The Agni Purana

by N. Gangadharan | 1954 | 360,691 words | ISBN-10: 8120803590 | ISBN-13: 9788120803596

This page describes The completed forms of the verbs after adding the conjugational signs which is chapter 358 of the English translation of the Agni Purana, one of the eighteen major puranas dealing with all topics concerning ancient Indian culture, tradition and sciences. Containing roughly 15,000 Sanskrit metrical verses, subjects contained in the Agni-Purana include cosmology, philosophy, architecture, iconography, economics, diplomacy, pilgrimage guides, ancient geography, gemology, ayurveda, etc.

Chapter 358 - The completed forms of the verbs after adding the conjugational signs

Kumāra said:

I. I shall describe the terminations (which are added) to the verbs as well as the substitutes in brief The verbs occur in three forms such as bhāve (impersonal), karmaṇi (passive) and kartari (active).

2. They are known to be transitive and intransitive in the two padas (Ātmanepada and Parasmaipada) in the Active. In the same way the substitutes in the transitive and intransitive.

3. Laṭ is the designation for the present tense. Liṅ is said to be in the sense of the potential (mood) etc. Loṭ (is) for benediction and conditional etc. Laṅ (is the designation) for the past not relating to the present day.

4. Luṅ (is the name) for the past (Aorist) and liṭ for remote past and luṭ for immediate (first) future. Liṅ (is used) for benediction and lṛṭ in the remaining senses. Lṛṅ would denote the (second) future.

5. (Lṛṅ, conditional) (is used in the sentences) in which the Potential may be used, when the non-performance of action is implied. The latter nine (are) Ātmanepada (the result of the action accruing to one’s self) and the former nine (are) Parasmaipada (the result of the action accruing to another person). Tip, tas and anti (are the terminations of) the prathamapuruṣa.[1]

6-7a. Sip, thas and tha (are the terminations of) the madhyamapuruṣa[2] and mip, vas and mas (for) the uttamapuruṣa[3]. Ta, ātāṃ and anta (are) the prathamapuruṣa (terminations) in the Ātmanepada, thās, āthāṃ, dhvaṃ in the madhyama and i, vahi, mahi in the uttama (in the imperfect). Bhū (to be) etc. are known to be the roots.

7b-10a. The following are the important roots belonging to the different conjugations[4]. (The roots) bhū (to be), edh (to prosper), pac (to cook), nand (to rejoice), dhvaṃs (to perish), śaṃs (to praise) (belong to the first conjugation). Pad (to go) (fourth), ad (to eat) (second), śīṅ (to lie down, second), krīḍ (to buy) (first) , juhoti ( to offer in a sacrifice) (third), jahāti ( to abandon, third), dadhāti (dhā to bear, third), dīvyati (di to play or to shine, fourth), svapiti (svap to sleep, second), nah (to tie, fourth), sunoti (su, to press out juice, fifth), vas (to dwell), tud (to strike, wound, sixth), mṛśati (mṛś to touch, sixth), muñcati (muñc to lose, sixth), rudh (to hold up, seventh), bhuj (to enjoy, seventh), tyaj (to abandon, first), and tan (to spread, eighth). (The roots) man (to think), karoti (kṛ, to do), krīḍati (krīḍ, to play), vṛṅ (to choose), graḥ (to seize), cor (cur, to steal), (to drink and protect), (to carry) and arc (to worship) are the important in the śap[5] and other modifications.

10b-13a. In (the root) bhū (by adding tiṅ, we would have saḥ bhavati (he becomes), tau bhavataḥ (they two become) and te bhavanti (they all become). (Similarly we have) you become, you two become and you all become and I become, we two become and we all become. (Similarly in the Ātmanepada), the family prospers, two prosper and (many) prosper. You grow with intellect, (you two) prosper and you all prosper. We two grow with intellect. We all prosper with devotion to (lord) Hari. (He) cooks etc. are as before.

13b-15. One becomes and one enjoys (are examples) for the impersonal forms. The passive (is formed by adding) yak. The desiderative form (of root bhū is) bubhūṣati. Thus in the causal (one) meditates on the lord. In the frequentative (we have the form) bobhūyate (Ātmanepada) or bobhoti when yoṅ is dropped (is the form) in the Parasmaipada frequentative. Putrīyati (treats like a son) on account of desire for children and thus paṭapaṭāyate (utters the sound paṭpaṭ), ghaṭayati (brings about) (are examples) of the desiderative. He causes the figure to be adorned (bubhūṣayatī) (is the form) in the causal.

16. Bhavet (may become), bhavetāṃ, bhaveyuḥ, bhaveḥ bhavetaṃ, bhaveta, bhaveyaṃ, bhaveva, bhavema are (the forms in the three persons in the singular, dual and plural) in the Potential (mood) (in the Parasmaipada).

17. Edheta, edheyātāṃ, edheran (grow or prosper) with the mind and prosperity, edhetāḥ, edheyāthāṃ, edhedhvaṃ, edheya, edhevahi, edhemahi (are the forms of the Potential moon in the Ātmanepada).

18-19a. Let it be. Bhavatāṃ, bhavantu, bhavatād or bhava, bhavataṃ, bhavata, bhavāni, bhavāva, bhavāma (are the forms) in the Imperative mood. Edhatāṃ (may one prosper), edhetāṃ, edhantāṃ (in the third person), edhai (in the first person singular) (are the forms of Ātmanepada Imperative). Pacāvahai, pacāmahai (are the forms of Ātmanepada Imperative dual and plural from pac to cook).

19b-20. Abhyanandat (felicitated), apacatāṃ (cooked), apacan (they cooked), apacaḥ (you cooked), abhavataṃ (you two became), abhavata (you all became), apacaṃ (I cooked), apacāva (we two cooked), apacāma (we all cooked) (are the examples for the past (imperfect) in the Parasmaipada). Aidhata, aidhetāṃ (third person singular and dual), aidhadhvaṃ (second person plural), aidhe, aidhāmahi (first person singular and plural) are said to be (the forms in the past tense, Ātmanepada).

21. Abhūt, abhūtāṃ, abhūvan, abhūḥ and abhūvaṃ (are the forms of the root bhū to be or become) in the Aorist. Aidhiṣṭa, Aidhiṣātāṃ (Men prospered), aidhiṣṭhāḥ, aidhiṣī (are) thus (the forms of the Aorist Ātmanepada).

22. (The root bhū becomes) babhūva, babhūvatuḥ, babhūvuḥ, babhūvitha, babhūvathuḥ, babhūva, (babhūva), babhūviva and babhūvima (are the forms) in the Perfect tense (in the Parasmaipada).

23. Pece, pecāte, pecire (cooked) and edhāñcakṛṣe tvaṃ (you prospered), edhāñcakrāthe, pecidhve, pece, pecimahe (are the forms in the Perfect in the Ātmanepada and Periphrastic perfect).

24-25. In the first future (the root bhū has the forms) bhavitā, bhavitārau, bhavitāraḥ (will become) Hara and others. Bhavitāsi, bhavitāsthaḥ; bhavitāsmaḥ vayam (we) (are the other forms). Paktā, paktārau, paktāraḥ (are the forms of the root pac in the first future third person). You will cook (paktāse) good food. Paktādhve, I will cook (paktāhe), paktāsmahe (we will cook) the porridge for lord Hari (are examples for some of the forms of the root pac in the first future Ātmanepada).

26-30. In the benedictive: May there be (bhūyāt) happiness, Hari and Saṅkara bhūyāstām (be benevolent), bhūyāsuḥ they, you bhūyāḥ, you two gods bhūyāstaṃ, you all bhūyāsta, ahaṃ bhūyāsaṃ (May I be), bhūyāsma (we all may be) always (happy). Yakṣīṣṭa, edhiṣīyāstāṃ, yakṣīran, edhiṣīya, yakṣīvahi, edhiṣīmahi (are some of the forms of the roots yaj, to sacrifice and edh to prosper in the Ātmanepada) in the Benedictive. Ayakṣyata, ayakṣeyātāṃ, ayakṣyanta, ayakṣye, ayakṣyethāṃ you two, ayakṣyadhvaṃ, aidhiṣyāvahi, aidhiṣyāmahi we all (are the forms) in the Conditional mood in the Parasmaipada, Ātmanepada. Bhaviṣyati would be (the form) in the second future. Edhiṣyāmahe is similar. In the same way vibhāvayiṣyanti, bobhaviṣyati (frequentative second future) (will become again and again). Ghaṭayet, paṭayet, putrīyati, kāmyati (are other forms of nominal verbs and frequentatives).

Footnotes and references:


corresponding to the third person.


corresponding to the second person.


corresponding to the first person.


The roots are divinded [divided?] into ten conjugations known as bhvādi, adādi, juhotyādi, divādi, svādi, tudādi, rudhādi, tanādi, kryādi and curādi.


śap is the designation of the termination added to the first conjugation.

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