The Bhagavata Purana

by G. V. Tagare | 1950 | 780,972 words | ISBN-10: 8120838203 | ISBN-13: 9788120838208

This page describes Bhagavata Dharma: Narada’s Narration of King Nimi’s Dialogue which is chapter 2 of the English translation of the Bhagavata Purana, one of the eighteen major puranas containing roughly 18,000 metrical verses. Topics include ancient Indian history, religion, philosophy, geography, mythology, etc. The text has been interpreted by various schools of philosophy. This is the second chapter of the Eleventh Skandha of the Bhagavatapurana.

Chapter 2 - Bhāgavata Dharma: Nārada’s Narration of King Nimi’s Dialogue

[Full title: Bhāgavata Dharma: Nārada’s Narration of King Nimi’s Dialogue with Jāyanteya and others]

Śrī Śuka said:

1. In his ardent longing and eagerness to wait upon Kṛṣṇa, Nārada frequently used to stay at Dvārakā despite Dakṣa’s curse of eternal wandering to him, as the curse was ineffective at Dvārakā which was protected by the arms of Lord Kṛṣṇa, O best of Kurus.

2. What person possessed of sound senses and hemmed in by death on all sides[1] would possibly neglect to resort to and adore the lotus-feet of Mukunda (for which possession of sense-organs only, and not caste (varṇa) and stage of life (āśrama) is the qualification, etc.) which arc meditated upon and adored by the best of immortals (such as god Brahmā, Śiva and others).

3. On one occasion, when the divine sage Nārada v sited his house and was duly worshipped and was comfortably seated, Vasudeva respectfully bowed to him and submitted as follows:

Vasudeva said:

4. “Just as the arrival of the parents is for bringing the well-being of the children or the movements of those great souls who follow the path of the Lord of excellent glory, are conducive for the good of the indigent and helpless, the movements of your worship are for the welfare of all embodied beings.

5. The working of the deities (e.g. showering of rains) may contribute cither to the misery or happiness of created beings. But actions and behaviour of pious souls like you who have concentrated their minds on Lord Acyuta, tend exclusively and solely towards the happiness of all.

6. Deities (i.e. the grace they confer) depend on meritorious acts (such as sacrifices etc.). Like the shadow of a person (imitating him reciprocally), they serve their votaries in the same way as their devotees worship them with meritorious acts. But the pious and the righteous people are always kind and compassionate to the afflicted and needy under all circumstances.

7. We, however, request you, O Brāhmaṇa sage, to explain to us the paths of righteousness which lead to the propitiation of the glorious Lord and by listening to which with faith and devotion, a mortal being is emancipated from all fears (i.e. is liberated from Saṃsāra).

8. Formerly, in my previous incarnation in this world, I worshipped the Infinite Lord, the bestower of emancipation from Saṃsāra, with the desire of getting progeny but not for Liberation from Saṃsāra, as I was deluded by the Māyā (deluding potency) of the Lord.

9. O sage of well-observed vows! Be pleased to instruct us to that course (in this life) whereby we shall directly and easily be liberated from the Saṃsāra teeming with various kinds of miseries and beset with fears and dangers on all sides.”

Śrī Śuka said:

10. Solicited thus by the highly intelligent Vasudeva on this question, the divine sage Nārada being reminded of the excellent qualities of Hari, became pleased with him and spoke to him thus:

Nārada said:

11. “O foremost Sātvata! Your honour has wisely resolved on this course, wherein you enquired of me, as to what courses of behaviour and virtues delight the Lord and purify all (from sins, etc.).

12. O Vasudeva! This righteous course of conduct (viz. Bhāgavata dharma) if heard, recited, pondered over, accepted with reverence or appreciated approvingly (when followed by others), instantaneously purifies even those who are the enemies of gods or are hostile to all creatures.

13. The most auspicious and glorious Lord Nārāyaṇa whose name, if beard or sung is meritorious, is brought to my mind and memory to-day, by you.

14. On this point, this ancient historical legend is told. It consists of a dialogue between the sons of Ṛṣabha and the great-souled king Nimi of Videha.

15. Svāyambhuva Manu had a son by name Priyavrata. His son. was Agnīdhra from whom was born Nābhi, whose son was well known as Ṛṣabha.

16. The knowers say that he was a ray (an aṃśa) of Lord Vāsudeva who had descended on the earth with the intention of propagating the righteous path leading to Mokṣa (Liberation from Saṃsāra). He had a hundred sons, all of whom were well-versed in the Vedas.

17. Out of them, Bharata, the eldest son, was exclusively devoted to Nārāyaṇa (the supreme soul). It is reported that this wonderful continent is known after him as Bhārata-Varṣa.

18. Having enjoyed the pleasures (of sovereignty) of this earth, he renounced it. He propitiated Hari by austere penance and it is reported that he attained to the Lord’s abode after three births.

19. Out of those hundred sons, nine became the rulers of the nine continents all around, and eighty-one of them became Brāhmaṇas, authors of treatises on rites and rituals (and religious acts).

20. The remaining nine highly fortunate sons became sages, capable of propounding the highest truth. They exerted on the spiritual path, were sky-clad (naked)[2] (lit. wore girdle of the air) but were highly expert in the spiritual (ātmic) lore.

21. (Their names were:) Kavi, Hari, Antarīkṣa, Prabudha, Pippalāyana, Āvirhotra, Drumila, Camasa and Karabhājana.

22. They realised that this universe, both cause and effect or gross and subtle[3], is nothing but the Glorious Lord himself and not distinct from their self (ātman), and ranged over the earth.

23. They were not attached to anything. They freely went about their way, as their paths were unobstructed. They wandered at will in the worlds of gods, Siddhas, Sādhyas, Gandharvas, Yakṣas, human beings, Kinnaras and serpents as well as in the spheres of sages, Cāraṇas, the lord of goblins, Vidyāḍharas, Brāhmaṇas and Go-loka.

24. On one occasion, by chance, they happened to attend[4] the sacrificial session of the noble-souled Nimi (the King of Videha) conducted by sages in the Bhārata Varṣa (known also as Ajanābha).

25. On seeing those most ardent devotees of the Lord who were brilliant like the Sun, the sacrificer (King Nimi), (the presiding deities of) the sacrificial fires (viz. Gārhapatya, Āhavanīya and Dakṣiṇa[5]) and Brāhmaṇas (officiating as sacrificial priests)—all of them stood up to show respect.

26. On coming to know that they were staunch devotees of Lord Nārāyaṇa[6], Nimi, the King of Videhas was greatly delighted. When they were comfortably seated, he worshipped them with all the formalities, according to their seniority.

27. The king who was highly pleased (with their visit), bowed low with great humility and submitted to them who were effulgent by their own personal lustre, like the mind-born sons of Brahma-deva (like Sanaka, Sanandana).

King Nimi of Videha submitted:

28. I believe you are direct attendants of the glorious Lord Viṣṇu (the slayer of demon Madhu); for the people (devotees) of god Viṣṇu are always on the move for purifying the people.

29. To Jīvas (embodied souls who are invested with a body in every birth) the attainment of human body (birth as a human being) ephemeral though it may be, is very difficult yet valuable (as it serves a means of liberation from Saṃsāra. Even in this rare (and transitory) form of existence, I consider that it is rarer still to meet persons beloved of Viṣṇu.

30. O sinless ones! We, therefore, ask you about (the pathway to) the summum bonum. For in this worldly existence association with saints or the righteous, even for half a moment is like the find of a valuable treasure.

(Just as an ordinary person finds delight in obtaining a treasure, we get the Supreme delight in the company of saints).

31. If we are competent to listen to them, be pleased to expound to us those righteous duties and observances propitiatory to the Lord. So that the Eternal (birthless) Lord may be so pleased as to confer even his Self to the suppliant (devotee).

Nārada said:

32. Respectfully solicited by king Nimi, those worshipful sages complimented the king along with the priests (officiating over the sacrifice) and the members of the sacrificial assembly, and gladly spoke[7] to the king one by one as follows: O Vasudeva.

Kavi said:

33. I believe that uninterruptedly worshipping and meditating on the lotus-feet of Lord Viṣṇu is the surest and safest means of ensuring protection from fears from any quarter. In this saṃsāra, a man’s mind gets always bewildered by the fear (of three types of miseries), caused by mistaking this extremely worthless body, etc. for the soul. But through the worship of the Lord, that fear is completely dispelled.[8]

34. For those means and courses of conduct which have been taught (prescribed) by the Lord, for easily attaining realization of the Self even by ignorant persons—Be sure that those are the duties which please him the most and lead easily to self-realization.

35. By betaking one’s self to those paths, O king, no person will ever go astray. (This path is so safe and easy that) even if one runs with his eyes[9] closed (i.e. is ignorant of Śrutis and Smṛtis which are regarded as eyes) will not miss his path (and take the wrong way). (And even if he hurries across the path of devotion, jumping in haste from one step of Bhakti to another out of the nine steps (viz. Śravaṇa ‘hearing the Name of the Lord’, Kīrtana ‘glorifying the deeds of the Lord’, and others), he would not stumble (into Saṃsāra again or miss the fruit of his devotion).

36. Whatever a person does by his body, speech, mind, cognitive and conative sense-organs, intellect and ego and by the force of nature[10] (as formed by his previous karmas), he should dedicate all such[11] (voluntary and involuntary) acts to the Supreme Lord Nārāyaṇa[12].

37. Due to the force of the Lord’s Māyā, loss of memory (of the real nature of the Self), misapprehension about one’s real self (leading to the belief in the identification of one’s physical body with the self—such as ‘I am a god’, ‘I am a man’ etc.) are caused in a person who has turned away from the Lord. When one identifies one’s self with what is other than the Self (viz. one’s body), it leads to fear (regarding other persons as enemies, friends etc. for he has lost the insight of seeing the Brahman—everywhere). Hence, a wise person should discern that his preceptor is the Deity and his own self and worship the Lord with unflinching, exclusive devotion till one is liberated from Saṃsāra.

38[13]. For, this duality called Saṃsāra has no real existence, but appears to be so like dreams (in sleep), and day-dreams or hallucinations (during wakefulness), on account of the mind of the persons who broods over it. A wise person should, therefore, control his mind which brings forth the ideations and doubts. It (devotion to God with controlled mind)[14] will lead to Fearlessness i.e. Liberation from Saṃsāra.

39. (As control of the mind is very difficult, an easier way to Mokṣa is enunciated.

Hence, one should (devoutly) listen to the highly auspicious (stories of) the incarnations and deeds of Lord Kṛṣṇa, the wielder of the discus Suḍaraśana, in this world. (If that too is impossible due to their being innumerable), he should sing the names signifying the descents and sportive acts of the Lord, without feeling fear or shame of being mocked at, and lead a life without attachment.

40. A person who adopted the above-described course of devotion as a sacred vow (to be strictly and constantly observed), develops an ardent love for the Lord by singing the names of his beloved Lord Hari. His heart is melted with love and devotion. He laughs loudly (feeling elated at winning over the Lord by his devotion), cries (feeling that he was neglected so long by the Lord), (out of over-eagerness) screams out (‘O Lord! Be pleased to be gracious unto me’), bursts out into songs (out of ecstasy) and dances like a mad person. Unconventional as he is, he transgresses the ways of the world.

41.[15] Such a devotee would bow to every being with absolute devotion as unto Hari’s Person whether it be one of the five elements such as the sky, the air, the fire, the water or the earth, or heavenly luminaries such as the stars, the planets, or living beings, the cardinal points, plants and herbs, etc., the rivers and the seas and mountains (regarding them as a part of Lord Hari’s body).

42.[16] Just as a person who eats food finds satisfaction, nourishment and relief from hunger simultaneously with each morsel of food, similarly to a person who has completely submitted himself to the Lord (the triad, viz.) sincere devotion, realization of the supreme Lord and aversion to other objects (of senses) appear and are found together simultaneously.

43. The devotee of the Lord who steadily and without any interruption worships the feet of Lord Acyuta, attains (simultaneously) the triad, viz. devotion, renunciation of worldly objects and realization of the Lord and through them he directly attains the supreme peace[17] or liberation from Saṃsāra.

The king (Nimi) requested:

44.[18] Be pleased to describe to me the devotee of Lord Hari (who attains the above-mentioned triad simultaneously). What are his characteristics (that distinguish him from) among fellow-men how he behaves and how he talks and what are his distinguishing traits which endear him to the Lord.

Hari replied:

45.[19] He who sees his own self (who is Hari himself) existing in all beings as Brahman and realizes that all (mobile and immobile) creations are established in his own Self which is Brahman (or Hari) himself, is the foremost of all devotees.

46. One who cherishes affectionate devotion to the Lord, friendly feelings towards his Votaries (who entirely depend on him), compassion to the ignorant and indifference towards his enemies is a second-rate votary (as he entertains difference in outlook toward them as contrasted with the “fore-most” type described above).

47. (Believing that Lord Hari is present only in his image and not elsewhere) he who desires to worship and worships with faith Lord Hari and does not respect his votaries and other creatures is an ordinary ignorant votary.[20]

48. Even though the sense-organs receive their objects of enjoyment (if the devotee’s heart is so much absorbed in Lord Viṣṇu that) he feels neither repulsion nor joyous attraction toward them and looks upon this universe as the Māyā of Viṣṇu, such a devotee is of the highest order.

49.[21] He is the foremost among the Lord’s votaries who, by dint of his constant memory (meditation) of Hari is not deluded by (and affected with) the conditions i.e. sufferings in worldly existence such as: The birth and death affecting the body, hunger and thirst (harassing) the vital principle (prāṇa), fear, (worrying) the mind, strong desire (exciting) the intellect and fatigue exhausting the sense-organs.

50. He is verily the best among the Lord’s devotees in whose hearts the seeds of desires for enjoyment and passions and of actions do not germinate at all and who have Lord Vāsudeva as their only resort.[22]

51. He is verily beloved of Lord Hari who is not attached to his body nor is affected by superiority complex on account of his birth (in a high family) or deeds (e.g. penance performed nor by his position in a particular class in society, stage of life or his caste (such as mūrdhāvasikta—born of Brāhmaṇa father and Kṣattriya mother).

52. He who does not entertain the notion of distinction between ‘mine’ and ‘another’s’ in respect of his property or even his own body, who is equal to all beings and serene-minded, is the best among the votaries of the Lord.

53. He should be regarded as the leader of the followers and devotees of Lord Viṣṇu who will not allow the remembrance of the Lord to be interrupted even for half a winking time for gaining the sovereignty of the three worlds. Nor does he waver even for half the twinkling of the eyelid from the lotus feet of the glorious Lord—the feet sought after by gods and others who have not subdued their self.[23]

54. When (once) the fever (in the form) of afflictions in the heart of the devotees (who have submitted themselves absolutely to the will of the Lord) is completely subsided by the cool moon-light emanating from the gem-like (crescent-shaped) nails on the toes of the Lord with very long (universecovering) strides (or possessing great prowess), how can it (the trouble) arise again? How could the solar heat affect when the moon has risen?

55. That person is said to be the chief of votaries whose heart the Lord does not vacate, as his feet are (tightly) fastened with bond of affection therein—Hari who destroys all the accumulated mass of sins, even if his name is uttered unconsciously or under restraint.[24]

Footnotes and references:


Bhāgavata Candrikā reads sarvato'mṛīyum ‘in no way affected by death’ and this adj. qualifies the ‘lotus feet of Mukunda’.


(i) They were without clothes, but not naked—Bhāgavata Candrikā

(ii) EK gives a spiritual description of their nudity: They were clad in cidākāśa (sky in the form of Brahman). They tied the knot of the threads of Prāṇa and Apāna (inhalation and exhalation in respiration) at the navel, which resulted in untying the knot of their state as Jīva and it became their sacred thread (Brahma-Sūtra). —EB. 2.175-178


Sadasadātmakam [Sadasadātmaka]: Bhāgavata Candrikā as usual interprets this as the conscious or intelligent and unconscious or unitelligent principles which constitute the body of the Lord and arc inseparable from him.’

Padaratnāvalī stoutly rejects the view of the identity between the universe and God or Paramātman, for the adj. sad-asadātmakam precludes it and the lakṣaṇā (jahad-ajahad) is not soundly authoritative. According to Padaratnāvalī: They realised that the nature of the Lord pervades all causes and effects, but is different and distinct from individual soul (jīva), The gross universe is also different from Hari (God). It is as the internal abiding soul (antaryāmin) that he pervades all and quotes as authority:

antar bahiśca tatsarvaṃ vyāpya nārāyaṇaḥ sthitaḥ—Nar. Up. 2.

EK. gives a highly idealistic interpretation: Though their bodies were different, they were spiritually one. They looked upon all people as their own self. The sages have realized that there is nothing but Brahman everywhere, and the universes, beings or elements, due to their identity with Brahman, have no separate existence. To them the triad—the seer, the act of seeing and the thing seen was the Self itself. They were so absorbed in Brahman that they were not aware of movements, being, becoming, etc. In such a stage, their wandering over the earth took place. EB.2 185-188


EK: They arrived there at the time of pūrṇāhuti.—EB. 2.195


These fire-deities were visible only to these nine sages to whom they paid respect—EK 2.201.


The Bhāgavata Purāṇa gives a special place of honour to the devotees of Lord Nārāyaṇa “But of crores of siddhas who are free from attachment and have realised the self, a person who is absolutely devoted to Nārāyaṇa (Nārāyaṇa- paraḥ) is very difficult to find”—Bhāgavata Purāṇa 6.14.5,


Bhāvāratha Dīpikā quotes two couplets enumerating the following topics about which king Nimi raised the questions:

(1) Bhāgavata dharma; (2) devotees of the Lord; (3) Māyā; (4) Means of dispelling Māyā; (5) Brahman; (6) Karma Theory; (7) theory of re-incarnation; (8) jīva and vāsanāṣ (9) Yuga-dharma.


Bhāgavata Candrikā: All fear disappears when the Lord is meditated upon as the Indweller (Antaryāmin) of this entire universe consisting of the sentient and non-sentient (viśvaṣya kṛtsnaṣya cid-acidātmakasya jagata ātmatveṇā'ntarātmatayā yatropāsane kṛte sati ityarthaḥ).


“Śrutis and Smṛtis constitute two eyes of a Brāhmaṇa. One who does not know one of these (cither Śruti or Smṛti is squint-eyed) but who knows neither is blind” Quoted by Bhāvāratha Dīpikā and others:


anusṛta-svabhāvāt—SR. alternatively explains: Although the Soul is unconcerned with the body, unaffected by passions or untainted by external acts, owing to superimposition of ignorance, he forgets his essential blissful nature—regards himself as belonging to a particular caste, etc. All acts which this ignorant jīva perforins, should be resigned to the Almighty Lord.


All acts prescribed, non-prescribed and prohibited by ŚāstrasBhāgavata Candrikā


yat karoṣi yad aśnāsi yaj juhoṣi dadāsi yat /
yat tapasyasi kaunteya tat kuruṣva mad-arpaṇam //
Bhagavad Gītā. 9.27


EK. in his learned com. (ovis 346-453) construes the verse differently: stating generally that acts voluntary, involuntary, prescribed by the Vedas, social dudes or by force of nature as a consequence of one’s acts in his previous birth—all such acts be dedicated to the Lord. This is the Bhāgavata dharma in a nutshell. EK takes every term from the text, explains it with illustrations how that act is to be resigned to the Lord. The realization of the coalescence or one-ness of the triad—The doer, the act of doing, and the thing done—(for example the seer, the seen and the act of seeing) is the way of dedicating the act to God. He illustrates this by applying the tṛinity formula to each sense, EK emphasizes that motionless physical posture in a trance is not the real samādhi. Such a trance is equivalent to swooning. Samādhi is an uninterrupted dedication of one’s self to Brahman. Śrīkṛṣṇa transported Arjuna to a supertrance and directed him to participate in the Mahābhārata war. The real propitiation of God is the natural, automatic, dedication of all our natural, voluntary and involuntary karmas to the supreme Brahman.


(i) SS. (Sudarśana Sūri):

dvaya—The twin notions about the identity of the soul with the body and their independent existence distinct and separate from God’s personality.

Karma—saṅkalpa—vikalpakaṃ manaḥ

The Mind which unḍer the powerful influence of karnas of the past lives broods over the anxieties for maintainining one’s body, etc. (Saṅkalpa), and desires for obtaining enjoyment like flower-garlands, sandal-paste, etc. (vikalpa).

(ii) Bhāgavata Candrikā: Though the two notions viz. identity of the body and the Soul and the independent existence of oneself from God though unreal, are entertained in the mind like the drcams (in sleep) and fancies or hallucinations (in the waking state). Hence the necessity of controlling the mind which under the stress of the previous Karmas weaves out Saṅkalpa (Self—delusion about the identity of the body and the Soul) and Vikalpa (our independencc from the Supreme Soul on whom we are really absolutely dependent.)

(iii) Padaratnāvalī: The knowledge of Brahman is impossible to dawn unless one dedicates everything (including himself) to the Lord and Mokṣa is attained through the knowledge of Brahman. Hence one should be exclusively and selflessly devoted to the Lord.

sarva-samarpaṇa-lakṣaṇo'pāsanā'bhāve brahma-jñānaṃ na syāṭ, tadabhāve saṃsāra-nivṛttir na syāt / atas tad artham sarva-samarpaṇa-lakṣaṇam upāsanaṃ kartavyam iti bhāvaḥ /

EK. For control of one’s mind, complete faith in the spiriṃal preceptor is essential.—EB 514-523


Cf. mana eva manuṣyāṇāṃ
kāraṇam bandha-mokṣayoḥ //
Maitrī. Up 6.34


Bhāgavata Candrikā: The devotee should regard himself as an integral part of the God’s person. By understanding the world as a part of God’s body, he becomes quiescent and controls his mind.

EK. gives a highly poetic description of the realization of the Brahman in everything, everywhere (EB. 2.580-602)


EK: The triad means:
(i) bhakti—loving devotion to all beings.
(ii) anubhava or prāpti—Direct Goḍ-rcalization
(iii) virakti—non-attachment to one’s body, wife, children, etc.


S.S. & Bhāgavata CandrikāŚānti—subsidence and disappearance of the six types of sufferings of a being such as: hunger, thirst, grief, delusion, old age and death.


Padaratnāvalī: King Nimi enquires after the gradations of votaries.


SR. quotes a Tantra text which proves the identity of Hari with the Individual Soul (Ātman) due to his all-pervasiveness and logically accurate knowledge (ātatatvāt, pramātṛtvāt) and as such He is the Inner Controller of even insignificant insects with no dimunition in his six excellences of infinite dimensions due to his association with insignificant creatures. In brief, he who sees the immanence of the glorious Lord everywhere and in everything is the best votary of the Lord.

EK.: There is a great variety in the external appearance and behaviour of the votaries of God, but he who realizes the complete (identity of his Self, Brahman and all beings—he within all and all within himself—is the best devotee of the Lord.

Bhāgavata Candrikā He who realizes the implication of the epithet “Vāsudeva”—The Lord being in all and all beings as well as himself existing on the support of the Lord, or being a constituent part of the Lord, is the best devotee.

Subodhinī refutes the notion of “Supporter and the Supported” of Rāmānuja and establishes the non-duality (advayatva) doctrine and the knower of this is the best votary.


Cf. Iśa Up. 6 &. 7

(1) Bhāgavata Candrikā: This verse docs not condemn image-worship but image- worship without devotion to Lord’s votaries is depreciated, as such narrow concept of devotion obstructs the fruition or benefit of Lord’s worship.


EK: The five ‘places’ or components of bondage arc the physical body, sense-organs, mind, intellect and the vital principle and they are affected by hunger, thirst, fear, sufferings (Kleśa), birth and death. The great sufferings undergone at these ‘places’ are called ‘The properties or conditions of Saṃsāra’. EK takes these sufferings one by one and shows how absorption in the remembrance of the Lord brings immunity to the devotee from them, as he is not affected by any of them at all.—EB.2.664-691


Verses 48-50 describe how a great devotee behaves.

(i) Bhāgavata Candrikā explains that this egalitarianism is due to his belief that all souls arc intelligent in nature and one with Brahman, and physical bodies are products of the unintelligent prakṛti.

(ii) Padaratnāvalī differs:

The notion of identity of Ātman and Paramātman is not entertained by him while in Saṃsāra or in his pure stage in Mokṣa. He cites a number of authorities to support the Dvaita notion of distinction between jīva and Brahman.


I differ from Bhāvāratha Dīpikā and EK on the interpretation of ajitātma—surādibhiḥ. Bhāvāratha Dīpikā dissolves the comp.—ajite—Harau eva—ātmā yeṣām te / ‘whose mind is fixed on the invincible Lord’. But if gods have fixed their mind on the Lord, why should they have to hunt after (to find out) the Lord on whose feet they have already fixed their mind? If the gods have not subdued their ego or self, then alone they will try and seek the feet of the Lord. Hence, my aboveinterpretation.


SR: Verses 51 to 53 describe the nature of a devotee. That ‘He sings the name of the Lord’ should be regarded as the answer of ‘what a devotee does’. The summary of all these is given in verse 55.

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