The Anugītā

1882 | 64,929 words

Volume 8, The Sacred Books of the East. This part Contains the english translation of the Anugita (a portion of the Ashvamedhika Parva from the Mahabharata)....

Chapter XXII

Brahman said:

O best (of men)! I will explain to you accurately the quality of passion. Learn, O noble ones! the action of the quality of passion. Injuring (others), beauty[1], toil, pleasure and pain, cold and heat, power[1], war, peace, argument, repining[2], endurance, strength, valour, frenzy, wrath, exercise and quarrel too, vindictiveness, desire, backbiting, battle, the thought (that this or that is) mine, preservation[3], slaughter, bonds, affliction, buying and selling, touching[4] other people's weak points, by cutting, breaking, piercing; fierceness and cruelty, vilifying, pointing out others' weaknesses, thinking of (this) world, harbouring evil thoughts, animosity, abuse uttering falsehoods, bad[5] gifts, doubt, boasting, censure, praise, laudation[6], prowess, defiance, attendance. (on another), obedience[7], service,, harbouring desire, management[8], policy, heedlessness, contumely, belongings[9], and the various decorations which prevail in this world, for men, for women, for living creatures., for articles, and for houses, vexation, and also want of faith, vows and regulation[10], and actions with expectations, and the various acts of public charity[11] the ceremony of Svāhā, the ceremony of Svadhā, the ceremony of Vashat[12], salutation, both officiating at sacrifices and imparting instruction, and also sacrificing and study, gifts and acceptance of gifts, expiations, auspicious rites, the wish 'this may be mine and that may be mine,' affection generated by the qualities[13], treachery and likewise deception, disrespect and respect, theft, slaughter, disgust, vexing (oneself), wakefulness, ostentation, haughtiness, and attachment also, devotion, pleasure and delight, gambling, common scandal, association with women, devotion to dancing, and instrumental or vocal music, all these qualities, O Brāhmaṇas! are described as passionate. The men who meditate on past, present, and future entities in this world[14], who are always devoted to the triad--piety, wealth, and lust also[15]--who acting under (the impulse of) desires exult or. the success of all their desires, these men, who are enveloped by passion, have (their) currents downwards[16]. Born again and again in this world, they rejoice[17], and wish for the fruit appertaining to the life after death[18] and that appertaining to this world also. They give and receive, and make Tarpaṇa[19], and also sacrifice. The qualities of passion have been described to you in many ways, and the action of the quality has also been stated accurately. The man who always understands these qualities, gets rid of all passionate qualities.

Footnotes and references:

1.

Arjuna Miśra says these mean pride of beauty and pride of power respectively. Cf. as to this list generally, Maitrī, pp. 50, 51.

2.

Cf. Sanatsujāta, p. 168.

3.

I presume this means solicitude for preserving what one has got. Cf. Gītā, p. 48.

4.

Literally, piercing. 'Cutting, breaking, piercing,' further on, seem to indicate the greater or less offensiveness of the operation of 'touching others' weak points.'

5.

I. e. to undeserving persons, Arjuna Miśra. Probably it includes the other defects also pointed out at Gītā, p. 120. As to doubt, see Gītā, p. 63.

6.

The one is attributing merits which do not exist, the other is merely parading merits which do exist.

7.

Arjuna Miśra takes this literally to mean 'wish to hear.'

8.

Cleverness in worldly affairs, Nīlakaṇṭha.

9.

Cf. Gītā, passim, and see also Yoga-sūtras II, 30, and commentary (pp. 127-129, Calc. ed.)

10.

Fasts and other observances for special benefits.

11.

E.g. digging tanks and wells, &c.

12.

Vashat and Svāhā indicate offerings to gods, Svadhā to the manes. See Bṛhadāraṇyaka, p. 982, and Māṇḍukya (Gauḍapāda Kārikā), p. 443, and commentaries there.

13.

I presume this means attachment to the operations of the qualities. Cf. Gītā, p. 48. As to the wish just before, see Gītā, pp. 115, 110.

14.

I. e. who are always thinking of what they have done and what they have to do, and so forth. Cf. Gītā, pp. 115, 116.

15.

And not that which is higher than these, viz. final emancipation.

16.

See p. 321 and note  5 there.

17.

Cf. inter alia, Gītā, p. 48.

18.

Viz. heaven. Cf. Gītā, p. 48.

19.

I. e. offerings to the manes.