The Agni Purana

by N. Gangadharan | 1954 | 360,691 words | ISBN-10: 8120803590 | ISBN-13: 9788120803596

This page describes The application of the mantras of the Rigveda (rigvidhana) which is chapter 259 of the English translation of the Agni Purana, one of the eighteen major puranas dealing with all topics concerning ancient Indian culture, tradition and sciences. Containing roughly 15,000 Sanskrit metrical verses, subjects contained in the Agni-Purana include cosmology, philosophy, architecture, iconography, economics, diplomacy, pilgrimage guides, ancient geography, gemology, ayurveda, etc.

Chapter 259 - The application of the mantras of the Ṛgveda (ṛgvidhāna)

[Sanskrit text for this chapter is available]

Fire-god said:

1. I shall (now) describe to you the application (of the mantras) of the Ṛg (veda), Yajur (veda), Sāma (veda) and Atharva (veda) that yield enjoyment and emancipation when repeated and (are used for making) oblations (as) described by Puṣkara to Rāma.

Puṣkara said:

2. I shall (now) describe the (religious) rites (relating) to each one of the Vedas. You listen first to the application of the Ṛg (veda) [i.e., ṛgvidhāna] that would yield enjoyment and emancipation.

3. The repetition of the Gāyatrī (mantra)[1] especially with (the practice) of prāṇāyāma (regulated breathing), (while remaining) in the water as well as at (the time of making) oblations confers the fulfilment of heart’s desires.

4. O Brahmin! The repetition of the Gāyatrī ten thousand times by a man eating only in the night and bathing many times (during the day), destroys all the sins then and there.

5. One who repeats (the mantra) a lakh times while eating the oblations, becomes fit for emancipation. The praṇava (the syllable Oṃ) is identical with the Supreme Braman and its repetition destroys all the sins.

6. One who repeats the syllable Oṃ while remaining in waist-deep water and drinks the water becomes free from all sins.

7. (The praṇava consists of) three mātrās (syllabic instants), three Vedas, three gods (Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva) and three fires.[2] The mahāvyāhṛtis[3] are the seven worlds[4]. An oblation made with these destroys all the sins.

8. Gāyatrī is the most excellent (among the mantras fit) for repetition. The mahāvyāhṛtis are also of similar nature. O Rāma! The aghamarṣaṇa (sūkta)[5] (destroyer of sins) should be repeated (while remaining) in the water.

9-11 a. The hymn agnimīle purohitaṃ[6] (is sacred) for the Fire-god. One should repeat (this hymn) over a year holding the fire on the head, (performing) oblation three times (a day) with soma (juice), living on alms and without lighting the fire (for cooking). Then the seven ṛks (hymns) known as Vāyu etc. should be daily repeated devoutly. Thus one will realise all his desires.

11b. One who desires to improve his memory should repeat the hymn known as sadasaspatim[7].

12-13a. These nine hymns (beginning with) anvayo yan[8] are said to be destroyers of death. One who is a captive or being obstructed should repeat (the hymn) śunaḥśepaṃ ṛṣiṃ[9]. One becomes free from all sins (by this). One who is sick becomes free from sickness.

13b-14. One who is desirous of (gaining) permanent pleasures and the friendship of the wise Purandara (Indra) should repeat daily the sixteen hymns (beginning with) indrasya.[10] One who repeats (the hymn) hiraṇyastūpaṃ[11] will cause affliction to the enemies.

15-16a. One who repeats (the hymn) ye te panthāḥ[12] will be safe on his journey. One who praises lord Īśāna with six Rudra hymns everyday or one who offers oblation to Rudra will have greatest peace.

16b-17a. One who extolls the rising Sun with (the hymn) ‘ud[13] and offers water with folded palms seven times will be able to dispel his mental grief.

17b-18. One who repeats the half hymn dviṣantaṃ[14] ending with yadvi pra will get his sin destroyed within seven nights. One who desires health or one who is sick should repeat (the hymn) praskannasyottamaṃ[15].

19-20. One who repeats the half hymn uttamastasya[16] in various postures will get long life; if it is repeated at midday one will get radiance; if (repeated) at sunset one will afflict his enemies. One who repeats the hymns na vadhaḥ[17] will destroy his enemies.

21. One who repeats the eleven suparṇa[18] hymns will accomplish all the wishes. One who repeats (the hymn) ādhyātmikīḥ ka[19] will get emancipation.

22-23. (One who repeats the hymn) ā no bhadrā[20] will get long life. One should look at the rising moon with (the repetition of) the hymn tvam soma and worship with the twig in the hand. He will certainly get garments. One who desires (long) life should always repeat the hymn of Kautsa (beginning with) imaṃ.[21]

24. By glorifying the Sun at midday with (the hymn) apanaḥ śośucad[22], one gets freed from sin like (a bow) when the arrow is discharged.

25-26. One’s pathway becomes safe by the repetition of (the hymn) jātavedasa[23]. One gets free from all fears. That person enjoying auspicious things will get houses. This (hymn) destroys the bad dream of the previous night. One should repeat (the hymn) pramandina[24] and (a woman) who is delivering a child will do so with ease.

27. A man will get free from all sins after bathing with (the repetition of the hymn) upannindraṃ[25] and offering clarified butter as oblation (while repeating) the seven Vaiśvadeva (hymns).

28-29. One who repeats (the hymn) imām[26] always will get all his desires fulfilled. One who fasts for three nights and offers the twigs of udumbara (tree) dipped in clarified butter with (the repetition of) the two (hymns) mā nastoka[27] etc. after becoming pure will cut all the fetters of death and live free from disease.

30-3la. One who having glorified Lord Śambhu with (the repetition of) this hymn with arms raised, binds the tuft into a knot while repeating the hymn mānastoka, no doubt, becomes invincible by all beings.

31b-32a. One should worship the Sun daily at the three twilights with (the repetition of the hymn) citraṃ[28] holding the twig. Thus he will get the desired wealth.

32b-33. One will destroy the entire bad dream and get good food by the repetition of (the hymn) atha svapna[29] in the morning and noon everyday. (The hymn) ubhe pumān is said to destroy the demons.

34. One who repeats the hymn ubhe vāsā[30] will get all the pleasures. A person repeating (the hymn) na sāgan[31] will escape from the murderer.

35. One who repeats (the hymn) kayā śubha[32] will attain caste-excellence, and (the hymn) imaṃ nṛsomaṃ[33] will give all the pleasures.

36. Conveying obeisance with (the hymn) pitaḥ[34] one will always acquire riches. Oblation made with ghee with (the repetition of the hymn) agne naya[35] also shows the path.

37. One who repeats suśloka[36] will always get a progeny of heroes. One is able to destroy all poisons by (the repetition of) the hymn kaṅkato na.[37]

38. One will get all the pleasures by (the repetition of) the hymn yo jāta[38]. One will get an excellent friend by (the repetition of) the hymn gaṇānām[39].

39-4la. (One should repeat) the hymn yo me rājan[40] that destroys bad dream. One who commences a journey and faces an unpraiseworthy or praiseworthy enemy should repeat the (hymn) kuvidaṅga[41]. One will enjoy all the desired pleasures by repeating the excellent hymn ādhyātmika[42] consisting of twenty-two verses on the full and new moon days.

4Ib-43. One should offer an oblation of clarified butter with concentrated (mind) repeating the hymn kṛṇuṣva[43]. One will take away the lives of enemies and destroy even the demons (by this). One should worship daily the Fire (god) with the hymn pari[44]. The Fire (god) having a face on every side Himself protects that person on all sides. One should look at the Sun, (remaining) pure and (repeating) the (hymn) haṃsaḥ śuciṣad.[45]

44-47. A man about to cultivate a field should offer oblations of pot-boiled porridge at the centre of the field as laid down with the five (hymns) svanī svāhā[46]. A farmer should derive his plough in the approriate manner (and offer oblations) to (the gods) Indra, Maruts, Parjanya and Bhaga. One should then worship Indra and these deities with perfumes, garlands and prostrations (after having worshipped) the ploughshare (saying) (the yoke) has been fastened for the sake of grains. Agriculture will thus always thrive and the work relating to sowing (the seeds), cutting, threshing and ploughing will yield profuse results.

48-49. One will get the desired things from the Fire (god) by (the recitation of) the hymn samudrāt[47] One who worships the Fire (god) with the two hymns (called) viśvānara[48], surmounts all difficulties, gets undiminishing fame, abundant wealth and unsurpassed victory.

50. One gets the desired riches by propitiating (the Fire god) with (the hymn) agne tvam[49]. A person desirous of having progeny should repeat the three hymns of Varuṇa daily.

51-52. (Each) morning, one should recite the three svasti[50] hymns, whereby one (will) always secure great prosperity. By the recitation of (the hymn) svasti panthām[51] one will have safe journey. One who desires to conquer (should repeat the hymn) vanaspate[52], (by which) enemies will be laid down with disease. (By the recitation of the same hymn) a woman having a dead foetus will have a good delivery.

53. One who is desirous to get rain should employ the hymn acchāvada[53] after fasting and wearing wet clothes. It will rain in no time.

54. A person who desires to have a cow should repeat (the hymn) manasaḥ kāma.[54] One who desires to have progeny should bathe (reciting the hymn) kardamena[55], after becoming pure and practising vow.

55-56. A man who wants to acquire kingdom should bathe with (the repetition of the hymn) aśvapūrvāṃ[56]. A brahmin should bathe (standing) on a deer-skin as laid down. A king (should bathe standing) on a tiger-skin and a man of the merchant class on a goat (skin) in the same way. It has been declared that ten thousand oblations (should be done) in each case.

57. If a person desires to have (the herds of cattle) always undiminshing (in his cowpen), he should worship the cow, the mother of the worlds, in the cowpen with (the recitation of) the hymn āgāvo[57].

58. A king should consecrate the (royal) drum with the three (hymns beginning with) upa[58]. (By this) he will get radiance and strength and rout the enemy.

59. One who is surrounded by the demons should repeat the hymn rakṣoghnam[59] holding grass in the hand. By repeating the hymn ye ke ca jama[60] one will gain long life.

60. One should consecrate the constituents of his army by the hymn jīmūta[61] first like a liṅga. Then the king will destroy the enemies in the battle.

61-62. One will gain undiminishing wealth by (the recitation of) the three hymns (beginning with) āgneya[62]. One may fix goblins by (the repetition of) the hymn amīvaha[63] in the night. One should repeat this hymn in danger, difficulty, when caught in a fort, taken as a prisoner, while setting out some time, while running away, or when held as a captive.

63-64a One should fast for three nights with self-control, boil sweat gruel and cast one hundred oblations with that with (the repetition of) the hymn tryambaka[64] in honour of (Lord) Śiva. One will thus live happily for hundred years.

64b-65. One should worship the rising Sun and the Sun at the middle (of the day) after bathing and with the hymn taccakṣuḥ[65] if one desires to have long life. The hymn (called) indrā soma,[66] (when repeated), is said to destroy the enemy.

66. A person who has lost his vow by mistake or on account of association with the vrātyas[67], should fast and offer oblation with clarified butter with (the recitation of the hymn) tvamagne vratapā[68].

67. A person who repeats the hymn āditya[69] and samrāja[70] will get victory in debate. One will become free from great fear by (the repetition of) the four (hymns beginning with) mahī[71].

68. One will get all the pleasures by the repetition of the hymn yadi hyetat[72]. One will destroy his enemies by the repetition of the forty-two aindra[73] hymns.

69-70. One gets good health by repeating (the hymn) vācāmahī[74]. A person who eats food repeating the two (hymns) śanno bhava[75] after becoming clean and controlling the senses and touches the heart with the hand will not be attacked by diseases. One will destroy the enemy by offering oblations with (the hymns) uttamedaṃ[76] after bathing.

71. One will get food by making oblation with the hymn śanno'gnir[77]. One will get free from the defects of the quarters (on journey) by (repeating) the hymn kanyāvārarṣi[78].

72. One is able to subjugate the whole universe by the repetition (of the hymn) yadetya kavyaś[79] at (sun) rise. One’s speech gets refined by the repetition of (the hymn) yadvāk[80].

73. One gill get good speech by repeating (the hymn) vāco vidaṃ[81]. The pāvamāny[82] hymns are considered to be most sacred.

74. The thirty vaikhānasa[83] hymns are considered to be extremely sacred. O Foremost among the sages! the parasva[84] hymns are said to be sixty-two.

75. The sixty-seven hymns—svādiṣṭayā[85]—are declared as destroyers of all sins, purifiers and conferrers of welfare.

76. The six hundred and ten hymns of pāvamānya[86] when repeated and used for making oblations will enable one to conquer the dread of death.

77. One should repeat (the hymns) āpo hiṣṭha while standing in the water to destroy the fear of sin. A man passing through a desert should repeat (the hymn) pradevanna[87] after the control (of senses).

78. When one is haunted by the fear of death, one will get (the end of) his life quickly. One should repeat the single hymn prāveyābhi[88] mentally in the night.

79. (If it is repeated) at dawn or at sunrise one will get victory in gambling. One who has lost his way will find his way by (repeating the hymn) mā pragāma[89].

80-8la. If one thinks that the life of a friend of himself is running out, he should bathe and touch the head of the friend (reciting the hymn) yatteyam[90] thousand times for five days. He will thus find him long-lived.

81b-82. A wise man should offer a thousand oblations with ghee with (the repetition of the hymn) idam medhya[91]. One who desires to have cattle (should do it) at the cowpen and one who desires riches, at the crossroads. One who repeats (the hymn vayaḥ suparṇā[92] will acquire wealth.

83. One will become free from all sins by the repetition of (the hymn) haviṣyantīyam[93]. His diseases will get cured and the digestive power increased.

84. (The hymn) yā oṣadhayaḥ[94] (when repeated) is a means of securing prosperity and curing all the diseases. One who wishes to have rain should employ (the hymn) bṛhaspate ati[95].

85. (The hymns) sarvatra[96] and pratiratha[97] are known (to confer) supreme peace. (The recitation of the hymn) sūta saṅkāśyapaṃ[98] daily is commended for a person desirous to have progeny.

86. A person who (recites the hymn) ahaṃ rudra[99] becomes an eloquent speaker. The learned person who recites (the hymn) rāti[100] in the nights is not born again.

87. The person who recites the rātrisūkta[101] in the night spends the night safely. By doing the recitation of (the hymn) kalpayantī[102] daily (one will be able to) destroy the enemies.

88. (The recitation of) the great Dākṣāyaṇa[103] hymn confers longevity and radiance. A person who has undertaken a vow should recite (the hymn) uta devā[104], that will destroy the diseases.

89. When there is fear from fire, one should recite the hymn ayamagne janī[105]. One should repeat (the hymn) araṇyānī[106] in the forests to destroy the fear therein.

90. (One who recites the two hymns)[107] with devotion to (goddess) Brāhmi (the goddess of speech) (and makes use of) brāhmī and śatāvarī (the two herbs) together with water or ghee separately will gain intelligence and wealth.

91. One who desires to conquer his enemy in the battle (should recite the hymn) māsa[108]. (The repetition of the hymn) brahmaṇo'gniḥ saṃvidānaṃ[109] prevents the death of the child in the womb.

92. After getting pure one should recite the hymn apaihi[110], that destroys (the effects of) bad dreams. One gains supreme concentration by the repetition of (the hymn) yenedaṃ[111].

93. (The recitation of the hymn) mayo bhūrvāto[112] is an excellent means of securing the welfare of the cattle. One will ward off sorcery or jugglery by (the repetition of) this (hymn).

94. One should repeat (the hymn) mahī trīṇāmavaro'stu[113] for securing one’s welfare on his journey. One should repeat (the hymn) agnaye vidviṣan[114], which will destroy the enemies.

95-96. The presiding deities of the houses should be worshipped with the hymn vāstoṣpate[115]. The procedure relating to the repetition has been told. That relating to the oblation has to be known as different. The (prescribed) fee has to be paid at the end of the oblation. (There will be) expiation of the sin by (offering) an oblation. The oblation done with food appeases by the offer of food and gold as gift.

97-99. The blessings of brahmins will be unfailing. One should bathe outside in every case. Oblations made with the white mustard, barley, grains, milk, curd, ghee and the twigs of the kṣīravṛkṣa-s[116], yield all the pleasures. The twigs of thorny (trees), black mustard, blood, poison and stone (are used as oblation) in incantation. Śaktu[117], milk, curd, food collected as alms, fruits and roots are the food while offering an oblation. Thus the use of the hymns of Ṛgveda has been explained.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

ṚV. 3. 62.10.

[2]:

The three sacrificial fires—gārhapatya, āhavanīya and dakṣiṇa.

[3]:

The syllables bhūḥ, bhuvaḥ, svaḥ, mahaḥ, janaḥ tapaḥ and satyam.

[4]:

The same as in footnote 2 above.

[5]:

ṚV. 10.190.

[6]:

ṚV. 1.1.1.

[7]:

ṚV. 1.18.6.

[8]:

Not tracable.

[9]:

Not traceable.

[10]:

ṚV. 1.32.1.

[11]:

Probably ṚV. 10.149. 5a.

[12]:

ṚV. 1.35.11a.

[13]:

See Bloomfield, Vedic Concordance p. 261.

[14]:

ṚV. 1.50.13.

[15]:

Not traceable.

[16]:

Not traceable.

[17]:

Not traceable.

[18]:

Cf. ṚV. 105.1a.

[19]:

Not traceable.

[20]:

ṚV. 1.89.1a.

[21]:

Not traceable.

[22]:

ṚV. 1.97. 1a.

[23]:

ṚV. 1.99.1a.

[24]:

ṚV. 101.1a.

[25]:

Could not be traced.

[26]:

Cf. Bloomfield, Vedic Concordance p. 233.

[27]:

ṚV. 1.114. 8a.

[28]:

Same as above.

[29]:

ṚV. 1.115.1a.

[30]:

Cf. ṚV. 1.33.1.

[31]:

Could not be traced.

[32]:

ṚV. 1.165.la.

[33]:

Could not be traced.

[34]:

Could not be traced.

[35]:

ṚV. 1.189.1a.

[36]:

Cf. Tait. Sam. 1.8.16.2.

[37]:

ṚV. 1.191.1a.

[38]:

ṚV. 2.12.1a.

[39]:

ṚV. 2.23.1a.

[40]:

ṚV. 2.28.10.a

[41]:

ṚV. 10.131.2a.

[42]:

Could not be traced.

[43]:

ṚV. 4.4.1a.

[44]:

ṚV. 10.10.13d, 14b.

[45]:

ṚV. 4.40.5a.

[46]:

Could not be traced.

[47]:

ṚV. 4.58.1a.

[48]:

Cf. ṚV. 186.1b and 7.76.1b.

[49]:

ṚV. 5.24. 1a.

[50]:

Cf. Bloomfield, Vedic Concordance pp .1053-4.

[51]:

ṚV. 5.51.15a.

[52]:

ṚV. 6.47.26a.

[53]:

ṚV. 5.83.1a.

[54]:

ṚV. khila 5.87.10a.

[55]:

ṚV. khila 5.87.11a.

[56]:

ṚV. khila 5.87.3a.

[57]:

ṚV. 6.28.1a.

[58]:

Cf. Bloomfield, Vedic Concordance pp. 2 64-68.

[59]:

ṚV. 10.82.1.a

[60]:

Could not be traced.

[61]:

ṚV. 6.75.1a.

[62]:

Cf. Vedic Concordance p. 155.

[63]:

ṚV. 7.55.1a.

[64]:

ṚV. 7.59.12a

[65]:

ṚV. 7.66.16a.

[66]:

Cf. Bloomfield, Vedic Concordance p. 225.

[67]:

A man of the first three classes who has lost caste owing to the non-performance of the principal purificatory rites enjoined.

[68]:

ṚV. 8.11.1a.

[69]:

Cf. Bloomfield, op. cit. pp. 162-63.

[70]:

Cf. RV Khila 10.128.5a.

[71]:

ṚV. 1.22.13a.

[72]:

Could not be traced.

[73]:

Could not be traced.

[74]:

RV Khila 5.6.7.

[75]:

RV Khila 10.37.10.

[76]:

Could not be traced.

[77]:

Cf. ṚV. 7.35.4.

[78]:

ṚV. 8.91.1.

[79]:

Could not be traced.

[80]:

RV 8.100.10.

[81]:

Could not be traced.

[82]:

Cf. MS. 3.11.10a.

[83]:

Could not be traced.

[84]:

Cf. parasyā ṚV. 8.75.15.

[85]:

ṚV. 9.1.1a.

[86]:

See 73.2.

[87]:

ṚV. 10.9.10a.

[88]:

Could not be traced.

[89]:

Could not be traced.

[90]:

ṚV. 10.75.1.

[91]:

ṚV. 4.5.6.

[92]:

Kaṭha Saṃ. 9.19a; TB. 2.5.8.3a.

[93]:

Cf. haviṣmatīr imā āpaḥ Taitt. Sam. 1.3.12.1a.

[94]:

MS. 2.7.13a: 93.1.

[95]:

Taitta. Sam. 1.8.22.2a.

[96]:

Could not be traced.

[97]:

Could not be traced.

[98]:

Could not be traced.

[99]:

Cf. ahaṃ rudrebhir ṚV. 10.125.la.

[100]:

Cf. rātriḥ ketunā Vaj. Sam. 37.21: 38.16; MS. 4.9. 8: 128.14.

[101]:

Could not be traced.

[102]:

Could not be traced.

[103]:

Could not be traced.

[104]:

MS. 4.14.2a: 217.16,

[105]:

Cf. ayam agne jaritā ṚV. 10.142.la.

[106]:

Cf. ṚV. 10.146.1a; TB. 2.5.6a.

[107]:

Could not be traced.

[108]:

Could not be traced.

[109]:

Could not be traced.

[110]:

Cf. ṚV.10.164.1a.

[111]:

Cf. Vedic Concordance p. 802.

[112]:

Taitt. Sam. 7.4.17.1a.

[113]:

Ms. 1.5.4a; 70.7; 1.5.11:79.9.

[114]:

Could not be traced.

[115]:

Taitt. Sam. 3.4.10.1a.

[116]:

The four trees—nyagrodha, udumbara, aśvattha and madhūka.

[117]:

The flour of barley first fried and then ground.

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