to Tamra, named Shuki, Syeni, Bhasi, Sugrivi, Suchi and Gridhrika. Shuki gave birth to parrots, owls and crows; Syeni to hawks; Bhasi to kites; Gridhrika to vultures; Suchi to water-fowl; Sugrivi to horses, camels and asses. These are known as the offspring of Tamra.

Vinata gave birth to two sons celebrated as Garuda and Aruna. The offspring of Surasa were a thousand powerful serpents. Kadru had also a thousand sons—many-hooded serpents of unmitigated prowess. The most celebrated amongst them were Shesha, Vasuki, Takshaka, Shanka, Sveta, Mahapadma, Kumvala, Ashvatara, Elapatra, Naga, Karkota, Dhananjaya and many other deadly and poisonous serpents.

Krodha gave birth to highly powerful Pishachas. Surabhi gave birth to kine and buffaloes. Ira gave birth to trees, creepers, grass &c. Khaga gave birth to Yakshas and Rakashas and Muni to Apsaras. Aristha.gave birth to highly powerful Gandharvas.

Then were born the deities Maruts, forty nine in number, viz., Ekajyoti, Duryyoti, Trijyoti, Chaturjyoti, Ekashukra, Dvishukra, the highly powerful Trishukra, Idrik, Anyadrik,, Sadrik, Pratisadrik, Mita, Samila, the highly powerful Sumita, Ritajit, Satyajit, Sushena, Senajit, Atimitra, Amitra, Dura-mitra, Ajila, Rita, Ritadharma, Viharta, Varuna, Dhruva, Vidharana, Grihamekagana, Idriksha, Sadriksha, Etadriksha, Mita, Shana, Etana, Prasadnksha, Sutra, the great ascetic Tadngugra, Dhvannibhasa, Vimukta, Vikshipa, Dyuti, Vasu, Valadrishya, Labha, Kama, Jayi, Virat, Udveshana and Guna. They all ride the wind. These all are the forms of Hari. All the kings, Danavas and the celestials adore Hari with mystic formulas along with the sun and other members of the family.

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