The Agni Purana

by N. Gangadharan | 1954 | 360,691 words | ISBN-10: 8120803590 | ISBN-13: 9788120803596

This page describes Words relating to Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and other classes which is chapter 366 of the English translation of the Agni Purana, one of the eighteen major puranas dealing with all topics concerning ancient Indian culture, tradition and sciences. Containing roughly 15,000 Sanskrit metrical verses, subjects contained in the Agni-Purana include cosmology, philosophy, architecture, iconography, economics, diplomacy, pilgrimage guides, ancient geography, gemology, ayurveda, etc.

Chapter 366 - Words relating to Kṣatriyas, Vaiśyas and other classes

[Full title: Words relating to Kṣatriyas, Vaiśyas and other classes (kṣatra-viś-śūdra-varga)]

Fire-god said:

1. (The words denoting the warrior caste are) mūrdhābhiṣikta, rājanya, bāhuja, kṣatriya and virāṭ. A king who is respected by the vassals is known as adhīśvara.

2. (A king who holds way over the entire earth is known as) cakravartī and sārvabhauma. A king who is different from the above is a maṇḍaleśvara. (Minister or counsel is known as) mantrī [mantrin], dhīsaciva and amātya. (The chief counsel is known as) mahāmātra and pradhānaka.

3. A person who attends to disputes (is called) prāḍvivāka and akṣadarśaka. The man in charge of gold in a royal treasury (is called) bhaurika. (The words) adhyakṣa and adhikṛta are synonyms (denoting a superintendent). The person invested with the charge of the harem (is called) antarvaṃśika. (The words) sauvidalla, kañcukin, sthāpatya and sauvida (also denote the same).

4-6a. The words ṣaṇḍa (saṇḍa) and varṣavara (denote the servants in the harem, who are eunuchs). (The words) sevaka, arthī and anujīvi (denote a servant). A ruler of the region other than one’s own is a śatru (enemy). One who is beyond that region is a mitram [mitra] (friend). A person beyond that is udāsīna (neutral). A king who is in the rear (of a kingdom) is pārṣṇigrāha.

6b-7. (A spy is denoted by the words) cara, spaśa and praṇidhi. The time that is to come is āyati. The present time is known as tatkāla and tadātvam [tadātva]. The fruit accruing in future (is called) udarka. (The fear that is caused) by such factors as excessive rains and fire (is) adṛṣṭam [adṛṣṭa]. (The fear that is caused) by one’s own kingdom or other (is) dṛṣṭam [dṛṣṭa].

8. (The words) bhadrakumbha and pūrṇakumbha (are synonyms meaning a pitcher that is full). (A vessel made of gold is called) bhṛṅgāra and kanakālukā. (A rutting elephant is called) prabhinna, garjita and matta. (A particle of water splashed by the trunk of an elephant is called) vamathu and karaśīkara.

9. A goad is known as sṛṇi, in the feminine and aṅkuśa, in the masculine. (The words) paristoma and kutha (denote) the carpet on the back of an elephant in both (the genders). (A vehicle used by ladies for transport is called) karṇīratha and pravahaṇam [pravahaṇa]. The words dolā (palanquin) and preṅkhā (swing) etc. (are used) in the feminine.

10. (The words) ādhoraṇāḥ [ādhoraṇa], hastipakāḥ [hastipaka], hastyārohāḥ [hastyāroha] and niṣādinaḥ [niṣādina] (denote mahouts). (Warriors are denoted by the words) bhāṭāḥ [bhaṭāḥ?—bhaṭa], yodhāḥ [yodha] and yoddhāraḥ [yoddhāra] (The words) kañcuka and vāraṇa[1] (mean armour). They are not feminine.

11. Śirṣaṇya (is used to denote) śirastra (helmet). (The words) tanutram [tanutra], varma and daṃśanam [daṃśana] (are used to mean armour). (The words) āmukta, pratimukta, pinaddha and apinaddha (are used to mean a person covered by armour).

12-14. An arrangement of army (for the sake of battle) is vyūha. (The words) cakram [cakra] and anīkam [anīka] (denote an army). It is not feminine. The patti (consists of) an elephant, a chariot, three cavalrymen and five infantry. Three times the constituents of a patti and subsequently in the same way in order would be senāmukham [senāmukha], gulma, gaṇa, vāhinī, pṛtanā, camūḥ [camū] anīkinī, daśānikinī and akṣauhiṇi. A bow (is also known as) kodaṇḍa, and iṣvāsa. The tip (koṭi) (of a bow) is known as aṭanī.

15. The middle of a bow (is called) lastaka. (The bowstring is called) maurvī, jyā, śiñjinī and guṇa. (The words) pṛṣatka, bāṇa, viśikha, ajihmaga, khaga and āśuga (denote an arrow).

16. (The words) tūṇa, upāsaṅga, tūṇīra and niṣaṅga (denote a quiver) both in the masculine and feminine. (The words) asi, riṣṭi, nistriṃśa, karavāla and kṛpāṇa (mean a sword).

17. Tsaru [Saru?] is the handle of a sword. Īlī and karavālikā [karapālikā?] (denote a short sword). The words kuṭhāra and svadhiti (denote an axe). (The word kuṭhāra is used in) both (masculine and feminine). (The words) churikā and asiputrikā (denote a knife).

18. Prāsa is known to be kunta (meaning a spear). Sarvalā and tomara (mean an iron club) (used) in the masculine and neuter. (Bards who sing praises and wake up in the morning are called vaitālika and bodhakara. Māgadha (are bards in general). Vandin and stuti (pāṭhaka) (are bards singing in praise of the kings).

19. Saṃśaptaka are those who do not turn back from battle. (The words) patākā, vaijayantī, ketanam [ketana] and dhvajam [dhvaja] (denote a banner). (The word) dhvajam [dhvaja] (is used) in the masculine and neuter.

20. (A fight with enthusiasm) I first, I first, (is known as) ahaṃpūrvikā, in the feminine. Where mutual ego is shown (I am capable) it is known as ahamahamikā.

21. (The words) śakti, parākrama, prāṇa, śauryaṃ [śaurya], sthāma, saha and balam [bala] (denote valour). Mūrcchā, kaśmalam [kaśmala] and moha (denote stupefaction). Avamardana and piḍanam [piḍana] (mean devastation of grains etc. by the invading forces).

22. (The words) abhyavaskandanam [abhyavaskandana] and abhyāsādanam [abhyāsādana] (mean encountering an enemy by trick), Vijaya and jaya (are synonyms meaning conquest). (The words) nirvāsanam [nirvāsana], saṃjñapanam [saṃjñapana], māraṇam [māraṇa] and pratighātanam [pratighātana] (mean killing).

23. (The words) pañcatā, kāladhama, diṣṭānta, pralaya and aryaya would (mean death). (The words) viṭ, bhūmispṛk and vaiśya (denote a tradesman and agriculturist). (The words) vṛtti, vartanam [vartana] and jīvanam [jīvana] (mean livelihood in general).

24. Kṛṣi (agriculture) etc. are to be known (as the means of livelihood of a vaiśya). (The words) kusīdam [kusīda] and vṛddhijīvikā mean existing on interest by lending money). Uddhāra (means debt). (The word) arthaprayoga[2] (also means kusīda). Kaṇiśa (denotes) the ear of a corn.

25. Kiṃśāru (denotes) the beard of a corn. Stamba (means) a bunch of grass etc. (Paddy etc. are denoted by the words) dhānyam [dhānya], vrīhi and stambakari. (The minute particles of straw) are known as kaḍaṅgara and busam [busa {vupam—vupa?}].

26. Blackgram etc. are grains in the form of pods. Barley and other grains are in the form of beards. (Grains such as) nīvāra are wild grains (tṛṇadhānya). A winnowing basket is also known prasphoṭanam [prasphoṭana].

27. (A sack made of cloth to carry grains is known as) syūta and praseva. Kaṇḍola and piṭa (denote a cotainer made of bamboo etc). Kaṭa and kiliñjaka (relate to different varieties of reeds). These are similar. Rasavatī, pākasthānam [pākasthāna] and mahānasa (denote a kitchen).

28. The kitchen superintendent (is called) paurogava. (Cooks are denoted by the words) sūpakāra, vallava, ārālika, āndhasika, sūda, audanika and guṇa.

29. (A frying pan is denoted by the word) ambarīṣam [ambarīṣa], in the neuter and bhrāṣṭra, in the masculine. (The words) karkarī, ālu and galantikā (denote a small pitcher). (A big pitcher is called) aliñjara [āliñjara?] and maṇika. Suṣavī (is the name of) black cumin seed.

30. (The words) āranāla and kulmāṣam [kulmāṣa] (denote a kind of gruel). The words vāhlīka, hiṅgu and rāmaṭham [rāmaṭha] (denote asafoetida). (The words) niśā, haridrā and pītā, feminine (denote turmeric). (The words) matsyaṇḍī and phāṇitam [phāṇita] (mean molasses).

31. Transformed milk (is called) kūrcikā. (The words) cikkaṇam [cikkaṇa], masṛṇam [masṛṇa] and snigdham [snigdha] (denote bland). (Rice parched and flattened is denoted by the words) pṛthuka and cipiṭaka. Fried and powdered barley (is called) dhānā, in the feminṃe.

32. (The words) jemanam [jemana], leha and āhāra (denote food). (The words) māheyī and saurabhī denote a cow. Those which are yoked (are called) yugyaḥ [yugya], prāsaṅgyaḥ [prāsaṅgya] and śākaṭaḥ [śākaṭaḥ].

33. (A cow) that has delivered a calf long time back (is called) vaṣkayaṇī, and (one) that has delivered recently (is called) dhenu. (The cow) that is attacked by a bull (for mating) (is called) sandhinī. A barren cow (is called) vehat.

34-35. (A person sustaining himself by buying and selling is called) paṇyājīva and āpaṇika. A thing left as trust (is called) upanidhi and the word is masculine. The words vipaṇa and vikraya (mean sale). The numerals one to eighteen (are to be used) in all the three (genders) and the numerals twenty onwards take only singular always. While counting number two takes the plural. Among them (the numerals) upto ninety are feminine.

36-37. (A unit measuring ten is called a paṅkti). Successive multiples of a paṅkti would be hundred, thousand etc. They are measured by tulāṅguliprastha [lāṅguliprastha?][3]. Five guñjas (make) one ādyamāṣaka. Sixteen (māṣas) (make) one akṣa (otherwise called) karṣa. The word is not feminine. Four karṣas (would make) one palam [pala]. An akṣa (measure) of gold (is known as) suvarṇa and bista [vista]. A pala (measure) of the same (is called) kuruvista.

38. One hundred palas (make) one tulā That (word) is feminine. Twenty tulās would make one bhāra. (A karṣa measure of silver) is called kārṣāpaṇa or kārṣika. A karṣa (measure) of copper (is known as) paṇa.

39-40a. (The words) dravyam [dravya], vittam [vitta], svāpateyam [svāpateya], riktham [riktha], ṛktham [ṛktha], dhanam [dhana] and vasu (denote wealth). (The words) rīti and ārakūṭa (denote brass). It is not in the feminine. (The words) śulbam [śulba] and audumbaram [audumbara] (are synonyms of) tāmrakam [tāmraka] (brass). Kālāyasam [Kālāyasa] and aya (are synonyms of) loha (iron).

40b. (The words) kṣāra and kāca (alkali) (are synonyms). (The words) capala, rasa, sūta and pārada (are synonyms denoting mercury).

41. The horn of the wild buffalow (is called) gavalam [gavala]. Trapu and piccaṭam [piccaṭa][4] (tin) (are synonyms). Sīsakam [Sīsaka][5] (denotes lead). (The words) hiṇḍīra, abdhikapha (sea-foam) and phena (are synonyms). (The words) madhūcchiṣṭam [madhūcchiṣṭa] and sikthakam [sikthaka] (bee-wax) are synonyms.

42. (The words) raṅgam [raṅga] and vaṅgam [vaṅga][6] (denote tin). (The words) picu and tūla (mean cotton). Kunaṭī (denotes) manaḥśilā (arsenic) (especially the Nepalese variety). Yavakṣāra (nitre) would be (known as) pākya. (The words) tvakkṣīrī [tvakkṣīrā?] and vaṃśalocanā (denote a medicinal substance got from the bamboo).

43. Vṛṣalāḥ [Vṛṣala], jaghanyajāḥ [jaghanyaja] and śūdrāḥ [śūdra] (are synonyms) (denoting the fourth class of men). Caṇḍālas and other low caste men (are known as) mixed (castes). Kāru and śilpī [śilpin] (denote the artisan). Their union (with those) of their own caste (is called) śreṇi, both in (the feminine and masculine).

44. (A painter is denoted by the words) raṅgājīva and citrakāra. (A carpenter is denoted by the words) takṣā, vardhaki and tvaṣṭā. (The words) nāḍindama and svarṇakāra (denote a goldsmith). (The words) nāpita and antāvasāyī [antāvasāyin] (denote a barber).

45. (A shepherd is denoted by the words) jābāla and ajājīva. (A person living by serving the god is called) devājīva and devala. (Actors are denoted by the words) jāyājīva and śailūṣa. (The words) bhṛtaka and bhṛtibhuk (denote a person living on wages).

46. (A low person is denoted by the words) vivarṇa, pāmara, nīca, prākṛta, pṛthagjana, nihīna, apasada and jālma. (The words) dāsera and ceṭaka (are used to denote) a servant.

47. (The words) paṭu, peśala and dakṣa (mean a clever person). Mṛgayu is known to be lubdhaka (hunter). Cāṇḍāla (low class man) (is also known as) divākīrti. (The word) pustam [pusta] (is used) in (the sense of) plastering.

48. A puppet (made of cloth etc.) is pāñcālikā. Any young animal (is known as) varkara. (The words) mañjūṣā, peṭaka and peṭā (denote a box). (The words) turya, sādhāraṇa and sama (mean equal or similar). (The word) pratimā would (mean) pratikṛti (an image or statue). The brahma and other classes have been described so far.

Footnotes and references:


Amara paṅkti. 15 93 reads vāravāṇa.


Cf. Amara paṅkti 1714. The Purāṇa while making an extract mixes the two terms.


tulā is explained below; aṅguli is finger-breadth and one praṣtha is equal to thirty-two palas explained below.


The other equivalents are given in the next verse.


The Purāṇa wrongly mixes this word with the previous.


Cf. the previous verse.

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