The Bhagavata Purana

by G. V. Tagare | 1950 | 780,972 words | ISBN-10: 8120838203 | ISBN-13: 9788120838208

This page describes Prithu’s Descendants and the Hymn of Rudra which is chapter 24 of the English translation of the Bhagavata Purana, one of the eighteen major puranas containing roughly 18,000 metrical verses. Topics include ancient Indian history, religion, philosophy, geography, mythology, etc. The text has been interpreted by various schools of philosophy. This is the twenty-fourth chapter of the Fourth Skandha of the Bhagavatapurana.

Chapter 24 - Pṛthu’s Descendants and the Hymn of Rudra


This chapter gives the following genealogy of Pṛthu.

Genealogy of Prithu

V.P. confirms this genealogy except about the number of Pṛthu’s sons According to V.P. 1.14.1, Pṛthu had only two sons Antardhāna and Vādin. Vṛja and Ajina instead of Satyā and Jitavrata are the brothers of Prācīnabarhis (V.P. 1.14.2). The hymn of Rudra is a new contribution in the Bhāgavata Purāṇa and it is not in V.P.

Maitreya said:

1. Vijitāśva, the son of Pṛthu, was an emperor of great renown. He was affectionate to his brothers. He distributed to each of his younger brothers each direction (of his kingdom to rule).

2. The sovereign gave the eastern quarter to Haryakṣa; assigned the southern direction to Dhūmrakeśa; he appointed (his) brother named Vṛka to the western quarter, and gave the fourth direction (the North) to Draviṇa.

3. Vijatāśva obtained from Indra the power of making invisible movements and came to be designated as Antardhāna. He had three sons by (his queen) Śikhaṇḍinī who were highly beloved by all.

4. They were former firegods by name Pāvaka, Pavamāna and Śuci who were born (as human beings) by the curse of Vasiṣṭha, and who subsequently regained their godly status by practice of Yoga.

5. Antardhāna who did not kill Indra even though he knew that Indra stole the sacrificial horse,[1] got Havirdhāna (a son) by his (another wife) Nabhasvatī.

6. Looking upon kingly duties, such as exacting tributes, inflicting punishment, levying taxes, as harsh and ruthless, he relinquished them under the pretext of undertaking a long sacrificial session.

7. Even there (while engaged in the sacrificial session), the king who realized his Self, worshipped the Supreme Soul who is perfect and annihilates the afflictions of his devotees, and attained to His region, by pure and perfect meditation.

8. From Havirdhāna, (his queen) Havirdhānī begot six sons viz., Barhiṣad, Gaya, Śukla, Kṛṣṇa, Satya and Jitavrata.

9. Oh descendant Kuru (Vidura)! Barhiṣad, the eldest son of Havirdhāna, the most fortunate lord of men (Prajāpati) was a pastmaster in sacrificial lore as well as in the science and practice of Yoga.

10. (He was called Prācīnabarhis as) the surface of the whole earth was covered over with Kuśa grass with their ends pointing to the east, for he went on performing sacrifices (successively) one after another, each close to the place reserved (used) for the previous sacrifice.

11. On the advice of Brahmā, the god of gods, he married Śatadruti, the daughter of the presiding deity of Seas. She was still a girl but beautiful in every part of the body. In the marriage ceremony, when she went round the fire, beautifully decorated with ornaments, the firegod (himself) became enamoured of her, as he did in the case of Śukī.[2]

12. Gods, demons, celestial singers (Gandharvas), sages, Siddhas (a tribe of demigods), men and serpents were captivated by the young married girl, with the melodious jingling of her anklets ringing in all directions (while she walked).

13. Prācīnabarhis had ten sons called Pracetas, from Śatadruti. All of them bore the same name, observed the same vows and were equally well-versed in religion (or Dharmaśāstra).

14. 15. When ordered by their father to beget children, they entered the ocean to perform penance. They propitiated the Lord of Penances (Hari), by undergoing austere penance for ten thousand years. With perfect self-control, they (all the while) meditated on and worshipped him, repeating (to themselves) what was imparted to them by Lord Śiva, whom they saw (revealed to them) on the way, conferring his grace on them.

Vidura said:

16. Please narrate to us, Oh Brāhmaṇa, how the meeting between the Pracetasas and Lord Śiva took place on the road, and tell us what advice of deep import was he pleased to impart to them (out of his grace).

17. Sages, freeing themselves from all attachments have been meditating on Lord Śiva as their coveted goal. Hence contact with the Lord is very difficult, for embodied beings in this world, Oh Brāhmaṇa sage.

18. Though finding delight in his Self, Venerable Lord Śiva accompanied with his terrible Śakti (power of destruction) moves about in the world for the proper maintenance of the world-order.

Maitreya said:

19. Receiving their father’s command reverentially (lit. on their heads), the pious Pracetasas set their minds zealously on practising penance and proceeded towards the West.

20. They saw a very big lake, slightly smaller than the sea in expanse. It was crystal-clean like the mind of the noble Souls, and abounded in happy acquatic beings.

21. It was (as it were) a rich mine of blue and red lilis, lotuses that blossom by night, by day and by twilight and blue lotuses (indīvara). It was resounded with the warblings and notes of (waterbirds like) swans, cranes, ruddy geese and ducks (Kāraṇḍava).

22. It was surrounded by lush growth of trees and creepers which were thrilled with[3] the sweet musical humming of intoxicated bees. It presented (as if) a festive occasion (celebrated) by the winds, by scattering of the pollen from lotuses, in all directions.

23. The Princes were wonḍerstruck to listen to the celestial, classical[4] vocal music of Gandharvas ravishing the mind—music which followed[5] the playing of instrumental music of tabors (mṛdaṅga) and Paṇava.

24-25. At that very moment, they noticed Śiva, the foremost among gods, coming out of that lake, along with his attendants. His complexion was like a mass of red-hot gold. His throat was blue-coloured. He had three eyes. His smiling countenance showed his inclination to shower his grace (on his devotees). His glory was being sung by the followers of gods (like Gandharvas and Kinnaras). As curiosity was aroused in them, the Princess bowed down to him as soon as they saw him.

26. The Venerable Lord (Śiva) who removes the afflictions of his devotees (seeking his shelter), and who loves righteousness, was pleased with those (Princes) who were experts in religion, possessed high moral characters and who were happy (to see him). He spoke to them.

Śrī Rudra said:

27. You are the sons of Vediṣad (Barhiṣad). I know what you intend to do. May you be blessed. (It is) for conferring grace on you that I have revealed myself to you.

28. He is certainly dear to Me, who, completely submitting himself, has directly resorted to Venerable Lord Vāsudeva who is beyond the subtle Prakṛti consisting of the three attributes (Sattva, rajas and tamas) and also the entity called jīva.[6]

29.[7] A person conscientiously and firmly devoted to his own righteous duties, attains to the position of god Brahmā after hundred births, and reaches me if possessed of still more excessive merits. But a votary of Lord Viṣṇu, after the end of this mundane body, attains to the region of Lord Viṣṇu which is beyond saṃsāra, just as we (Rudra and other divinities) do after the termination of our office (and dissolution of our subtle bodies).

30. You, votaries of the Venerable Lord (Viṣṇu), are as dear to me as the Lord himself. And to the devotees of the Lord, no body else than me, is more dear anywhere.

31.[8] This is a sacred and highly auspicious hymn leading to the Final Beatitude. This should be constantly repeated secretly (in strict privacy). I shall now relate it to you. Please listen (attentively)

Maitreya said:

32 Lord Śiva whose heart is full of compassion and who is fully devoted to Nārāyaṇa, spoke (the following words) to the Princes who were standing with folded palms before him.

33 “Victory to you, Oh Lord! Your victory is for the attainment of the blessedness of the Self, by the pre-eminent ones among those who have realized the Soul. May I too (thereby) attain to the state of blessedness! You eternally abide in the highest blissful nature. Hence I bow to you, Supreme Soul who is immanent in all.

34.[9] Salutation to the Lord who has a lotus (constituting the universe) springing up in his navel; who is the controller (lit. Soul) of the subtle elements (tanmātras) and the sense-organs; who is (the first and foremost Vyūha or manifestation of the Lord called) Vāsudeva,[10] (the presiding principle or the ruler of citta—Reason); who is absolutely tranquil, self-refulgent, the unchangeable Supreme Soul abiding in (and controlling) all beings.

35.[11] Obeisance to Saṅkarṣaṇa (the second Vyūha, the presiding deity of ahaṃkāra or ego) who is unmanifest, infinite, the destroyer of the universe (by fire emanating from his mouth at the time of Pralaya—the dissolution of the universe); (I) bow to Pradyumna (the third Vyūha) who awakens the universe (to the highest knowledge),[12] and who presides over Buddhi (intelligence).

36.[13] I pay my respects again and again to (the fourth Vyūha) Aniruddha who is the ruler of the mind which controls the sense-organs (e.g. the eye, the ear etc.).[14] I bow to him (i.e. You) who as the Sun god[15] pervades the universe with his light[16] and who is unaffected by increase and decrease.[17]

37.[18] I bow to him who is the gateway to the heaven, as well as to the Liberation (Mokṣa); who ever abides in pure hearts.[19] I pay obeisance to the Fire-god (whose energy is gold), who is the means of performing sacrificial activities (for which services of four sacrificial priests, viz., Hotā, Adhvaryu, Udgātā and Brahmā are essential) and who promotes the continuity of the (tradition of the) sacrifice.[20]

38.[21] Salutation to him who, as Soma is the food of manes (pitṛs) and gods, is the Lord of Three Vedas (viz. Ṛg, Sāman and Yajus), and is the semen (essence) of sacrifice. My obeisance to you who in the form of water, give satisfaction to all jīvas.

39.[22] I bow to him who is the body of all the Souls (ātmans) or living beings; who is in the form of the earth; who forms the Cosmic Body (Virāṭ); who, as the Vāyu—the deity of vital airs and wind—sustains the three worlds, and forms the power of the mind, senses and body.

40.[23] I pay obeisance to him who as ether (through its attribute called Sound) serves as an index (to the existence) of all things and are the basis of the concept of differentiation between the internal and external. I bow to him who forms the regions of great refulgence (called Svarga etc. and which are attained by great meritorious acts).

41. I bow to you who are both Pravṛtti karma (acts pertaining to worldly activities or saṃsāra) leading to the region of manes (Pitṛs), and the Nivṛtti karma (the discontinuance of worldly acts) the means of attaining to the region of gods. (Bow to you) who are the god of Death, (which is) the fruit of unrighteousness which causes pain.

42. Salutations to you, Oh Lord! You are the source of all blessings. You are the Manu (or all-knower and the embodiment of Mantras). I bow to you in the form of Kṛṣṇa who is the highest righteousness incarnate and whose intelligence is unobstructed (anywhere); who is the ancient- most Puruṣa (person), the master of the path of knowledge (Sāṅkhya) and of Yoga.

43. You are the Lord Rudra who is the presiding deity of ahaṃkāra (ego) and who possesses the threefold potencies (of being the doer, the instrument and action). I bow to you (Oh Brahmā!) who are the embodiment of knowledge and action, and who are the source of (four kinds) speech (viz. parā, paśyanti, madhyamā and vaikharī). My obeisance to you.

44. Be pleased to bless us who are earnestly desirous of seeing you, with your vision which is highly adored and esteemed by the devotees of the venerable Lord (i.e. you). Please reveal to us your beautiful form which is so dearest to your votaries, and which, forming the objects of enjoyment of all senses simultaneously, delights them all (or which delights all senses by its numerous qualities).

45. Your form is lovely, bluish and resplendent like the rainy cloud. With its four long graceful arms and winsome face with beautiful and well-shaped features, it is as if a synthesis (lit. a treasure-house) of beauty in everything.

46. Your form has eyes (charming) like the inner petals of lotus, beautiful eyebrows and shapely nose, excellent rows of teeth, attractive cheeks and mouth with symmetrical ears beautifying it.

47. With side-long looks as if smiling with love, your form is beautified with flowing locks of hair. It is clad in silken garments, (yellowish) like lotus-filaments, and is adorned with a pair of polished earrings.

48. It is also decorated with a brilliant crown, bracelets, wreaths of pearls, anklets and a girdle. It is extremely magnificent by its conch, discus, mace, lotus, garland of sylvan flowers and excellent jewels (of various kinds).

49. Its shoulders which resembled those of a lion, are shining with lustre of necklace, earrings (and other ornaments). Its neck appears beautiful with the refulgence of the Kaustubha gem. Its bosom on which rests permanently the goddess Śrī (in the form of Śrīvatsa) far outshines the (dark coloured) touchstone bearing a streak of gold on it.

50. Its belly is like the leaf of an aśvattha (Indian figtree) in shape, and appears beautiful with its threefold heaving due to his inhalation and exhalation of breath. Its navel is so deep like a whirlpool that it is as if withdrawing again the universe (to its source) through it.

51. On the dark-blue waist (of Your form) the (yellow) silken loin-cloth fastened with a girdle of gold, appears all the more resplendent (by contrast in colours). Your form is extremely handsome to look at due to (its pair of) symmetrical and beautiful feet, shanks, thighs and depressed knees.

52. You dispel the darkness (of ignorance) in our hearts by the rays of light emanating from the nails of your feet(toes) which are beautiful like the petals of autumnal lotus. Pray reveal to us your form, our asylum, which removes the fear (of your devotees). Oh Master! You are the preceptor to guide us who are groping in the dark.

53.[24] This form of yours should be constantly meditated upon by those who earnestly desire to purify their hearts. For the path of devotion brings fearlessness (or final beatitude) unto those who perform their respective religious duties.

54. You are difficult to be attained by all embodied beings (who are not your devotees). You are sought after and respected by the ruler of heaven—Svarga. You are the goal of them who exclusively seek Self-realisation. You are accessible only to them who are full of devotion.

55. You are very difficult to be propitiated. Having propitiated you, with exclusive devotion which is difficult to be found even in the righteous people, who will covet for anything else than an asylum at your feet?

56. Even though the god of death destroys the universe by the movement of his eyebrow—an index of his majestic power and energy—he does not wish (to exercise his authority on) him who has resorted to your feet as shelter.

57. I do not regard the heaven (Svarga) as well as final Beatitude (Mokṣa) as equivalent to companionship for the duration of half a moment with the devotees attached to the Lord. What of the blessings of mortals.

58. Now, let this be the favour conferred on us: May we be blest with the association of those who have washed away their sins internally by immersing their Souls in the (stream of the) glory of the Lord, and externally by bathing in the sacred waters of the Gaṅgā flowing from the Lord’s holy feet which absolves one of all sins, and who are compassionate to all beings and have their minds free from passions like love, hate etc., and are endowed with virtues like straightforwardness.

59.[25] The contemplative sage whose mind is completely purified by being blest with the path of devotion (in association with such devotees of God) and is neither distracted by external objects nor lost in the dark cave of ignorance,[26] soon perceives your real nature easily and properly.

60.[27] You are that superbly effulgent Brahman in whom this universe is manifested and who appears shining in everything and who is all-pervading (and unaffected or unattached) like the sky.

61. Oh Lord! Your Māyā assumes various numerous forms. By this (Māyā) you create, sustain and again destroy the world as if it were real. But you remain changeless (all the while). Your Māyā creates the notion of difference (in others), but has no control or effect on you, the Supreme Soul. Hence we know you to be absolutely independent.

62. This form of yours is indicated as their controller by the bhūtas (five elements e.g. Earth, Water, Fire etc.), (conative and cognitive) sense-organs and the mind. Those (karma)—yogins[28] (the followers of the Path of Action), who devotedly worship this very form properly, by means of various ritualistic acts, for the attainment of Siddhi (final emancipation), are verily the past masters in Vedas and Agama-Śāstra (Tantric-lore).

63. You are the only One, primeval Person with your potency (called Māyā) lying dormant. When it is activated through her, (the three guṇas viz.) sattva, rajas and tamas become differentiated (and combined). From it are evolved this universe (consisting of) (the principle of cosmic intelligence called) Mahat, ahaṃkāra (ego), (elements such as) the sky, wind, fire, water and earth, as well as gods, sages, multitudes of living beings.

64.[29] By a portion of yourself, you have entered the bodies of four types[30] which you have created by your (Māyā) power. It is, therefore, that they call him Puruṣa i.e. one who abides in the body. He is the jīva who through his senses enjoys the (drops of) honey (insignificant pleasures) collected by bees[31]. (This shows his negligible nature.)

65. Though you are as described above, your real nature is inferrable (as its direct perception is not possible). (At the time of the dissolution of the world) you exhibit very terrific velocity sweeping off one element by another; You (ultimately) destroy the world just as a hurricane of irresistible force scatters away and sweeps off a multitude of clouds.

66. Just as an alert serpent, licking (its lips) with hunger, suddenly seizes a rat, you, as vigilant Death, suprisingly catch hold of a person who, absorbed in the anxiety of what to do and how to do, has become extremely negligent, is extremely addicted to sensual pleasure and has grown over- greedy.

67. What wise man who regards his life (lit. body) wasted by disregarding (i.e. not remembering) you, will give up your lotus-like feet—feet which my father Brahmā has been adoring through fear (of bondage of saṃsāra) and which the fourteen Manus have been worshipping without arguments(with implicit belief).

68. Oh Brahman! Oh Supreme Soul! The whole universe is overwhelmed with the fear of Rudra (the destroyer of the universe). To us who are wise, you are our asylum completely free from fear.

69. Oh Princes! While you carry out your righteous duties with a pure heart and with your mind concentrated on the Lord, you repeat this (hymn). May God bless you!

70. (Please do) worship Hari, extolling and contemplating him again and again, as Hari is the Supreme Soul abiding in you as well as in all other beings.

71. Please commit to memory the hymn called Yogādeśa which you have received from me. Observing the vows of a sage’s life and concentrating your minds, all of you study this reverentially.

72. With a desire to create the world, the venerable god Brahmā, the Lord of all the progenitors of the universe, formerly taught this (hymn) to us, his sons e.g. Bhṛgu and others who were intent on augmenting procreation.

73. When we, all the progenitors of creatures, were urged to create beings, we dispelled our ignorance by (repeating) this hymn and procreated various species of beings.

74. Hence, if a person who is devoted to Vāsudeva, repeats this hymn with faith and concentrated mind, he would before long obtain blissfulness.

75. Knowledge leading to the final beatitude is the highest of all blessings. It is by the boat of knowledge that one easily crosses the impassable sea of misery (i.e. saṃsāra).

76. He who with perfect devotion and concentration, studies this hymn in praise of the Lord sung by me, propitiates Lord Hari himself who is otherwise so very difficult to, be pleased.

77. As the Lord is the sole receptacle of all blessings, a man with a steady mind who highly delights the Lord (by praising him) with this hymn sung by me, immediately gets whatever blessings he likes.

78. A man, who, rising up early at dawn, and with a heart full of devotion, hears this or recites this to others with folded palms, is released from the chains of karmas.

79. Oh princes! By repeating with concentrated mind this praise of the Highest Person, the Supreme Soul, sung by me, you do perform this great penance at the end of which you will obtain your desired object.

Footnotes and references:


Vide Supra IV. 19-20.


v.l. stukīm—A slender continuous stream of ghee poured into the fire.

Śukī—According to all commentators, except Padaratnāvalī, this refers to the episode when the seven Sages were conducting a sacrificial session, Firegod was overcome with passion at the sight of their wife. Svāhā, the wife of Agni (Fire-god) assumed the form of that lady and satisfied him. She then assumed the form of a female parrot (Śukī) and deposited his semen in a clump of grass. Padaratnāvalī thinks that Śukī was a princess who was abducted by the Fire-god through lust, while she was going round the fire. In the case of Śataḍruti, he could not physically do so. Hence he loved her on the mental plane only.


Bhāgavata Candrikā thinks that the ends of creepers intertwining trees were the hair standing on their ends in the case of the trees which heard the music. While VC. and Bālaprabodhini regard the thick clusters of buds on them as the result of the thrill of the music.


mārga and deśī are styles of singing, mārga is the classical style (ch Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa 1.4.36 agāyatāṃ mārgavidhānasaṃpadā).


v.l. mṛdaṅga-paṇavādyavat—accompanied by playing on mṛdaṅga and paṇava.


He is superior to the principle known as Lakṣmī designated here as jīva and tamas.


Padaratnāvalī differs after enjoyment of the status or region of Brahmā, the jīva goes to Lakṣmī which is not subject to change. It is in the Pralaya stage that all come to the Omniscient Lord.


Please listen to what I tell you. It should constantly be repeated (to oneself). It explains how the Supreme Soul is distinct from Prakṛti and Puruṣa. Hence it is sacred and auspicious inasmuch as it secures the Puruṣārthas (Dharma, Artha, Kāma) and is a means to Liberation. Hence I am narrating it to you—Bhāgavata Candrikā


Sārārthadarśinī: Oh Lord with a lotus in his navel; My physical body is born of Brahmā who was created from the lotus springing up from your navel. Make me inclined to your devotion. Oh Vāsudeva, the presiding deity of citta (mind), make my mind serene and tranquil. Fill it with your light and urge it on to your devotion.


Vāsudevāya—To the Principle that abides in all and yet is unsoiled by their defects.


Bhāgavata Candrikā: (I) bow to Saṅkarṣaṇa who withdraws within himself the universe; Who consumes the world by fire blowing out of his mouth; who is too subtle to be distinguished by name and form but who is unmanifest and hence is himself unwithdrawable. Salute to Praḍyumna (the 3rd Vyūha-Manifestation of the Lord), who enlightens the world by instruction in the Śāstra called Vedas which teach the means to all the Puruṣārthas (objectives in human life); who controls all the beings by abiding in them simultaneously.


Viśva-prabodhāya—Who is perfect in wisdom or who ‘awakens’ the universe—Padaratnāvalī


VC. (2nd half): Oh Lord, the Soul of the Sun-god! Direct my eyesight to the beauty of your (the Lord’s) personality. May


Hṛṣikeśendriyātmane—Master of sense-organs and whatever belongs to Indra who presides over the mind and senses—Padaratnāvalī


paramahaṃsāya: (i) One who destroys from himself as well from his devotees the impurities of Karmas whether merit or sin—Bhāgavata Candrikā

(ii) One who completely removes the doubt of his devotees like Sanaka and others by imparting real knowledge to them—Siddhāntapradīpa


pūrṇāya—(i) Who pervades (everything) both internally and externally—Bhāgavata Candrikā

(ii) Who assumed full-fledged incarnations like Nṛsiṃha, RāmaSiddhāntapradīpa


nibhṛtātmane—One whose all desires are fulfilled or achieved—Bhāgavata Candrikā

Bhāgavata Candrikā records a v.l.nirvṛtātmane—One who is unaffected by sorrow.


Just as you direct others to the path of karma, direct my power of speech for performing your kīrtana form of devotion.


Śuciṣad—(i) Hence is called haṃsaBhāvāratha Dīpikā

cf. Haṃsaḥ śuciṣad / Kaṭha Up. 5.2 also Mahānārāyaṇa 9.3; 17.8 and Nṛsiṃha-Pūrva-Tāpinī Upa 3.1, vide Jacob’s UVK (Upaniṣad Vākya Kośa p. 1067).

(ii) Who dwells in the pure hearts of Yogis—Bhāgavata Candrikā

(iii) One who abides in the Fire—Padaratnāvalī


tantave—(i) Who is of the form of or identical with YajñaBhāgavata Candrikā

(ii) Who secures the continuity of the race, or All-pervading—Padaratnāvalī


(i) Bhāgavata Candrikā: I bow to him who as an Inner Controller dispenses fruits of karmas; who as the food of Pitṛs and gods brings satisfaction to them; who is the protector of three Vedas and is the fruit (seed) of sacrifices; thus he reveals the means of attaining to heaven (Svarga—including worldly pleasures on the earth) and Mokṣa; who is the giver of pleasures to jīvas from the contact with objects of senses and all kinds of tastes.

(ii) Sārārthadarśinī: Oh Lord in the form of Soma, the food of Pitṛs and gods! By repaying the debt (obligations) to gods, sages and Pitṛs, please fix up my heart in devotion (to you) and may the lustre of Soma purify me Oh Lord in the form of fluids! Please develop in me taste for your essential sweetness. May my tongue and humids in my body be purified. I pay obeisance to you.

(iii) Bālaprabodhini: The Lord, in the form of rasa (fluids) is bowed to create proper ability in the tongue to taste the sweetness of divine grace.


(i) Bhāgavata Candrikā: Salutations to him whom everything insentient and all sentient beings serve as a body; who is gross (Virāṭ) and of the form of Pṛthivī and its characteristic quality—fragrance.

(ii) Padaratnāvalī: Obeisance to him who abides in everyone as the Soul, thumb-like in stature; and who staying within the earth makes her most important.

(iii) VC: Oh Hari in the form of the Earth! Direct my sense of smell to your divine fragrance and my body to your service. Oh Hari in the form of Vāyu! Make my sense of touch appreciative of the tenderness of your person and make my body, senses and mind capable of worshipping you.


(i) Padaratnāvalī: Bow to him the correct means of knowing whom is Śāstra or Veda; or who is the cause or source of Puruṣārtha (the highest objective in human life); who is unattached like ākāśa (ether); who sanctifies all; who is light itself; who abides in all deities or who gives sacred regions like Svarga etc.

(ii) VC.: In these verses one’s own elements, senses and mind are made prone to the devotion of the Lord. After adoring Lorḍ, the Lord is bowed to as having the form of the Vaikuṇṭha.


(i) Bhāgavata Candrikā: Pray reveal unto us your form as an object of meditation (and not sākṣātkāra—perception). The Yoga of meditation leads to the Yoga of devotion.

(ii) Padaratnāvalī: Self-purification means liberation from saṃsāra. For this mere performance of our righteous duties according to our varṇa (caste) and āśrama (stage of life) is not enough. This observance of duties developing into and combining therewith intense devotion leads to Liberation.

(iii) VC: Mere knowledge of karmas is not sufficient. Bhakti-yoga is absolutely necessary for those who observe their respective religious duties. A Sādhaka desirous of removing his aviāyā, should meditate upon this form till a gets a vision of it.


VC.: The mind is specially purified in the association of your devotees. Such pure mind enjoys the beauty of your sports (līlā). The ten defects or ‘offences’ against bhakti (devotion) or nāma (God’s name) do not arise. The goddess of Bhakti confers her blessings and such a contemplative Soul visualizes God’s sports in his pure heart.


Padaratnāvalī reads differently: Whose mind enters the Soul who abides in cave of the heart.


Padaratnāvalī: This verse points that Braḥman (the support) and the universe are different; that his supreme effulgence shows that he is unaffected by ignorance or nescience and his comparison with the sky indicates his limitlessness.


yoginaḥ—(i) Bhāgavata Candrikā: For Liberation (Mokṣa) the followers of the path of knowledge (jñāna-yoga) devoutly worship this form of the Lord, by performance of righteous duties specifically prescribed for their varṇa and āśrama. They do these properly and without any attachment or longing for the fruit of the action.

(ii) Followers of Bhakti-yogaBālaprabodhini


Bhāgavata Candrikā: The Lord is known as Puruṣa as he is the antaryāmin of jīva in whom he enters and controls.

Padaratnāvalī: By a slight portion he enters the bodies of four kinds (e.g. viviparous, oviparous etc.) and through the senses of the jīva he enjoys only the essence of bliss. Hence as he abides in the body, he is known as Puruṣa.

VC.: The word sāragha indicates that the so-called pleasure is really pain (the sting of bees).

Siddhāntapradīpa: He who enjoys the insignificant pleasures of senses, the fruit of actions, is called jīva and is bound and he who abides in the body and is free, is the Puruṣa.


caturvidham [caturvidha]: Bhāvāratha Dīpikā enumerates them as follows:—(i) jarāyuja (viviparous); (ii) aṇḍaja (oviparous); (iii) svedaja (sweat-born); (iv) udbhija (germinating as a plant). According to Bhāgavata Candrikā they are:—(1) gods; (2) men; (3) subhuman beings; (4) immovables.


Cf. dvā suparṇā sayujā sakhāyā........
tayor anyaḥ pippalaṃ svādvatti etc.—-Muṇḍ. Up. 3.1.1.; Śvet. Up. 4.6.

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