The Bhagavata Purana

by G. V. Tagare | 1950 | ISBN-10: 8120838203 | ISBN-13: 9788120838208

This page describes Kapila’s description of Creation (Samkhya Cosmology) which is chapter 26 of the English translation of the Bhagavata Purana, one of the eighteen major puranas containing roughly 18,000 metrical verses. Topics include ancient Indian history, religion, philosophy, geography, mythology, etc. The text has been interpreted by various schools of philosophy. This is the twenty-sixth chapter of the Third Skandha of the Bhagavatapurana.

Chapter 26 - Kapila’s description of Creation (Sāṃkhya Cosmology)

[Note: Although the Sāṃkhya theory is described previously (vide supra II.5, III.5, III.7 and implied in I.1.1) this chapter and the next give a more systematic exposition of the same. This account differs materially from the classical Sāṃkhya which is tacitly atheistic in its earliest available text ĪSK. (Īśvarakṛṣṇa’s Sāṃkhya-Kārikās) and expressly so in later works like Sāṃkhya aphorisms attributed to Kapila. As Dasgupta points out. the theistic Sāṃkhya in the Bhāgavata Purāṇa is ‘quite different and distinct’ from ‘the theistic Sāṃkhya of Patañjali and Vyāsa-bhāṣya.’ (Hist. of Ind. Philo. IV. 36). Most of the Purāṇas of the Viṣṇu group and some of the important Pañcarātra āgamas (e.g. the Ahirbudhnya-Saṃhitā) follow the Sāṃkhya theory as expounded in the Bhāgavata Purāṇa If the table of contents of the Ṣaṣṭi-tantra as given in the Ahirbudhnya-Saṃhitā be that of the original work (as Dasgupta believes), the Sāṃkhya system might be originally theistic. But all discussions regarding the problem of the authorship and contents of the Ṣaṣṭitantra are mere speculations and inconclusive, despite the contributions of great scholars like Schrader, Keith, Garbe, Dasgupta and others. Hence the emphasis on ĪSK—the earliest representative of classical Sāṃkhya here.]

The Lord said:

1. Now I shall explain to you separately the characteristics of the fundamental principles. By knowing these, man is liberated from the ties (guṇas) of Prakṛti.

2. I shall explain to you that knowledge which, as the wise say, cuts the knot of ahaṃkāra (egoism) in the heart, and leads man to self-realization, and ultimately to the summum bonum (Mokṣa).

3.[1] Puruṣa is the beginningless (eternal) Soul. (He is) attributeless, distinct from and superior to Prakṛti. He manifests (himself) inside and is self-luminous. The universe, thereby, becomes illuminated.

4. This all-pervading Lord, of his own free will, has accepted the subtle, divine Prakṛti constituted of three guṇas as a part of his līlā (sport).

5. He was here immediately infatuated[2] with Prakṛti which covers (obscures) knowledge and which creates various wonderful beings similar in attributes (guṇas).

6. In this way, due to his wrongly presumed identification with Prakṛti, Puruṣa regards the authorship of karmas (as vested) in him when (actually) the karmas are being done by the guṇas of Prakṛti.

7. Though the Lord is (really) actionless, an unconcerned witness and blissful by nature, it involves him in saṃsāra (cycle of births and deaths), bondage and reduces him to a stage of dependence.

8. They (wise people) know that Prakṛti is the cause of the effect (i.e. the body assumed by Puruṣa in an embodied state), means (organs of senses) and the doership (the presiding deities of sense-organs). In reality, Puruṣa is distinct and beyond—superior to—Prākṛti; (but) he is the cause of all pleasures and pains as the experiencer, due to his identification with Prakṛti.[3]

Devahūti said:

9. Oh best among men, please tell me the characteristics of Prakṛti as well as of Puruṣa. They are the cause of this universe, which consists of both gross and subtle products.

The Lord said:

10.[4] They (the knowers) call that as Prakṛti which is Pradhāna—(the chief, ultimate first principle). It consists of three guṇas (Sattva, rajas and tamas). It is (by itself) unmanifest and eternal. It is of the nature of both cause and effect. It is, by itself, undifferentiated and without any specialities, but it is the basis of (and hence possesses) specialities or attributes.

11. The learned know Brahman as comprising of the effects of Pradhāna—a collection of twenty-four principles, viz. five tanmātrās (subtle potentials of elements), five elements (mahābhūtas), four[5] internal organs, viz. manas, buddhi, ahaṃkāra and citta) and ten (sense-organs consisting of five cognitive and five conative organs).

12. There are only five gross elements (mahābhūtas), viz., earth, water, fire (heat-light), air and the sky (space). The subtle objects of these (elements)[6], viz., smell and others, i.e. taste, colour-form, touch and sound are also the same in number according to me.

13. The sense-organs are ten: the ear, the skin, the eye, the tongue and the nose. (These are the cognitive organs). The organs of speech, the hands, the feet, the organ of generation and the anus is called (enumerated) as the tenth. (These are conative organs).

14. The internal organ has four aspects viz. manas, buddhi, ahaṃkāra and citta. (This) fourfold distinction is observed through its characteristic functions.[7]

15. This much is the list of the enumerated principles of Brahman as conditioned by guṇas as explained (to you) by me. What is called ‘Time’ (Kāla) is the twenty-fifth principle.

16. Some regard Time (Kāla) as the super-human power of God (Īśvara) whence comes fear (death, saṃsāra etc.) to the jīva who is possessed by Prakṛti, and thereby is deluded by I-ness (ahaṃkāra) in identifying himself with the body.

17. Oh Manu’s daughter, that divine power is designated as Kāla which sets commotion in the undifferentiated guṇas of Prakṛti which were (originally) in a state of equilibrium.

18. He is the glorious Lord who dwells within all beings as a controller and yet is unaffected, and outside of them as Kāla[8]

19. The Supreme Man deposited his energy into his Prakṛti whose guṇas were disturbed and agitated by the adṛṣṭa (unseen-destiny) of jīvas. She gave birth to the principle called Mahat which was resplendent (as if made of gold).

20.[9] That cause of the universe which is unchangeable (eternal), wished to manifest the universe which was lying within it in a subtle form. It drank up (dispelled) by its lustre the thick darkness (of the time of deluge) which was capable of covering it. (Mahat was absorbed in Prakṛti at the time of Pralaya).

21. (It is well known in the āgamas) that Mahat which is characterised by sattva-guṇa, pure, free from passions (like love, hatred etc.) and the place of the Supreme Lord, is the citta which is called Vāsudeva and it is composed of Mahat Tattva. [see notes on Vyūhas]

22. The definition of citta is given with reference to its attitudes (abiding states) such as clearness (capability to bear the reflection of the Lord), changelessness (absence of laya and vikṣepa) and tranquillity (freedom from passion). It is just like water in its pure state (before it comes in contact with the earth), changeless (free from foam, ripples etc.), sweet, transparent and clean.

23. The Principle called Mahat which was born out of the potentiality of the Lord, began to undergo modifications. From this Mahat was produced ego (ahaṃkara) of three kinds. It (ahaṃkāra) possessed potentiality to do active work.

24. (The three kinds of ahaṃkāra are) Vaikārika, taijasa and tāmasa (according as it is characterised by the sattvaguṇa, rajoguṇa and tamoguṇa respectively). From these is the creation of mind (manas), sense-organs and great elements (mahā- bhūtas).

25. (Herein the vyūha—manifestation of God—to be meditated is) the Puruṣa called Saṅkarṣaṇa. He has actually a thousand heads and is designated as Ananta (endless). He is of the form of aggregate of bhūtas (elements), indriyas (senseorgans and the mind.

26. The ahaṃkāra is characterised as being the doer (as devata), the instrument (as the sense-organs) and the effect or product (as the bhūtas). Or it may be characterised by serenity (with sattva-guṇa), vehemence (with rajo-guṇa) and dullness (with tamo-guṇa).

27. The principle called mind (manas) was created from sāttvika or vaikārika ahaṃkāra undergoing modifications. It is characterised by thinking and special meditation and is the source of desire[10].

28. The wise persons know it by the name Aniruddha, the Supreme Master of sense organs. He is bluish in complexion like blue lotus in the autumn. He is to be gradually propitiated by yogins (as it is difficult to propitiate him).

29. Oh pious lady, from the taijasa ahaṃkāra undergoing modifications was created the principle called buddhi (which as distinguished from citta) is characterised by intelligence or special knowledge of understanding reality and the power to favour sense-organs.

30. From the point of its aspects, it is separately characterised by doubt, misapprehension, correct determination, memory and sleep (or unconscious state).

31. All the sense-organs (indriyāṇi) classified as the conative and cognitive organs, are created from the Taijasa ahaṃkāra only. For conation (activity) is the power of Prāṇa (who directs the organs of action). And cognition or the power of understanding and knowing is the power of Buddhi (which controls the cognitive organs).—Both Prāṇa and Buddhi being products of the Taijasa ahaṃkāra, all the senseorgans are also the products of the Taijasa ahaṃkāra.

32. From the Tāmasa ahaṃkāra which was prompted by the Power of the Lord, was produced the tanmātrā called Sound (‘the sound-potential’). Thence came forth the Mahābhūta (gross-element) called Space (ākāśa) whence was evolved the sense of hearing which receives sound.[11]

33. The wise people know the characteristic of Sound to be the capacity to convey meaning or ideas, to serve as an index of the seer (or the speaker), and to work as the subtle- potential of the space (sky).

34.[12] With reference to its functions, the characteristics of the space (ākāśa) are to provide space for beings, to pervade them within and without, to afford support (abode) to Prāṇa, sense-organs and the mind.

35. Out of the Space (ākāśa) characterised by its subtle- potential sound, while undergoing modifications by the force of Kāla (Time), there arose the subtle-principle of Touch. From it evolved the Vāyu (wind) and thence the Skin (tvac) the sense-organ of touch which gathers i.e. comprehends touch.

36. The chief characteristics of the Touch (sparśa) are softness, hardness, cold and heat. It is the subtle principle of Vāyu (wind).

37. From functional point of view, Vāyu is characterised by movement (of branches of trees), collecting together (of grass etc.) reaching (of things), carrying of particles (e.g. fragrance to the nose) and sound (to the ear) and giving strength to all sense organs.

38. When Vāyu with its characteristic subtle principle touch, was impelled by Destiny, was evolved the tanmātra (subtle principle) called Rūpa (Form—colour). Out of it arose Tejas (heat—light) and the eye which is the sense to grasp Rūpa (Form—colour).

39. O h good lady, to give form to a substance, to be its attribute, to be coextensive (and co-existent) with the substance as well as to be Tejas (heat-light) itself, are the abiding characteristics of the tanmātra Rūpa.

40. To illuminate, to cook (food), to intoxicate, to destroy cold, to dry, to make one feel hungry and thirsty—these are the effects of Tejas.

41. When Tejas with its subtle principal (tanmātra) Rūpa (Form—colour) was undergoing modifications by being incited by Fate (daiva), the tanmātra called rasa (taste) was evolved. From it was produced water and the Tongue (the sense of taste) which grasps (apprehends) taste.

42. Due to the effect of substances mixed with it, rasa (taste), though only one, becomes distinguished as many, such as astrigent, sweet, bitter, pungent, sour (and salty).

43. Moistening, making adhesive, giving satisfaction, sustaining life, refreshing by satisfying thirst, softening, removing heat and exhaustion, abundance (unfailing continuous supply) or the preponderance (of water in the constitution of body)—these are the characteristic properties of water.

44. When water along with its subtle principle rasa was impelled by Destiny (daiva) and was undergoing modification, the subtle principle Smell was evolved. Thence was formed the earth, and the Sense of Smell (nose) which cognises smell.

45. Due to the different proportions of mixing up of particles of substances, the smell, though one, is distinguished as mixed smell, bad odour, strong fragrance, mild fragrance (as of a lotus), strong smell (as of garlic), acid smell and others.

46. The characteristic functions (and properties) of Pṛthvī are formation into an image of Brahman, independent stability in a position (without the support of jala etc.), supporting other objects (like water), to be the means of making distinction in ākāśa (such as ghaṭākāśa, maṭhākāśa etc.), to help distinctions in all beings and their qualities.

47. That is called the ear (the sense of hearing) of which the special characteristic is the apprehension of sound (śabda), the special attribute of the Space (ākāśa). They (the learned ones)know that to be the sense of Touch, the speciality of which is apprehension of touch, the special characteristic of Vāyu.

48. That is called the sense of seeing (eye) of which the object of perception is Tejas (Form—colour), the special quality of Tejas (Heat—Light). The wise know it to be the sense of taste (Tongue), the special object of which is rasa (taste) which is the special characteristic of Water. That is called the sense of smell (nose), the principal object of which is smell, the special characteristic of the earth.

49. The property of the cause is inherently found in the effect. Hence cumulatively, all the characteristics (of all elements) are found in the earth.

50. When the seven[13] principles such as Mahat and others remained separate (there was no creation of the universe so) the creator of the universe along with Kāla (Time), karma (action or adṛṣṭa) and guṇas entered into them.

51. Out of those principles synthesised and (thrown into commotion by him,) thre came forth the inactive, unintelligent Egg of the universe. From it arose the Virāṭ-puruṣa.

52. This Egg of the universe is called Viśeṣa. It is surrounded. by (elements such as) water and others, each ten times bigger than the previous one. (All of them) are covered on the outside by Pradhāna. Here this extensive world is the body of Lord Hari.

53.[14] The Supreme Gṇd (giving up inactivity) rose from the golden egg, lying on the water. After entering (= controlling) it, he pierced the vacant space[15] therein in various ways.

54. From this[16], at first was evolved the mouth. From the Mouth came forth the speech. Along with speech the Fire (Vahni) came out. Then were evolved two nostrils. Out of them was issued the sense of smell along with Prāṇa (vital breath).

55. From the sense of smell was evolved Vāyu. (Then) two eyes were formed and thence the sense of seeing. From this (sense) was evolved the Sun (Sūrya). (Then) were formed the ears. Thence issued the sense of hearing from which came forth the (presiding deities of) directions.

56. Then was evolved the Skin to virāj. Thence grew hair, beard, mustaches etc. from which were produced herbs and plants. Afterward was evolved the organ of generation (the penis).

57. Thence came forth the semen out of which was evolved water. Then was produced the anus whence the Apāna. From Apāna came forth Death which causes fear to the world.

58. (Thereafter) were formed the hands from which came forth strength. From them came forth Indra (Svarāṭ). (Then) were evolved the feet from which came forth locomotion or movement. Thence came forth Hari.

59. The blood vessels were then formed in him. From them was produced blood from which were issued rivers (goddesses presiding over rivers). Then was evolved the stomach.

60. From it arose hunger and thirst. From them came forth (the presiding deity of) the ocean. Then the heart was evolved in him. From the heart came forth the mind.

61. From the mind was born the Moon. Then Intelligence (buddhi) was evolved. From it came forth the Lord of Speech (Brahmā). Then (was evolved Ego (ahaṃkāra). Thence was evolved citta from which was born Kṣetrajña.

62. These gods (with the exception of Kṣetrajña—the individual Soul) who have arisen, were unable to make him rise (and to activate him). (Therefore) in order to rouse him (into activity) they, one by one, entered into their own spaces (appointed sense-organs).

63. God Agni (Fire) entered the mouth along with the speech, but the Virāṭ was not roused thereby. When Vāyu (Wind) entered the nostrils along with the sense of smell, but thereby the Virāṭ did not rise.

64. The Sun entered the eyes along with the sense of vision, but even then the Virāṭ did not rise. When the (deities presiding over) directions (along with the sense of hearing entered the ears, the Virāṭ did not get up.

65. When the gods presiding over herbs and plants entered the skin along with hair, the Virāṭ did not rise. When the (presiding deity of) water entered the organ of generation along with semen, the Virāṭ was not roused.

66. The god of Death entered the anus along with Apāna but the Virāṭ was not activated. Indra along with strength entered the hands but the Virāṭ remained inactive.

67. Viṣṇu, along with power of movement, entered the feet but the Virāṭ was not roused. Goddesses of rivers entered the blood vessels along with blood, but the Virāṭ was inactive.

68. The (god of the) ocean entered the stomach along with hunger and thirst, but the Virāṭ remained unaroused. The Moon entered the heart along with the Mind, but the Virāṭ was not roused.

69. Even Brahmā entered the heart along with intelligence (buddhi) but the Virāṭ did not get up. When Rudra along with ahaṃkāra entered the heart, (still) the Virāṭ was not-roused.

70. But when Kṣetrajña (the intelligent individual Soul), the master of citta entered the heart, the Virāṭ Puruṣa immediately was roused and got up from water.

71. Just as Prāṇa (vital breath), sense organs, mind and intelligence are not able to wake up the (body of a) sleeping person by their own power without his (kṣetrajña’s) help (so was the case with Virāṭ Puruṣa).

72. By devotion unto God, (leading to) non-attachment to anything else, and with mind inclined to and concentrated by Yoga, and the knowledge obtained by it, one should meditate on the Soul (Pratyagātman) within oneself as different from it (from the chain of causal-relations)[17].

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

(i) Bhāgavata Candrikā explains: Puruṣa is jīva. As he illuminates himself as well as other things, he is regarded as self luminous. But unlike jaḍa (non-sentient) lamp, his light (knowledge) is useful for himself in becoming conscious of himself and others. He is distinct from Prakṛti i.e. its products like the body, sense-organs, mind, vital breaths etc. Hence he is free from Sattva and other guṇas of Prakṛti. He has pervaded all the universe by entering into gross and subtle bodies from god Brahmā to a blade of grass.

(ii) Padaratnāvalī states: The Supreme Soul is eternal (lit. is beginningless and endless). He is not caused (created) by anything. He is Puruṣa—i.e. the bestower of perfect bliss. Or he is within all but unrelated to guṇas. He is beyond Prakṛti. He lives in the lotus called Abhimukha. He is illuminated by his own light. He has pervaded the world of movables and immovables.

(iii) Siddhāntapradīpa interprets: He is beginningless, i.e. He existed before the creation and is the cause of everything else He enters all and controls them and confers on the jīvas the fruits of their Karmas. He is the shelter and controller of Prakṛti. He is devoid of guṇas and governs the sentient and non-sentient universe. Being self-luminous he has pervaded all the universe.

(iv) Subodhinī construes it differently: He being devoid of attributes (guṇas) and being their cause, is himself uncreated by anyone. He is distinct froṭn and unrelated to Prakṛti. He is the self-knower and self- luminous and is thus distinct from ahaṃkāra. Thus he is Ātman—free from body, guṇas, Prakṛti and Kāla. His self-luminosity is his extra- ordinariness (alaukikatva [alaukikatvam]).

(v) Bhāvāratha Dīpikā tells us that the adj. pratyag-dhāmā refutes the Buddhist doctrine of momentariness and the adjectives—nirguṇa and svayaṃ-jyoti refute the Mīmāṃsaka and Prabhākara’s views about the nature of the Soul.

[2]:

mumuhe: (i) identified himself with Prakṛti—Bhāgavata Candrikā

(ii) Padaratnāvalī credits Hari for deluding the jīvas by his will or Prakṛti which obscures the knowledge of jīva.

(iii) Jīva forgot his own real nature by the vṛtti of Prakṛti known as avidyā. Jīva had this knowledge before the creation (during the Deluge) but forgot it after creation.

[3]:

Cf.

kārya-kāraṇa-kartṛtve hetuḥ prakṛtir ucyate /
puruṣaḥ sukha-duḥkhānām bhoktṛtve hetur ucyate / Bhagavad Gītā 13.20.

Padaratnāvalī explains the 2nd half: They know that it is Viṣṇu who is superior to Prakṛti, is the cause of Jīva’s experience of pleasure and pain. Sārārthadarśinī endorses the same.

[4]:

According to ĪSK this mūla-prakṛti is avyakta (3) and Pradhāna (11, 57 etc.). It appears that the original doctrine of eight-fold Prakṛti (probably related to levels of yogic awareness, vide Kaṭha. 3.10-11) was represented later as ‘vertical’ evolution with Prakṛti as the first Principle. The characteristics of the Prakṛti are enumerated in ĪSK as follows:

hetumad anityam avyāpi sakriyam anekam āśritam liṅgam /
sāvayavaṃ paratantraṃ vyaktaṃ viparītam avyaktam // 10 //

‘Avyakta is the opposite of vyakta which is caused, finite, non-pervasive, active, plural, supported, emergent, composite and dependent’. The next Kārikā (11) further describes Prakṛti as ‘characterised by three guṇas undiscriminated, objective, general (sāmānya), non-conscious and productive.

A reference to the Bhāgavata Purāṇa (supra I.10, II.5, III.5, III.7 etc.) will show that the Prakṛti is not an independent real as is presumed in the ĪSK. God, in his desire to realize himself, reflects himself in the Prakṛti which is his own power, and it is through this impregnation of himself in his own power, that Prakṛti is enlivened by consciousness, and he appears as individual Souls suffering from the bondage of Prakṛti. It is through his creative effort called Kāla (Time) that the equilibrium of the guṇas of Prakṛti is disturbed and categories (or ‘Principles’) are evolved. Later (infra XI.13, XI.22 etc.) an extreme idealistic monism practically effaces Sāṃkhya realism, as the Bhāgavata Purāṇa holds that ultimate reality is one and that all differences are merely in name and form. Prakṛti and its manifestations are due to the operation of the Māyā power of God. This Māyā is defined as that which manifests non-existent objects but is not manifested, itself (Bhāgavata Purāṇa II.9.33).

It will thus be found that the concepts of Prakṛti in the ĪSK and in the Bhāgavata Purāṇa are not the same. (For Kapila’s Philosophy in the Bhāgavata Purāṇa viḍe Dasgupta—Hist. Ind. Philo. Vol. IV. 24. 24-48).

A systematic comparative study of the Sāṃkhya in the Bhāgavata Purāṇa and the classical Sāṃkhya is beyond the scope of such foot notes.

[5]:

I enumerated these on the basis of verse No. 14 below. But Bhāgavata Candrikā states them as manas, ahaṃkāra, mahat and avyakta (caturbhir mano'haṃkāra-mahad-avyaktair /). He later (verse 14) admits that if the four aspects of mind enumerated in this verse are counted as independent, the number of categories will be twenty-seven.

[6]:

tanmātrās: These are not included in old lists of evolutes in the Bhagavad Gītā and Mokṣadharma (Mahābhārata). I believe that the Bhāgavata Purāṇa is following Bhagavad Gītā and Mahābhārata in enumerating the objects of senses under tanmātrās. In the classical Sāṃkhya the objects of senses are left out of the list of tattvas. In it the tanmātās [tanmātrās?] are the products of ahaṃkāra and serve as subtle potential of gross elements (Mahābhūtas vide ĪSK. 38.) G. J. Larsen writes: ‘The subtle elements function somewhat like manas... They are products of self -awareness and yet they in turn come in contact with or generate the external world’.—Classical Sāṃkhya, pp. 205-6.

[7]:

Padaratnāvalī and Bhāvārtha-dīpikā-prakāśa state the functions as follows: Buddhi leads to conclusions; manas entertains doubt; ahaṃkāra creates pride; citta is the cause of remembrance.

[8]:

Bhāvāratha Dīpikā concludes: Thus there are twenty-four categories of Prakṛti. The twenty-fifth is the Jīva (individual Soul) and Supreme Soul (Īśvara) which are identical.

It will thus be seen that the Bhāgavata Purāṇa presents three aspects of Time: God, Power of God and Time-sequence. In this chapter, the Bhāgavata Purāṇa deals with the first two aspects. Time is a supra-phenomenal reality. Its characteristic feature is to disturb the equilibrium of Prakṛti and set in motion the process of creation. It thus pre-exists creation. It is God’s power, dynamism and effort, as it is a force driving the cosmic process to materialize into subtle and gross creation. Kāla pervades the mind of man as his inner controller and the external universe as time. When Bhāgavata Purāṇa enumerates Time as the twenty-fifth category of Sāṃkhyas, it refers to the concept of Time as God. When it takes Time as the power of Puruṣa, it refers to the second aspect. For details Bhattacharya The Philosophy of the Śrīmad Bhāgavata I.247-259.

[9]:

Bhāgavata Candrikā takes this with reference to God: The Lord, the cause of the universe which is unchangeable, wanted to manifest the universe which was lying absorbed in Prakṛti within him. By his lustre (knowledge in the form of his will to create) he drank up (destroyed) the darkness (ignorance, the attribute tamas) which obscured (restricted the knowledge of) jīvātman.

[10]:

kāma-sambhava—The son of Kāma, i.e Pradyumna.

[11]:

Cf. supra III. 5. 32.

[12]:

Bhāvāratha Dīpikā, Bhāgavata Candrikā remark that in this way the following verses consist of groups of three, the first describing the creation of the gross-element, the second verse giving the characteristic of that tanmātrā and the third the characteristic of the mahābhūta.

[13]:

viz. Mahat, ahaṃkāra and bhūtas. As per older tradition tanmātrās are subsumed under bhūtas.

[14]:

Padaratnāvalī takes the Abl. in hiraṇmayad... kośāt in the sense of Acc. and interprets: The great God Hari made the golden Egg of the universe lying in the water to rise above it. He entered it and also the body of Virāj Puruṣa who was born of him. Dwelling within, he made space (ākāśa in the form of the space in mouth (and other organs), differentiated and manifest.

Subodhinī states: When Hari woke up from sleep, the sense organs were differentiated and evolved for enjoyment of the various aṃśās of God.

[15]:

kham [kha]—(1) a hole,—Bhāvāratha Dīpikā (iii) The conative and cognitive sense-organs which were undifferentiated in his four-faced body (was differentiated by him into different sense organs).

[16]:

asya: Bhāgavata Candrikā takes this gen. in the Abl. sense and interprets: God Brahmā’s body is an aggregate considered to be made up of parts each of which is consubstantially the same with the whole. From the mouth of this Brahmā’s aggregate body the mouths of individual gods were issued. From the mouth was differentiated the speech, and thence Fire, its presiding deity.

[17]:

Bālaprabodhini makes explicit the process implied above by Bhāvāratha Dīpikā: The first stage is devotion (bhakti) of nine kinds. When the heart is purified by devotion, there arises non-attachment to pleasures or worldly things. Then comes the knowledge about the distinction between Prakṛti, Puruṣa and īśvara. By that knowledge, understanding the individual Soul (Pratyagātman) to be different and distinct from the body which is an aggregate of cause and effect, one should, with mind trained for concentration by yoga discipline, meditate on the Kṣetrajña or Pratyagātman.

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