The Agni Purana

by N. Gangadharan | 1954 | 360,691 words | ISBN-10: 8120803590 | ISBN-13: 9788120803596

This page describes Metres having similar characteristics in all the four quarters (samavritta) which is chapter 334 of the English translation of the Agni Purana, one of the eighteen major puranas dealing with all topics concerning ancient Indian culture, tradition and sciences. Containing roughly 15,000 Sanskrit metrical verses, subjects contained in the Agni-Purana include cosmology, philosophy, architecture, iconography, economics, diplomacy, pilgrimage guides, ancient geography, gemology, ayurveda, etc.

Chapter 334 - Metres having similar characteristics in all the four quarters (samavṛtta)

[Note: This corresponds to Piṅgala chapters VI, VII and VIII, Sūtras 1-19]

Fire-god said:

I. Yati (caesura) is said to be the break or pause (at the end of a quarter). (The metre) Tanumadhyā (has) ta and ya (in a quarter). Kumāralalitā[1] has ja, two sas and ga (in a quarter) (the pause occurring at the end of every three and four syllables). Citrapadā is known to have two bhas and two gas (in a quarter).

2. Vidyunmālā has two mas and two gas (in a quarter}. (The pause occurs after every four syllables.) Māṇavakakrīḍitaka would be had with pha, ta, la and ga. (The pause occurs after every four syllables.) Halamukhī has ra, na and sa (in a quarter). (The pause occurs after three and six syllables.)

3. Bhujaṅgaśiśusuta has two nas and ma (in a quarter). (The pause occurs after seventh and second syllables.) Haṃsaruta[2] consists of ma, na and two gas (in a quarter). Śuddhavirāṭ has ma, sa, ja and ga in every quarter. (The pause occurs at the end of a quarter.)

4. Paṇava has ma, na, ya and ga (in every quarter). (The pause occurs after every five syllables.) Mayūrasāriṇī has ra, ja, ra and ga (in every quarter). (The pause occurs at the end of a quarter.) Mattā has ma, bha, sa and ga (in a quarter). (The pause occurs after fourth and sixth syllables.) Upasthitā[3] has ta, ja, ja and ga (in a quarter). (The pause occurs after every second and eighth syllables.)

5. Rukmavatī has bha, ma, sa and ga (in a quarter). (The pause occurs at the end of a quarter.) Indravajrā has two tas, ja and two gas (in a quarter). (The pause comes at the end of a quarter.) Upendravajrā consists of ja, ta, ja and two gas. (The pause occurs at the end of a quarter.) Mixed varieties are formed by (Indravajrā and Upendravajrā) coming alternatively at the beginning and end.

6-7. Dodhaka has three bhas and two gas. Śālinī consists of ma, ta, ta and two gas. The pause occurs after every four and seven syllables. Vātormī consists of ma, bha, ta and two gas. (The pause occurs after) every fourth and seventh syllables. Bhramaravilasitā has ma, bha, na, la and ga. (The pause occurs) after fourth and seventh syllables. Rathoddhatā has ra, na, ra, la and ga.

8. Svāgatā has ra, na, bha and two gas. Vṛntā has two nas, sa and two gas. Śyenī consists of ra, ja, ra, la and ga. Ramyā[4] has ja, ra, ja and two gas.

9. (The metres belonging to) the Jagatī[5] (class are now described). Vaṃśasthā consists of ja, ta, ja, and ra. Indravaṃśā has two tas, ja and ra. Toṭaka is said to have four sas.

10-11. Drutavilambita would be with na, bha, bha, and ra. Puṭa has two nas, ma and ya. (The pause occurs after) the eighth and fourth syllables. Jaloddhatagati consists of ja, sa, ja and sa. (The pause occurs) after every sixth syllable. (The metre) Tata is said to have two nas, ma and ra. Kusumavicitra has na, ya, na and ya. Cañcalākṣikā[6] would have na, na, ra and ra.

12. Bhujaṅgaprayāta has four ya (gaṇas). Sragviṇī has four ra (gaṇas). Pramitākṣarā has sa, ja and two sas. Kāntotpīḍā has bha, ma, sa and ma.

13. Vaiśvadevī consists of two mas and two yas. (The pause occurs after the fifth and seventh[7] syllables.) Navamālinī consists of na, ja, bha and ya in each quarter. The Atijagatī (metres) are described now.

14. Praharṣiṇī[8] has ma, na, ja, ra and ga. The pause is after the third and tenth (syllables). Rucirā has ja, bha, sa, ja and ga. It has pause after the fourth and ninth (syllables).

15-16. Mattamayūra consists of ma, ta, ya, sa and ga. The pause is after the fourth and ninth (syllables). Gaurī has three nas, sa and ga. Asambādha has ma, ta, na, sa and ga. It has pause after the fifth and ninth syllables. Aparājitā would have two nas, ra, sa, la and ga. (It has pause after every seven syllables.)

17. Praharaṇakalitā[9] (has two nas, bha, na, la and ga). Vasantatilakā contains ta, bha, two jas and two gas. It is Siṃhonnatā (according to) the sage (Kaśyapa). It is Uddharṣiṇī according to Saitava.

18-20. Candrāvartā has four nas and sa. The same is (known as) Mālā, if it has the pause after sixth and ninth letters. The same would be Maṇiguṇanikarā (if it has pause after the eighth and seventh syllables). Mālinī has two nas, ma and two yas. The pause is after the eighth and seventh (syllables). Ṛṣabhagajavilasita[10] has bha, ra, three nas and ga. The pause is after seventh and ninth (syllables). Śikhariṇī (has ya, ma, na, sa, bha, la and ga). Pṛthvī consists of ja, sa, ja, sa,ya, la and ga. It has pause after the eighth and ninth syllables. Thus they have been described by Piṅgala before.

21. It would be Vaṃśapatrapatita, (if a quarter has) bha, ra, na, bha, na, la and ga. The pause occurs after the tenth (and seventh syllables). Hariṇī has na, sa, ma, ra, sa, la and ga. It has pause after every sixth, fourth and seventh (syllables).

22-23. Mandākrāntā has ma, bha, na, ta, ta and two gas. It has pause after the fourth, sixth and seventh (syllables). Kusumitalatāvellitā (has) ma, ta, na and three yas. It has pause after the fifth, sixth and seventh syllables. (The following is based on the Vedic metre) Atidhṛti. Śārdūlavikrīḍita consists of ma, sa, ja, sa, two tas and ga. The pause comes after the twelfth and seventh (syllables).

24. (The following metres are based on the Vedic metre) Kṛti. Suvadanā has ma, ra, bha, na, ya, bha, la and ga. The pause comes after the seventh, seventh and sixth (syllables). (The metre) Vṛtta has ga and la in order.

25. (The following metre is based on the Vedic metre Prakṛtī.) Sragdharā consists of ma, ra, bha, na and three yas. The pause comes after seven, seven, seven syllables. Bhadraka[11] has bha, ra, na, ra, na, ra, na and ga. (The pause occurs after) the tenth and twelfth (syllables).

26. (The following are based on the Vedic metre Vikṛtī.) Aśvalalita consists of na, ja, bha, ja, bha, ja, bha, la and ga. (The pause occurs after) the eleventh (and twelfth syllables). Mattākrīḍā has two mas, ta, four nas, la and ga. (The pause comes after) the eighth and fifteenth (syllables).

27. (The following is based on the Vedic metre Saṅkṛtī.) Tanvī has bha, ta, na, ma, two bhas, na and . (The pause comes after) the fifth, seventh and twelfth (syllables). (The following is based on the Vedic metre Abhikṛtī.) Krauñcapadā consists of bha, ma, sa, bha, four nas and ga. (The pause comes after) the fifth, fifth, eighth (and seventh syllables).

28-30. (The following metres are based on the Vedic metre Utkṛtī.) Bhujaṅgavijṛmbhita[12] has two mas, ta,na, ra, sa, la and ga. The pause comes after the eighth, twelfth and seventh syllables. (The metre) called Apavāhaka[13] similarly has ma, six nas, sa and two gas. The pause occurs after the ninth, sixth, sixth (and fifth syllables). (The Daṇḍakas are now described.) Daṇḍaka has two nas and seven ras (in a quarter). (The first variety of Daṇḍaka) is Caṇḍavṛṣṭiprapātaka[14]. (It has twenty-seven syllables in a quarter). Other varieties (of Daṇḍaka) such as Vyāla, Jīmūta etc., would be had by adding one ra (each time) (to the original Daṇḍaka).

The remaining varieties are known as Pracitā. The tabular representation (of long and short vowels) of Gāthā (etc.) are described (now).

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

The Purāṇa is corrupt.

[2]:

The text is very corrupt.

[3]:

The reading in the text is wrong.

[4]:

Piṅgalacchandas VI. 32 reads Vilāsinī.

[5]:

having twelve syllables in a quarter.

[6]:

The Purāṇa reads Calāmbikā.

[7]:

The Purāṇa wongly reads aṅga denoting six.

[8]:

The Purāṇic text is corrupt.

[9]:

The Purāṇa has not defined this metre.

[10]:

The text is corrupt.

[11]:

The Purāṇa reads Samudraka.

[12]:

The text is corrupt here.

[13]:

The text reads Upahāra.

[14]:

The text reads Caṇḍavṛṣṭipraghātaka.

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