The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad

The Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad (with the Commentary of Śaṅkarācārya)

by Swāmī Mādhavānanda | 1950 | 272,359 words | ISBN-10: 8175051027

This Upanishad is widely known for its philosophical statements and is ascribed to Yajnavalkya. It looks at reality as being indescribable and its nature to be infinite and consciousness-bliss. Ethics revolve around the five Yajnas or sacrifices. This book includes the english translation of the Bhāṣya of Śaṅkara. The Shankara-Bhashya is the most ...

Section VII - Yajnavalkya and Uddalaka

Verse 3.7.1:

अथ हैनमूद्दालक आरुणिः पप्रच्छ; याज्ञवल्क्येति होवाच, मद्रेष्ववसाम पतञ्चलस्य काप्यस्य गृहेषु यज्ञमधीयानाः; तस्यासीद्भार्या गन्धर्वगृहीता, तमपृच्छाम कोऽसीति; सोऽब्रवीत्कबन्ध आथर्वण इति; सोऽब्रवीत्पतञ्चलं काप्यं याज्ञिकांश्च, वेत्थ नु त्वम् काप्य तत्सूत्रं येनायं च लोकः परश्च लोकः सर्वाणि च भूतानि संदृब्धानि भवन्तीति; सोऽब्रवीत्पतञ्चलः काप्यः, नाहं तद्भगवन्वेदेति, सोऽब्रवीत्पतञ्चलं काप्यं याज्ञिकांश्चः, वेत्थ नु त्वम् काप्य तमन्तर्यामिणं य इमं च लोकं परं च लोकं सर्वाणि च भूतानि योऽन्तरो यमयतीति; सोऽब्रवीत्पतञ्चलः काप्यः, नाहं तं भगवन्वेदेति; सोऽब्रवीत्पतञ्चलं काप्यं याज्ञिकांश्च, यो वै तत्काप्य सूत्रं विद्यात्तं चान्तर्यामिणमिति स ब्रह्मवित्, स लोकवित्, स देववित्, स वेदवित्, स भूतवित्, स आत्मवित्, स सर्वविदिति; तेभ्योऽब्रवीत्; तदहं वेद; तच्चेत्त्वम् याज्ञवल्क्य सूत्रमविद्वांस्तं चान्तर्यामिणं ब्रह्मगवीरुदजसे, मूर्धा ते विपतिष्यतीति; वेद वा अहं गौतम तत्सूत्रं तं चान्तर्यामिणमिति; यो वा इदं कश्चिद्ब्रूयाद्वेद वेदेति, यथा वेत्थ तथा ब्रूहीति ॥ १ ॥

atha hainamūddālaka āruṇiḥ papraccha; yājñavalkyeti hovāca, madreṣvavasāma patañcalasya kāpyasya gṛheṣu yajñamadhīyānāḥ; tasyāsīdbhāryā gandharvagṛhītā, tamapṛcchāma ko'sīti; so'bravītkabandha ātharvaṇa iti; so'bravītpatañcalaṃ kāpyaṃ yājñikāṃśca, vettha nu tvam kāpya tatsūtraṃ yenāyaṃ ca lokaḥ paraśca lokaḥ sarvāṇi ca bhūtāni saṃdṛbdhāni bhavantīti; so'bravītpatañcalaḥ kāpyaḥ, nāhaṃ tadbhagavanvedeti, so'bravītpatañcalaṃ kāpyaṃ yājñikāṃścaḥ, vettha nu tvam kāpya tamantaryāmiṇaṃ ya imaṃ ca lokaṃ paraṃ ca lokaṃ sarvāṇi ca bhūtāni yo'ntaro yamayatīti; so'bravītpatañcalaḥ kāpyaḥ, nāhaṃ taṃ bhagavanvedeti; so'bravītpatañcalaṃ kāpyaṃ yājñikāṃśca, yo vai tatkāpya sūtraṃ vidyāttaṃ cāntaryāmiṇamiti sa brahmavit, sa lokavit, sa devavit, sa vedavit, sa bhūtavit, sa ātmavit, sa sarvaviditi; tebhyo'bravīt; tadahaṃ veda; taccettvam yājñavalkya sūtramavidvāṃstaṃ cāntaryāmiṇaṃ brahmagavīrudajase, mūrdhā te vipatiṣyatīti; veda vā ahaṃ gautama tatsūtraṃ taṃ cāntaryāmiṇamiti; yo vā idaṃ kaścidbrūyādveda vedeti, yathā vettha tathā brūhīti || 1 ||

1. Then Uddālaka, the son of Aruṇa, asked him. ‘Yājñavalkya,’ he said, ‘in Madra we lived in the house of Patañcala Kāpya (descendant of Kapi), studying the scriptures on sacrifices. His wife was possessed by a Gandharva. We asked him who he was. He said, “Kabandha, the son of Atharvan.” He said to Patañcala Kāpya and those who studied the scriptures on sacrifices, “Kāpya, do you know that Sūtra[1] by which this life, the next life, and all beings are held together?” Patañcala Kāpya said, “I do not know it, sir.” The Gandharva said to him and the students, “Kāpya, do you know that Internal Ruler who controls this and the next life and all beings from within?” Patañcala Kāpya said, “I do not know Him, sir.” The Gandharva said to him and the students, “He who knows that Sūtra and that Internal Ruler as above indeed knows Brahman, knows the worlds, knows the gods, knows the Vedas, knows the beings, knows the self, and knows everything.” He explained it all to them. I know it. If you, Yājñavalkya, do not know that Sūtra and that Internal Ruler, and still take away the cows that belong only to the knowers of Brahman, your head shall fall off.’ ‘I know, O Gautama, that Sūtra and that Internal Ruler.’ ‘Any one can say, “I know, I know.” Tell us what you know.’

Now the Sūtra, the innermost entity of the world of Hiraṇyagarbha, has to be described; hence this section. This Sūtra should be approached through oral instruction, which is therefore being introduced through an anecdote: Then Uddālaka, the son of Aruṇa, asked him.Yājñavalkya,’ he said, ‘in the territory called Madra we lived in the house of Patañcala Kāpya—of the line of Kapi—studying the scriptures on sacrifices. His wife was possessed by a Gandharva. We asked him who he was. He said, “Kabandha, the son of Atharvan.” He, the Gandharva, said to Patañcala Kāpya and his pupils who studied the scriptures on sacrifices,Kāpya, do you know that Sūtra by which this life, the next life and all beings, from Virāj down to a clump of grass, are held together, strung like a garland with a thread?” Thus addressed, Kāpya reverentially said, “I do not know it, the Sūtra, sir.” The Gandharva again said to the teacher and us: Kāpya, do you know that Internal Ruler—this is being specified—who controls this and the next life and all beings from within, causes them to move like wooden puppets, i.e. makes them perform their respective functions? Thus addressed, Patañcala Kāpya reverentially said, “I do not know Him, sir.” The Gandharva again said—this is in praise of the meditation on the Sūtra and the Internal Ruler within it—“Kāpya, he who knows that Sūtra and that Internal Ruler who is within the Sūtra and governs it, as described above, indeed knows Brahman or the Supreme Self, knows the worlds such as the earth controlled by the Internal Ruler, knows the gods such as Fire presiding over those worlds, knows the Vedas, which are the authority for all, knows the beings such as Hiraṇyagarbha[2] and the rest, who are held together by the Sūtra and controlled by the Internal Ruler who is within it, knows the self, which is the agent and experiencer and is controlled by the same Internal Ruler, and knows everything—the whole world also similarly controlled.” This praise of the meditation on the Sūtra and the Internal Ruler tempted Kāpya and us to hear of it; and the Gandharva explained the Sūtra and the Internal Ruler to them and us. I know this meditation on the Sūtra and the Internal Ruler, having been instructed by the Gandharva. If you, Yājñavalkya, do not know that Sūtra and that Internal Ruler, i.e. do not know Brahman, and still wrongly take away the cows that belong only to the knowers of Brahman, I will burn you with my curses, and your head shall fall off.’ Thus addressed, Yājñavalkya said, ‘I know, O Gautama (descendant of Gotama), that Sūtra about which the Gandharva told you, and that Internal Ruler about whom you have known from him.’ At this Gautama retorted: ‘Any one, any fool, can say what you have said—what ?—“I know, I know,” lauding himself. What is the good of that bluster? Show it in action; tell tfs what you know about them.’

 

Verse 3.7.2:

स होवाच, वायुर्वै गौतम तत्सूत्रम्; वायुना वै गौतम सूत्रेणायं च लोकः परश्च लोकः सर्वाणि च भूतानि संदृब्धानि भवन्ति; तस्माद्वै गौतम पुरुषं प्रेतमाहुर्व्यस्रंसिषतास्याङ्गानीति; वायुना हि गौतम सूत्रेण संदृब्धानि भवन्तीति; एवमेवैतद्याज्ञवल्क्य, अन्तर्यामिणं ब्रूहीति ॥ २ ॥

sa hovāca, vāyurvai gautama tatsūtram; vāyunā vai gautama sūtreṇāyaṃ ca lokaḥ paraśca lokaḥ sarvāṇi ca bhūtāni saṃdṛbdhāni bhavanti; tasmādvai gautama puruṣaṃ pretamāhurvyasraṃsiṣatāsyāṅgānīti; vāyunā hi gautama sūtreṇa saṃdṛbdhāni bhavantīti; evamevaitadyājñavalkya, antaryāmiṇaṃ brūhīti || 2 ||

2. He said, ‘Vāyu, O Gautama, is that Sūtra. Through this Sūtra or Vāyu this and the next life and all beings are held together. Therefore, O Gautama, when a man dies, they say that his limbs have been loosened, for they are held together, O Gautama, by the Sūtra or Vāyu.’ ‘Quite so, Yājñavalkya. Now describe the Internal Ruler.’

He, Yājñavalkya, said, etc. The Sūtra, by which the world of Hiraṇyagarbha is at the present moment pervaded, as earth by water, and which can be known only through oral instruction, has to be described. It is for this that Uddālaka's question in the preceding para-graph has been introduced. So Yājñavalkya answers it by saying, ‘Vāyu, O Gautama, is that Sūtra, and nothing else.’ ‘Vāyu’ is that subtle entity which like the ether supports earth etc., which is the material of the subtle body—with its seventeen constituents[3]—in which the past actions and impressions of beings inhere, which is collective as well as individual, and whose external forms, like the waves of an ocean, are the forty-nine Maruts. That principle of Vāyu is called the Sūtra. ‘Through this Sūtra or Vāyu this and the next life and all beings are held or strung together. This is well known (to those who know the Sūtra); it is also common knowledge. How? Because Vāyu is the Sūtra and supports everything, therefore, O Gautama, when a man dies, they say that his limbs have been loosened.’ When the thread (Sūtra) is gone, gems etc. that are strung on it are scattered; similarly Vāyu is the Sūtra. If the limbs of a man are strung on it, like gems on a thread, it is but natural that they will be loosened when Vāyu is gone. Hence it is concluded: ‘For they are held together, O Gautama, by the Sūtra or Vāyu.’ ‘Quite Yājñvalkya, you have rightly described the Sūtra. Now describe the Internal Ruler, who is within it and controls it.’. Thus addressed, Yājñavalkya said:

 

Verse 3.7.3:

यः पृथिव्यां तिष्ठन्पृथिव्या अन्तरः, यं पृथिवी न वेद, यस्य पृथिवी शरीरं, यः पृथिवीमन्तरो यमयति, एष त आत्मान्तर्याम्यमृतः ॥ ३ ॥

yaḥ pṛthivyāṃ tiṣṭhanpṛthivyā antaraḥ, yaṃ pṛthivī na veda, yasya pṛthivī śarīraṃ, yaḥ pṛthivīmantaro yamayati, eṣa ta ātmāntaryāmyamṛtaḥ || 3 ||

3. He who inhabits the earth but is within it, whom the earth does not know, whose body is the earth, and who controls the earth from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

He who inhabits the earth.... is the Internal Ruler. Now all people inhabit the earth; so there may be a presumption that the reference is to anyone of them. To preclude this the text specifies Him by saying, ‘Who is within the earth.’ One may think that the deity identified with the earth is the Internal Ruler; hence the text says, ‘Whom even the deity identified with the earth does not know as a distinct entity dwelling within her.’ Whose body is the earth itself and none other—whose body is the same as that of the deity of the earth. The ‘body’ implies other things as well; i.e. the organs of this deity are also those of the Internal Ruler. The body and organs of the deity of the earth are the result of her own past actions; they are the body and organs of the Internal Ruler as well, for He has no past actions, being ever free. Since He is by nature given to doing things for others, the body and organs of the latter serve as His; He has no body and organs of His own. This is expressed as follows: ‘Whose body is the earth.’ The body and# organs of the deity of the earth are regularly made to work or stop work by the mere presence of the Lord as witness. Such an īśvara, called Nāràyana, who controls the deity of the earth, i.e. directs her to her particular work, from within, is the Internal Ruler about whom you have asked, your own immortal self, as also mine and that of all beings. ‘Your’ implies ‘others’ as well. ‘Immortal,’ that is to say, devoid of all relative attributes.

 

Verse 3.7.4:

योऽप्सु तिष्ठन्नद्भ्योऽन्तरः, यमापो न विदुः, यस्यापः शरीरम्, योऽपोऽन्तरो यमयति, एष त आत्माऽन्तर्याम्यमृतः ॥ ४ ॥

yo'psu tiṣṭhannadbhyo'ntaraḥ, yamāpo na viduḥ, yasyāpaḥ śarīram, yo'po'ntaro yamayati, eṣa ta ātmā'ntaryāmyamṛtaḥ || 4 ||

4. He who inhabits water but is within it, whom water does not know, whose body is water, and who controls water from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

 

Verse 3.7.5:

योऽग्नौ तिष्ठन्नग्नेरन्तरः, यमग्निर्न वेद, यस्याग्निः शरीरम्, योऽग्निमन्तरो यमयति, एष त आत्मान्तर्याम्यमृतः ॥ ५ ॥

yo'gnau tiṣṭhannagnerantaraḥ, yamagnirna veda, yasyāgniḥ śarīram, yo'gnimantaro yamayati, eṣa ta ātmāntaryāmyamṛtaḥ || 5 ||

5. He who inhabits fire but is within it, whom fire does not know, whose body is fire, and who controls fire from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

 

Verse 3.7.6:

योऽन्तरिक्शे तिष्ठन्नन्तरिक्शादन्तरः, यमन्तरिक्शं न वेद, यस्यान्तरिक्शं शरीरं, योऽन्तरिक्शमन्तरो यमयति, एष त आत्मान्तर्याम्यमृतः ॥ ६ ॥

yo'ntarikśe tiṣṭhannantarikśādantaraḥ, yamantarikśaṃ na veda, yasyāntarikśaṃ śarīraṃ, yo'ntarikśamantaro yamayati, eṣa ta ātmāntaryāmyamṛtaḥ || 6 ||

6. He who inhabits the sky but is within it, whom the sky does not know, whose body is the sky, and who controls the sky from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

 

Verse 3.7.7:

यो वायौ तिष्ठन्वायोरन्तरः, यं वायुर्न वेद, यस्य वायुः शरीरम्, यो वायुमन्तरो यमयति, एष त आत्मान्तर्याम्यमृतः ॥ ७ ॥

yo vāyau tiṣṭhanvāyorantaraḥ, yaṃ vāyurna veda, yasya vāyuḥ śarīram, yo vāyumantaro yamayati, eṣa ta ātmāntaryāmyamṛtaḥ || 7 ||

7. He who inhabits the air but is within it, whom the air does not know, whose body is the air, and who controls the air from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

 

Verse 3.7.8:

यो दिवि तिष्ठन्दिवोऽन्तरः, यं द्यौर्न वेद, यस्य द्यौः शरीरं, यो दिवमन्तरो यमयति, एष त आत्मान्तर्याम्यमृतः ॥ ८ ॥

yo divi tiṣṭhandivo'ntaraḥ, yaṃ dyaurna veda, yasya dyauḥ śarīraṃ, yo divamantaro yamayati, eṣa ta ātmāntaryāmyamṛtaḥ || 8 ||

8. He who inhabits heaven but is within it, whom heaven does not know, whose body is heaven, and who controls heaven from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self,

 

Verse 3.7.9:

य आदित्ये तिष्ठन्नादित्यादन्तरः, यमादित्यो न वेद, यस्यादित्यः शरीरम्, य आदित्यमन्तरो यमयति, एष त आत्मान्तर्याम्यमृतः ॥ ९ ॥

ya āditye tiṣṭhannādityādantaraḥ, yamādityo na veda, yasyādityaḥ śarīram, ya ādityamantaro yamayati, eṣa ta ātmāntaryāmyamṛtaḥ || 9 ||

9. He who inhabits the sun but is within it, whom the sun does not know, whose body is the sun, and who controls the sun from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

 

Verse 3.7.10:

यो दिक्शु तिष्ठन्दिग्भ्योऽन्तरः, यं दिशो न विदुः, यस्य दिशः शरीरम्, यो दिशोऽन्तरो यमयति, एष त आत्मान्तर्याम्यमृतः ॥ १० ॥

yo dikśu tiṣṭhandigbhyo'ntaraḥ, yaṃ diśo na viduḥ, yasya diśaḥ śarīram, yo diśo'ntaro yamayati, eṣa ta ātmāntaryāmyamṛtaḥ || 10 ||

10. He who inhabits the quarters but is within them, whom the quarters do not know, whose body is the quarters, and who controls the quarters from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

 

Verse 3.7.11:

यश्चन्द्रतारके तिष्ठंश्चन्द्रतारकादन्तरः, यं चन्द्रतारकं न वेद, यस्य चन्द्रतारकं शरीरम्, यश्चन्द्रतारकमन्तरो यमयति, एष त आत्मान्तर्याम्यमृतः ॥ ११ ॥

yaścandratārake tiṣṭhaṃścandratārakādantaraḥ, yaṃ candratārakaṃ na veda, yasya candratārakaṃ śarīram, yaścandratārakamantaro yamayati, eṣa ta ātmāntaryāmyamṛtaḥ || 11 ||

11. He who inhabits the moon and stars but is within them, whom the moon and stars do not know, whose body is the moon and stars, and who controls the moon and stars from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

 

Verse 3.7.12:

य आकाशे तिष्ठन्नाकाशादन्तरः, यमाकाशो न वेद, यस्याकाशः शरीरम्, य आकाशमन्तरो यमयति, एष त आत्मान्तर्याम्यमृतः ॥ १२ ॥

ya ākāśe tiṣṭhannākāśādantaraḥ, yamākāśo na veda, yasyākāśaḥ śarīram, ya ākāśamantaro yamayati, eṣa ta ātmāntaryāmyamṛtaḥ || 12 ||

12. He who inhabits the ether but is within it, whom the ether does not know, whose body is the ether, and who controls the ether from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

 

Verse 3.7.13:

यस्तमसि तिष्ठंस्तमसोऽन्तरः, यं तमो न वेद, यस्य तमः शरीरम्, यस्तमोऽन्तरो यमयति, एष त आत्मान्तर्याम्यमृतः ॥ १३ ॥

yastamasi tiṣṭhaṃstamaso'ntaraḥ, yaṃ tamo na veda, yasya tamaḥ śarīram, yastamo'ntaro yamayati, eṣa ta ātmāntaryāmyamṛtaḥ || 13 ||

13. He who inhabits darkness but is within it, whom darkness does not know, whose body is darkness, and who controls darkness from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

 

Verse 3.7.14:

यस्तेजसि तिष्ठंस्तेजसोऽन्तरः, यं तेजो न वेद, यस्य तेजः शरीरम्, यस्तेजोऽन्तरो यमयति, एष त आत्मान्तर्याम्यमृतः—इत्यधिदैवतम्; अथाधिभूतम् ॥ १४ ॥

yastejasi tiṣṭhaṃstejaso'ntaraḥ, yaṃ tejo na veda, yasya tejaḥ śarīram, yastejo'ntaro yamayati, eṣa ta ātmāntaryāmyamṛtaḥ—ityadhidaivatam; athādhibhūtam || 14 ||

14. He who inhabits light but is within it, whom light does not know, whose body is light, and who controls light from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self. This much with reference to the gods. Now with reference to the beings.

The rest is to be similarly explained. inhabits water, fire, the sky, the air, heaven, the sun, the quarters, the moon and stars, the ether, darkness—the external darkness which obstructs vision, and light, light in general, which is the opposite of darkness. This much with reference to the gods, i.e. the meditation on the Internal Ruler as pertaining to the gods. Now with reference to the beings, i.e. the meditation on the Internal Ruler as pertaining to the different grades of beings from Hiraṇyagarbha down to a clump of grass.

 

Verse 3.7.15:

यः सर्वेषु भूतेषु तिष्ठन् सर्वेभ्यो भूतेभ्योऽन्तरः, यं सर्वाणि भूतानि न विदुः, यस्य सर्वाणि भुतानि शरीरम्, यः सर्वाणि भूतान्यन्तरो यमयति, एष त आत्मान्तर्याम्यमृतः—इत्यधिभूतम्; अथाध्यात्मम् ॥ १५ ॥

yaḥ sarveṣu bhūteṣu tiṣṭhan sarvebhyo bhūtebhyo'ntaraḥ, yaṃ sarvāṇi bhūtāni na viduḥ, yasya sarvāṇi bhutāni śarīram, yaḥ sarvāṇi bhūtānyantaro yamayati, eṣa ta ātmāntaryāmyamṛtaḥ—ityadhibhūtam; athādhyātmam || 15 ||

15. He who inhabits all beings but is within them, whom no being knows, whose body is all beings, and who controls all beings from within,. is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self. This much with reference to the beings. Now with reference to the body.

 

Verse 3.7.16:

यः प्राणे तिष्ठन्प्राणादन्तरः, यं प्राणो न वेद, यस्य प्राणः शरीरम्, यः प्राणमन्तरो यमयति, एष त आत्मान्तर्याम्यमृतः ॥ १६ ॥

yaḥ prāṇe tiṣṭhanprāṇādantaraḥ, yaṃ prāṇo na veda, yasya prāṇaḥ śarīram, yaḥ prāṇamantaro yamayati, eṣa ta ātmāntaryāmyamṛtaḥ || 16 ||

16. He who inhabits the nose but is within it, whom the nose does not know, whose body is the nose, and who controls the nose from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

 

Verse 3.7.17:

यो वाचि तिष्ठन्वाचोऽन्तरः, यं वाङ् न वेद, यस्य वाक् शरीरम्, यो वाचमन्तरो यमयति, एष त आत्मान्तर्याम्यमृतः ॥ १७ ॥

yo vāci tiṣṭhanvāco'ntaraḥ, yaṃ vāṅ na veda, yasya vāk śarīram, yo vācamantaro yamayati, eṣa ta ātmāntaryāmyamṛtaḥ || 17 ||

17. He who inhabits the organ of speech but is within it, whom the organ of speech does not know, whose body is the organ of speech, and who controls the organ of speech from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

 

Verse 3.7.18:

यश्चक्शुषि तिष्ठंश्चक्शुषोऽन्तरः, यं चक्शुर्न वेद, यस्य चक्शुः शरीरम्, यश्चक्शुरन्तरो यमयति, एष त आत्मान्तर्याम्यमृतः ॥ १८ ॥

yaścakśuṣi tiṣṭhaṃścakśuṣo'ntaraḥ, yaṃ cakśurna veda, yasya cakśuḥ śarīram, yaścakśurantaro yamayati, eṣa ta ātmāntaryāmyamṛtaḥ || 18 ||

18. He who inhabits the eye but is within it, whom the eye does not know, whose body is the eye, and who controls the eye from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

 

Verse 3.7.19:

यः श्रोत्रे तिष्ठञ्छ्रोत्रादन्तरः, यं श्रोत्रं न वेद, यस्य श्रोत्रं शरीरम्, यः श्रोत्रमन्तरो यमयति, स एष त आत्मान्तर्याम्यमृतः ॥ १९ ॥

yaḥ śrotre tiṣṭhañchrotrādantaraḥ, yaṃ śrotraṃ na veda, yasya śrotraṃ śarīram, yaḥ śrotramantaro yamayati, sa eṣa ta ātmāntaryāmyamṛtaḥ || 19 ||

19. He who inhabits the ear but is within it, whom the ear does not know, whose body is the ear, and who controls the ear from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

 

Verse 3.7.20:

यो मनसि तिष्ठन्मनसो'न्तरः, यं मनो न वेद, यस्य मनः शरीरम्, यो मनो'न्तरो यमयति, एष त आत्मान्तर्याम्यमृतः ॥ 20 ॥

yo manasi tiṣṭhanmanaso'ntaraḥ, yaṃ mano na veda, yasya manaḥ śarīram, yo mano'ntaro yamayati, eṣa ta ātmāntaryāmyamṛtaḥ || 20 ||

20. He who inhabits the mind (Manas) but is within it, whom the mind does not know, whose body is the mind, and who controls the mind from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

 

Verse 3.7.21:

यस्त्वचि तिष्ठंस्त्वचोऽन्तरः, यं त्वङ् न वेद, यस्य त्वक् शरीरम्, यस्त्वचमन्तरो यमयति, एष त आत्मान्तर्याम्यमृतः ॥ २१ ॥

yastvaci tiṣṭhaṃstvaco'ntaraḥ, yaṃ tvaṅ na veda, yasya tvak śarīram, yastvacamantaro yamayati, eṣa ta ātmāntaryāmyamṛtaḥ || 21 ||

21. He who inhabits the skin but is within it, whom the skin does not know, whose body is the skin, and who controls the skin from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

 

Verse 3.7.22:

यो विज्ञाने तिष्ठन्विज्ञानादन्तरः, यं विज्ञानं न वेद, यस्य विज्ञानं शरीरम्, यो विज्ञानमन्तरो यमयति, एष त आत्मान्तर्याम्यमृतः ॥ २२ ॥

yo vijñāne tiṣṭhanvijñānādantaraḥ, yaṃ vijñānaṃ na veda, yasya vijñānaṃ śarīram, yo vijñānamantaro yamayati, eṣa ta ātmāntaryāmyamṛtaḥ || 22 ||

22. He who inhabits the intellect but is within it, whom the intellect does not know, whose body is the intellect, and who controls the intellect from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self.

 

Verse 3.7.23:

यो रेतसि तिष्ठन् रेतसोऽन्तरः, यं रेतो न वेद, यस्य रेतः शरीरम्, यो रेतोऽन्तरो यमयति, एष त आत्माऽन्तर्याम्यमृतः; अदृष्टो द्रष्टा, अश्रुतः श्रोता, अमतो मन्ता, अविज्ञतो विज्ञाता; नान्योऽतोऽस्ति द्रष्टा, नान्योऽतोऽस्ति श्रोता, नान्योऽतोऽस्ति मन्ता, नान्योऽतोऽस्ति विज्ञात, एष त आत्मान्तर्याम्यमृतः, अतोऽन्यदार्तम्; ततो होद्दालक आरुणिरुपरराम ॥ २३ ॥
इति सप्तमं ब्राह्मणम् ॥

yo retasi tiṣṭhan retaso'ntaraḥ, yaṃ reto na veda, yasya retaḥ śarīram, yo reto'ntaro yamayati, eṣa ta ātmā'ntaryāmyamṛtaḥ; adṛṣṭo draṣṭā, aśrutaḥ śrotā, amato mantā, avijñato vijñātā; nānyo'to'sti draṣṭā, nānyo'to'sti śrotā, nānyo'to'sti mantā, nānyo'to'sti vijñāta, eṣa ta ātmāntaryāmyamṛtaḥ, ato'nyadārtam; tato hoddālaka āruṇirupararāma || 23 ||
iti saptamaṃ brāhmaṇam ||

23. He who inhabits the organ of generation but is within it, whom the organ does not know, whose body is the organ, and who controls the organ from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self. He is never seen, but is the Witness; He is never heard, but is the Hearer; He is never thought, but is the Thinker; He is never known, but is the Knower. There is no other witness but Him, no other hearer but Him, no other thinker but Him, no other knower but Him. He is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self. Everything else but Him îs mortal. Thereupon Uddālaka, the son of Aruṇa, kept silent.

Now with reference to the body. He who inhabits the nose together with the vital force, the organ of speech, the eye, the ear, the mind (Manas), the skin, the intellect and the organ of generation (lit. the seed). Why is it that the deities of the earth etc., in spite of their exceptional powers, fail to see, like men etc., the Internal Ruler who lives in them and controls them? This is being answered: He is never seen, never the object of anybody’s ocular perception, but being close to the eye as Pure Intelligence, He Himself is the Witness. Similar He is never heard, or perceived by anybody through the ear, but He Himself, with His never-failing power of hearing, is the Hearer, being dose to all ears. Likewise He is never thought, never becomes the object of deliberation by the mind, for people think of those things that they have seen or heard, and the Internal Ruler, never being seen or heard, is never thought; but He is the Thinker, for His thinking power never wanes, and He is close to all minds. Similarly He is never known or definitely grasped like colour etc., or like pleasure and so forth; but He Himself is the Knower, tor His intelligence never fails, and He is close to the intellect. Now the statements, ‘Whom the earth does not know,’ and ‘Whom no being knows.’ may mean that the individual selves (the earth etc.) that are controlled are different from the Internal Ruler who controls. To remove this presumption of difference the text goes on to say: There is no other witness but Him, this Internal Ruler; similarly, no other hearer but Him, no other thinker but Him. and no other knower but Him. He, except whom there is no other witness, hearer, thinker and knower. who is never seen but is the Witness, who is never heard but is the Hearer, who is never thought but is the Thinker, who is never known but is the Knower, who is immortal, devoid of all relative attributes, and is the distributor of the fruits of everybody’s actions— is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self. Everything else but Him, this Īśvara or Ātman, is mortal. Thereupon Uddālaka, the son of Aruṇa, kept silent.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

Lit. thread. Hence the word is metaphorically used for Prāṇa or the cosmic force.

[2]:

The word used is ‘Brahman,’ which means Virāj as well, in which sense it is to be taken in connection wiṃ the next clause, for Hiraṇyagarbha, being the same as the Sūtra. cannot be held together by it.

[3]:

The five elements, ten organs, vital force (with its fivefold function) and mind (in its fourfold aspect). Or the ten organs, five vital forces, Manas and Intellect.

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