The Agni Purana

by N. Gangadharan | 1954 | 360,691 words | ISBN-10: 8120803590 | ISBN-13: 9788120803596

This page describes The class of words dependent on the substantives for their genders which is chapter 367 of the English translation of the Agni Purana, one of the eighteen major puranas dealing with all topics concerning ancient Indian culture, tradition and sciences. Containing roughly 15,000 Sanskrit metrical verses, subjects contained in the Agni-Purana include cosmology, philosophy, architecture, iconography, economics, diplomacy, pilgrimage guides, ancient geography, gemology, ayurveda, etc.

Chapter 367 - The class of words dependent on the substantives for their genders

[Full title: The class of words dependent on the substantives for their genders (sāmānya-nāmaliṅga)]

[Note: This chapter summarises Amara, kāṇḍa III, paṅktis 2030 ff.]

Fire-god said:

1. Listen to me! I shall describe the genders of the substantives in general. (The words) sukṛtī, puṇyavān and dhanya (denote a fortunate person). (A generous person is denoted by the words) maheccha and mahāśaya.

2. (The words) pravīṇa, nipuṇa, abhijña, vijña, niṣṇāta and śikṣita[1] (a proficient person) (are synonyms). (A very liberal person is denoted by the words) vadānya, sthūlalakṣya, dānaśauṇḍa and bahuprada.

3. The words kṛtī,[2] kṛtajña[3] and kuśala (mean a clever person). (The word) āsakta (means one drawn towards something). (The words) udyukta and utsuka (mean being drawn towards something by one’s own desire). (The words) ibhya, āḍhya and parivṛḍha (denote a rich man). Adhibhūḥ [adhibhū], nāyaka and adhipa (mean a master).

4. (A person endowed with fortune is denoted by the words) lakṣmīvān, lakṣmaṇa and śrīla. (The words) svatantra, apāvṛta and svairī (denote an independent person). Khalapū would (mean) bahukara (a sweeper). (The words) dīrghasūtra and cirakriya (denote a lazy person).

5. Jālma and asamīkṣyakārī [asamīkṣyakārin] (mean a person acting without discriminating good and bad). One who is slow in doing things is known as kuṇṭha. (One who is proficient in doing things is) karmaśūra or kamaṭha. (The words) bhakṣaka, ghasmara and admara (denote a gluttonous person).

6. Lolupa (denotes a person having ardent desire). (The words) gardhana and gṛdhnuḥ [gṛdhnu] (denote a greedy person). (A modest person is denoted by the words) vinīta and praśrita. (The words) dhṛṣṇuk [dhṛṣṇu?] and viyāta (are synonyms of) dhṛṣṭa (immodest). Nibhṛta[4] and pratibhānvita (denote a person having imagination).

7. (The word) adhira (means a person afflicted by fear, hunger, thirst etc.). (A cowardly or timid person is denoted by the words) bhīruka and bhīru. (The words) vandāru and abhivādaka (denote a polite or respectful person). (The words) bhūṣṇu, bhaviṣṇu and bhavitā (mean a person desiring to become rich). A knower (is denoted by the words) vidura and vinduka.

8-9a. (The words) matta, śauṇḍa, utkaṭa and kṣība (denote an intoxicated person). Caṇḍa (means) atyantakopana (extremely short-tempered). Devadrayaṅ [=Devadryaṅ?] [devadryac/devadryañc] is a person adoring a deity. A person serving the world is viśvadrayaṅ [=viśvadryaṅ] [viśvadryañc/viśvadryac]. A companion, especially the husband (is denoted by the word) sadhryaṅ [sadhryañc/sadhryac]. A person serving crookedly (is called) tiryaṅ [tiryañc/tiryac].

9b-10a. (The two words) vācoyuktipaṭu and vāgmī (denote a logician). A garrulous person (is denoted by the word) vāvadūka. (A person indulging in unrefined talks is denoted by the words) jalpāka, vācāla, vācāṭa and bahugarhyavāk.

10b-11. (One who is censured is called) apadhvasta and dhikkṛta. (The words) kīlita and saṃyata (denote a person) bound (with rope etc.). (The words) ravaṇa[5] and śabdana (denote a person making sound). (The words) nāndivādī and nāndīkara are synonyms (denoting laudatory singer). (The words) vyasanārta and uparakta (denote a person afflicted by misfortune)[6].

12. (The words) vihasta and vyākula are synonyms (meaning a person who does not know what to do on account of grief. (The words) nṛśaṃsa, krūra, ghātuka and pāpa (mean a person bent on harming others). Dhūrta and vañcaka (mean a cheat). (The words) mūrkha, vaidheya and vāliśa (denote a fool).

13. (A miser is denoted by the words) kadarya, kṛpaṇa and kṣudra. (The words) mārgaṇa, yācaka and arthī (mean a beggar). (The word) ahaṃyu (means) an egoistic person. A person endowed with good fortune (is called) śubhaṃyuḥ [śubhaṃyu].

14-15a. (The words) kāntam [kānta], manoramam [manorama] and rucyam [rucya] (are used in the sense of a beautiful thing). A thing that is desired (is denoted by the words) hṛdyam [hṛdya] and abhiṣṭam [abhiṣṭa]. (The words) asāram [asāra] and phalgu (mean a worthless thing). (The word) śūnyam [śūnya] (means void). (An important thing or person is denoted by the words) mukhya, varya and vareṇya.[7] (The words) śreyān, śreṣṭha and puṣkala would (mean the outstanding). (The words) prāgrya, agrya, agrīya and agriya (also mean an important person).

l5b-16. (The words) vaḍram [vaḍra], uru and vipulam [vipula] (mean wide). (The words) pīnam [pīna], pīva, sthūlam [sthūla] and pīvaram [pīvara] (mean) stout. (The words) stoka, alpa and kṣullaka (are used in the sense of a little). (A minute thing is denoted by the words) sūkṣmam [sūkṣma], ślakṣṇam [ślakṣṇa], debhram [debhra], kṛśam [kṛśa] and tanu. (The words) mātrā and kuṭī (in the feminine) and lava and kaṇa (in the masculine) (have the same sense). (The words) bhūyiṣṭham [bhūyiṣṭha], puruha and puru (mean plenty).

1 7. (The words) akhaṇḍam [akhaṇḍa], pūrṇam [pūrṇa] and sakalam [sakala] (denote the whole). (The words) upakaṇṭha, antika, abhita, samīpa, savidha[8] and abhyāsa (mean near). (The word) nediṣṭham [nediṣṭha] (means) very near.

18. (The word) daviṣṭham [daviṣṭha] would (mean) very far. (The words) nistala and vartula (would mean) circular. (The words) ucca, prāṃśu, unnata and udagra (mean high). (An eternal thing is denoted by the words) dhruva, nitya and sanātana.

19. (The words) āviddham [āviddha], kuṭilam [kuṭila], bhugnam [bhugna], vellitam [vellita] and vakram [vakra] (denote the crooked). (An unsteady thing is denoted by the words) cañcalam [cañcala] and taralam [tarala]. (The words) kaṭhoram [kaṭhora], jaṭharam [jaṭhara][9] and dṛḍham [dṛḍha] (mean hard).

20. (The words) pratyagra, abhinava, navya, navīna, nūtana and nava (mean fresh or new). (The word) ekatāna (means) concentrated on a single object. (The word) uccaṇḍam [uccaṇḍa] (means) quickly.

21. (The words) uccāvacam [uccāvacam] and naikabhedam [naikabheda] (mean manifold ways). (The word) sambādha (means a narrow way), Kalilam [Kalila] (means a difficult path). (The words) timitam [timita], stimitam [stimita] and klinnam [klinna] (mean wet). (The word) abhiyoga (means) abhigraha (an attack).

22. (The word) sphāti (is used to mean) increase. (The word) prathā (is used to denote) fame. (The word) samāhāra (means) a collection. (The word) apahāra (means) apacaya (removal). (The words) vihāra and parikrama (mean movement on foot).

23. (The words) pratyāhāra and upādānam [upādāna] (are used in the sense of restraining the sense-organs). (The extraction of extraneous objects from the body is denoted by the words) nirhāra and abhyavakarṣaṇam [abhyavakarṣaṇa]. (The words) vighna, antarāya and pratyūha would (mean an obstacle). (The words) āsyā, āsyanā and sthiti (are used in the sense of a seat).

24. (The words) sannidhi and sannikarṣa (would (mean proximity). (A difcult path is indicated by the words) saṅkrama and durgasañcara. (The words) upalambha and anubhava (convey the meaning of experience). (The words) pratyādeśa and nirākṛti (are used in the sense of rejection).

25. (The words) parirambha, pariṣvaṅga, saṃśleṣa and upagūhanam [upagūhana] (denote embrace). An inference (is that which is gained) by means of pakṣa (subject of a syllogism), hetu (reason) and the like[10]. The words ḍamara[11] and viplava (are used) in (the sense of) frightening an enemy by shouts.

26. The knowledge about an object, that is not perceived, (arising) from the statement is said to be śābdam [śābda].[12] Upamāna (Upamānaka) (comparison) would be the cognition arising from seeing the resemblance in a similar (object).

27. Arthāpatti (presumption) would be the knowledge about a different thing which would not exist without (the thing seen) Abhāva (non-existence) is the cognition "it is not there" when the counter-correlative is not apprehended on the ground. Thus ends the genders of substantives told by Hari (Viṣṇu) for the sake of knowledge of men.

Footnotes and references:


Other words having the same meaning have been wrongly put in the next verse in the Purāṇa.


These words should be read with those in verse 2.


This word means a grateful person. Probably a mistake for kṛtamukha. Cf. Amara, paṅkti, 2033.


Amara, paṅkti 2075 reads pragalbha.


The Purāṇa wrongly reads caraṇa.


The next two words repeated from verse 10—obviously a mistake.


Some of the other words having the same meaning have been given in the Purāṇa in the next verse after a break.


The ptd. text of the Purāṇa reads sannidha.


Also spelt as jaraṭham [jaraṭha].


This is not found in Amara.


The printed text wrongly reads bhramara.


This and other terms of Nyāya given here are not found in Amara.

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