by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna | 1907 | 148,756 words
This current book, the Sutra-sthana (english translation), is the first part of this voluminous medical work. It contains a large summary of the knowledge envelopig the medical aspects of Ayurveda. Descriptions of diseases, various diets and drugs, the duties of a surgeon, surgical procedures, medical training; these are only some of the numerous s...
Atmospheric, or rain water is possessed of a non-patent taste. It is ambrosial in its nature, pleasant and beneficial to life. It is enlivening, invigorating or strength-giving, re-frigerent, frigorific, antipyrotic, anti-hypnotic, and conquers vertigo, drowsiness and fits of fainting. It is most wholesome to the human body. After having fallen upon the surface of the earth it acquires one of the six different tastes according to the nature of its receptacle such as, a river, or a Nada (a river with a masculine name), a pond, a tank (Vapi), a Kupa, a Chunti, a fountain, an Artesian spring a Vikira, fallow land (Kedar), or a pond covered over with a growth of aquatic plants (Palvala). Certain authorities maintain that heavenly or atmospheric water having fallen on a red, brown, grey, yellow, blue or white coloured soil, respectively assumes a sweet, acid, saline, pungent, bitter or an astringent taste. But the theory is not a sound one in as much as the comparative predominance of the attributes of the five material principles in a particular soil determines the taste of the water contained therein. Water, contained or collected in a soil marked by a predominance of the attributes of earth-principle, acquires an acid and saline taste. Water, contained in a soil marked by a predominance of the attributes of fire, acquires a bitter and pungent taste. Water, contained in a soil marked by a predominance of the attributes of air, acquires an astringent taste. The sky is devoid of all tastes, and hence, the water contained in a soil, which is largely possessed of the specific attributes of that element, is characterised by the absence of any taste whatever. Only the last named kind should be used for drinking purposes where atmospheric water would not be available.
Atmospheric water (Antariksha Jala), in its turn, may be divided into four classes such as, rain water, hail water, frost water or dew, and snow water, of which the first is the best for its lightness. Rain water may be divided into two classes such as the Gangam and the Samudram, according as the rain-cloud is charged with vapours evaporated from the bosom of the Ganges or the sea. Gangetic rain generally descends in the month of ashvina, but both kinds should be subjected to a tests The test in the case of Gangam rain water consists in exposing to it, for a Muharta (forty-eight minutes), a quantity of undiscoloured Shali rice in a silver bowl which is not extremely softened by boiling. To ascertain whether it is Gangetic rain water or not, Gangetic rain water should be ascertained from the fact of the aforesaid Shali rice not being in any way affected in its colour; whereas a change in its colour under exposure, as well as the fact of its being formed into shreddy or seedy balls mixed with slimy secretions, would indicate that the rain water had been formed of the vapours of the sea (Samudram), and should be regarded as extremely unwholesome. Rain water from a cloud entirely formed of sea-vapours and collected in the month of ashvina, is as wholesome as what is technically known as Gangetic rain water, but the latter is the best of the several kinds of atmospheric water.
The means of collecting atmospheric (rain) water is as follows:—A broad piece of clean and white linen should be hung out in the open air, (with a stone placed across the middle to dip its centre of gravity). The rain water thus collected should be kept in a vessel. As an alternative, rain water flowing from the waterspouts of a house should be collected in a clean receptacle, and subsequently poured into a golden, silver or an earthen vessel. The water thus collected can be taken at all times, and may be substituted by any other terrestrial water in the event of its not being available at the time.
Terrestrial water is generally marked by a predominance of the specific properties of the sky, and admits of being grouped under seven sub-heads such as, well-water, river-water, lake-water, tank-water, fountain water, spring (Artesian) water, and Chunti (well unprovided with masonry steps) water. Atmospheric or spring water should be used for their high efficacy during the rains (Varsha). All kinds of water may be used in Sharat on account of their clearness. Lake or tank water should be used in Hemanta; well and fountain water, in spring41 (Vasanta) and summer; and Chunti water, as well as all water not of recent origin, nor due to an excessive down-pour or inundation, should be used during Pravrit.
He falls an easy victim to internal and external diseases (cutaneous affections), etc., who drinks of or bathes in a pool of water, which is full of poisonous worms, or is saturated with urine or fecal matter, or is defiled with germs of vermin or decomposed animal organisms, or is covered over with the growths of aquatic plants, or is strewn over with withered and decomposed leaves, or which in any way is rendered poisonous and contaminated, as well as he, who drinks and bathes in the freshly collected water of a pool or a reservoir during the rains.
A sheet of water, which is entirely covered over with the growths of aquatic plants such as, moss, zoophytes, water weeds, lotus leaves, etc., or which looks turbid owing to oozy mire, or is not exposed to the currents of fresh air, nor illumined by the sun or the moon, and is possessed of a definite smell, colour, and taste, should be regarded as contaminated or defiled (Vyapanna). Water may be affected with regard to the six categories of touch, sight, taste, smell, potency, and chemical transformation or re-action (lit: digestion). Roughness, sliminess, warmth, and the production of a shivering sensation (lit: tooth-edge) are the tactual defects (Sparsha-Dosha) of defiled water, whereas a varied colour, and the presence of mire, sand, and shreds of moss are the defects, which mark its look or appearance (Rupa-Dosha). A distinct taste marks the water, which is affected as regards its taste (Rasa-Dosha), while an unpleasant smell is the characteristic of the water, which is affected as regards its smell (Gandha-Dosha). The water, which being taken gives rise to thirst and to a sense of heaviness of the limbs, colic, and a flueut coryza, is said to be affected or vitiated in its potency (Virya-Dosha), whereas that, which takes a long time to be digested, or is retained in the stomach for an inordinate length of time, is said to be affected as regards digestion or chemical transformation (Vipaka-Dosha). Atmospheric water is free from the abovesaid defects. The defiled or contaminated water should be purified by boiling it, or by heating it in the sun, or by immersing a red-hot iron, or hot sands or stones in the same, and its smell should be removed by perfuming it with the Nageshvara, Champaka, Utpala, or Patala flowers, etc.
Water should be drunk perfumed in a golden, silver, copper or an earthen goblet, or in a bowl made of bell metal or of precious stones. Contaminated water, as well as rain water accumulated in an improper season, should never be used for drinking purposes, inasmuch as it tends to derange the fundamental humours of the body, and is positively injurious to the human system. The man, who drinks, or bathes in, any contaminated water without previously purifying it as before directed, incurs the risk of being speedily affected with edema, jaundice, cutaneous affections, indigestion, dyspnea, cough, catarrh, colic pains, abdominal glands, ascites or any other dreadful disease.
There are seven modes of purifying water such as, by immersing the Kataka fruits, the gems known as the Gomedha, the roots of lotus plants, or of aquatic mosses, a piece of linen, or a pearl, or a crystal in a pitcher or vessel containing it. The bottoms of a water pitcher are made of five different shapes such as, the Phalaka (rectangular wooden stool), the Tryashtaka (octagonal wooden tripod), the Manju Valayam (ring made of the blades of Manju grass), the Udaka-Manchika (wooden scaffold for a pitcher) and the Shiky (pendent bracket). There are seven ways of cooling water, such as by exposing a water pitcher to currents of air, immersing a water pitcher (tied round with a piece of wet cloth) neck-deep in a vessel full of water, churning it with a stick, by fanning, or siphoning it by means of a piece of linen, or by burying a water pitcher underneath a bed of sand, or by keeping it suspended in a pendent bracket.
The water, which is devoid of all smell or taste, and is pure, cool, limpid, transparent, refrigerent and pleasant, should be regarded as possessed of all the commendable traits. The water of rivers, (which drain the Jangala countries) and flow into the western sea, is light, and therefore wholesome. The water of rivers, which traverse the marshy (Anupa) countries and empty themselves into the eastern sea, is heavy and therefore not commended to be used. The water of rivers, which run into the southern sea, is neither too heavy nor too light owing to the fact of its traversing countries which have a Sadharana character.
The water of rivers, which have their sources in the Sajhya mountains, begets cutaneous affections; while the water of those, which rise from the Vindhya mountains, produces Kushtha and Jaundice. The water of rivers, which rise on the mount Malaya, begets worms and intestinal parasites, while the water of those, that have their sources in the Mahendra mountain, begets elephantisis and abdominal dropsy. The water of rivers, which rise on the Himalaya, produces angina pectoris, (Hridroga), anasarca, diseases of the head, elephantisis, or goitre in persons using it for the purposes of life. Similarly, the water of rivers, which drain the eastern portion of the country of Avanti, or flow through its western part, begets piles; while the water of those, which rise on the mount of Paripatra is wholesome, strength-giving, and conducive to health.
The water of clear and swift-running rivers is light, while the water of those, which are sluggish in their course and are covered with mosses and other aquatic plants, is heavy. The water of rivers, which run through Marudesha (Modern Marwar) is possessed of a bitter saline taste, or is endued with a sweet taste blended with a shade of the astringent, and is easily digestible and strength-giving in its properties.
Every kind of terrestrial water should be collected early in the morning, since it is obtained the clearest and coolest at that part of the day; and since these two attributes by far form the most commendable traits in water.
The water, which gets the light of the sun in the day and reflects the moon in the night, and which, moreover, neither produces Kapha nor a parched condition in the body, should be regarded as one in virtue with the atmospheric water. Atmospheric water, collected in a good and proper receptacle, has the virtue of subduing the three deranged humours of the body, and acts as a pure tonic and elixir, its virtue varying with the excellence of the vessel in which it is contained. The cool and limpid washings of the gem known as the Candrakanta Mani (the moonstone) should be regarded as possessed of the mystic virtue of warding off the attacks of monsters and demons, and of subduing the deranged Pitta. They are beneficial in fever and in cases of poisoning marked by a burning sensation of the body, etc.
Cold water usually proves beneficial in epileptic fits, in hot seasons, and in a burning sensation of the body due to the deranged action of the Pitta, in blood-poisoning, hemoptysis, abuse of wine (Madatya), loss of consciousness, fatigue or exhaustion, vertigo, Tamaka and vomiting. The use of cold water should be avoided in pain at the sides (pleurodynia?), in catarrh, in rheumatism, in diseases of the larynx, in distention of the stomach by gas or air, in cases of undigested feces, in the acute stage of fever, and just after the exhibition of any emetic or purgative remedy, in hic-cough, and immediately following upon an oily or fatty drink (Snehapana). River water produces Vayu and a parched condition in the body, and is light, stomachic and (Lekhana) liquefacient. On the contrary, that which is heavy, comparatively denser in its consistency, sweet, and cooling, brings on catarrh.
The water of a lake (Sarasa) quenches thirst and is strength-giving, light, sweet and astringent.
The water of a pond or a tank (Tadaga) produces Vayu, and is sweet, astringent, and pungent in digestion.
The water from a Vapi (a large tank) subdues the deranged Vayu and Kapha, and generates Pitta, and is pungent in taste and is found to be charged with a solution of alkali.
The water from a Chunti is a good digestant, sweet, and parchifying, though it does not give rise to Kapha in the system.
The water from a well (Kupa) generates Pitta and is appetising. It subdues the deranged Kapha, and is light and alkaline. The water of a fountain is light, appetising, and pleasant, and destroys Kapha.
The water of an Artesian spring is sweet, and subdues Pitta. It is antacid in its digestive reaction.
The water from a Vikira is light, appetising, pungent, and is charged with potash (Khara).
The water accumulated in an open field, or in fallow land, is heavy to digest and tends to augment the deranged humours of the body.
The water of a Palvala is possessed of the same virtue as the preceding one, with the exception that it greatly aggravates the deranged humours of the body. Sea-water has a fishy smell, and a saline taste; it aggravates all the three deranged humours of the body.
The water of an anupa (marshy) country is the source of many an evil. It is extremely condemnable, as it increases the slimy secretions of all the bodily organs, etc.
The water of a Jangala country is free from the preceding baneful traits. It is faultless, acid in its digestive reaction (Vidahi), is possessed of all commendable traits, and is pleasing and refrigerant.
The water accumulated in a Sadharana country is light, cool, pleasant and appetising (Dipana).
Warm water subdues the deranged Vayu and Kapha. It is antifat, appetising, diuretic, (Vasti-shodhak) and febrifuge. It proves beneficial in cases of cough and dyspnea, and is wholesome at all times. Water boiled down to a quarter part of its original quantity and then cooled down with all its froth and ebullitions removed, is light and limpid, and may be safely commended to the use of all. Water, boiled overnight, should not be knowingly given to a thirsty person inasmuch as it has acquired an acid taste and will augment the internal Kapha of the body, and becomes positively injurious. Water boiled and subsequently cooled down should be given to a person suffering from any of the diseases due to an abuse of wine or to Pitta, or from a complaint brought about through the concerted action of the three deranged humours.
The water found inside the shell of a cocoanut is heavy, demulcent, cool, pleasant and appetising etc. It is diuretic, (Vasti-shodhaka) spermatopoietic, and subdues Pitta and thirst. The use of water boiled and subsequently cooled down is recommended in dysentery, burning of the skin, hemoptysis, diseases due to the abuse of wine, or to the effects of any imbibed poison, as well as in thirst, vomiting, catarrh, vertigo and loss of consciousness. Water should be taken as little as possible by a person suffering from any of the following diseases viz., loss of relish for food, catarrh, water-brash, edema, any of the wasting diseases, impaired digestion, abdominal dropsy, cutaneous affection, fever, diseases affecting the eyes, ulcer and diabetes (Madhumeha, etc).
The Milk Group:—
The milk of a cow, she-goat, she-camel, ewe, she-buffalo, mare, she-elephant, or of a woman, is what generally comes to the use of man.
The milk is the white fluid essence of drugs and cereals, which enter into the food of the aforesaid milkgiving animals, and is therefore the best of all nutritive substances (literally life-giving). It is heavy, sweet, slimy, cold, glossy, emollient, laxative and mild.
Hence it proves congenial to all sentient animals. And since milk is kindred in its nature to-the essential principles of life and so very congenial to the panzoism of all created animals, its use may be unreservedly recommended to all, and is not forbidden in diseases due to the deranged action of (Vayu) or Pitta, or in ailments affecting the mind (Mansa), or the vascular system of man. Its beneficial and curative efficacy may be witnessed in cases of chronic fever, in cough, dyspnea, phthisis and other wasting diseases, in Gulma (abdominal glands), insanity, ascites, epileptic fits, in vertigo, in delirium, in burning sensation of the body, in thirst, in diseases affecting the heart and the bladder, in chlorosis and dysentery, in piles, colic and obstinate constipation, in Grahani, Pravahika, miscarriage and other diseases peculiar to the female reproductive organs, and in hemoptysis. It is a refrigerant and acts as a bracing beverage after physical exercise. It is a sacred, constructive, tonic, spermatopoietic, rejuvenating and aphrodisiac. It expands* the intellectual capacities of a man, brings about the adhesion of broken or fractured bones (Sandhana) rejuvenates used and exhausted frames, forms an excellent enemata, increases the duration of life, and acts as a vitaliser. It is an emetic and a purgative remedy, and imparts a healthy rotundity to the frame, and which through its kindred or similar properties augments the quality of bodily albumen (Ojah) and is the most complete and wholesome diet for infants, old men and persons suffering from cachexia witnessed in cases of ulcers in the chest, as well as for persons debilitated from insufficient food, sexual excesses or excessive, physical labour.
Cow-milk is demulcent, and does not set up or increase the normal quantity of slimy secretions in the internal channels of the body. It is heavy and is a good elixir, and proves curative in hemoptysis. It is cold, and sweet both in taste and chemical reaction. It subdues both Vayu and Pitta and is accordingly one of the most efficient of vitalising agents.
The milk of a she-goat is possessed of properties similar to those of a cow, and is specially beneficial to persons suffering from phthisis. It is light, astringent, appetising (Dipana), and is efficacious in dyspnea, cough and hemoptysis (Amlapitta—A. T.). The milk of a she-goat proves curative in all diseases owing to the smallness of her limbs and her agile habits, as well as for the fact of her drinking comparatively a less quantity of water and living upon bitter and pungent herbs. The milk of a she-camel is parchifying, heating, light, palatable and possessed of a little saline taste. It proves curative in edema, abdominal glands, ascites, piles, intestinal worms and Kushtha, and is a good antitoxic agent. The milk of a ewe is sweet, demulcent, heavy and proves aggravating in disorders of Pitta and Kapha. It forms a good diet in Kevalavata and in cough due to the deranged condition of the bodily Vayu.
The milk of a she-buffalo is sweet in taste, tends to impair digestion and increases the slimy secretion of the organs. It is heavy, soporific, cooling, and contains more fatty matter than cow’s milk.
The milk of a she-animal with unbifurcated hoofs (Ekashapha) such as, the mare, etc., is tonic, light, parchifying, sweet and acid in taste, leaving a saline after-taste, and proving curative in cases of rheumatism restricted to the extremities.
The milk of a woman is cold and sweet, leaving an astringent after-taste. It proves beneficial as an errhine and acts as a good wash in eye diseases. It is wholesome, vitalising, light and appetising. The milk of a she-elephant is sweet though it leaves an astringent after-taste. It is spermatopoietic, heavy, demulcent, cooling and tonic. It invigorates the eyesight.
The milk of a she-animal, milched in the morning, is heavy, cold and takes a long time to be digested owing to her entire repose (literally want of physical exercise or locomotion) during the night, when cooling attributes preponderate. Similarly, the milk milched in the evening is found to be possessed of refrigerant and eye-invigorating properties. Moreover, it restores the bodily Vayu to its normal condition owing to the physical labour undergone by the animal in the day time, exposed to the rays of the sun and the currents of free air. Cold or unboiled milk is extremely heavy, and serves to increase the slimy secretions of the organs, whereas by boiling it is freed from those injurious traits. But this rule does not hold good in the case of woman’s milk, which is wholesome in its natural or unboiled state. Freshly milched warm milk should be regarded as extremely wholesome, which, being cooled down, loses its efficacious virtues and becomes unwholesome. On the contrary, over-cooked milk is heavy and fat-making (lit:—imparting stoutness to one’s body). The milk, which emits a fetid smell, or has become discoloured and insipid, or has acquired an acid taste and looks shreddy and curdled, or tastes saline, should be regarded as Unwholesome and injurious.
The Curd- group:—
There are three kinds of curd such as, the sweet, the acid, and the extremely acid curd. Milk curd generally leaves an astringent after-taste. It is demulcent and heat-making in its potency, as well as spermatopoietic, vitalising and auspicious. It proves curative in Pinasa (nasal catarrh), intermittent fever (Vishama Jvara), dysentery, nonrelish for food, difficult urination, and general cachexia.
Sweet curd greatly increases the slimy secretions of the organs and the quantity of fat and Kapha in the body. Acid curd deranges the Pitta and the Kapha, while the extremely acid curd vitiates the blood. Curd, which has been not perfectly curdled (Mandajata) is acid in its (digestive) chemical reaction, acts as an inordinately strong purgative and diuretic agent, and deranges the three fundamental humours of the body.
Curdled cow’s milk is demulcent, sweet in digestion, appetising, srength-increasing and acrid. It subdues the bodily Vayu and imparts a relish to one’s food. Curd prepared with the milk of a she-goat is light, and subdues the deranged Pitta and Kapha. It proves curative in Vata and wasting diseases, and is a good appetiser. Its beneficial effect is witnessed in cases of piles, dyspnea and cough. Curd, prepared with the milk of a she-buffalo, is sweel in digestion, and spermtopoietic. It pacifies the deranged Vayu and Pitta, and serves to augment the normal quantity of bodily Kapha. It is specifically a demulcent substance. Curd prepared with the milk of a she-camel is pungent in digestion. It is found to be charged with alkali, and is heavy and a purgative. A continued use of curdled camel’s milk proves curative in Vata, piles, cutaneous affections (Kushtha), worms in the intestines, and abdomimal dropsy.
Curd prepared with the milk of a ewe proves aggravating in derangements of the Vayu and Kapha, as well as in cases of piles. It is sweet in taste and its chemical reaction increases the slimy secretions of the organs, and tends to derange the bodily humours. Curd, prepared with the milk of a mare, is appetising. It proves injurious to the eyes, and tends to augment the bodily Vayu. It is parchifying and hot in its potency, and is astringent in taste. It diminishes the secretions of stool and urine.
Curd prepared with the milk of a woman in is demulcent, sweet in digestion, tonic, pleasant, heavy, and specially beneficial to the eyes. It subdues the deranged humours and is specially efficacious in its virtues, and is the best of all kinds of curd, and of all emollient remedies (Santarpana). Curd prepared with the milk of a she-elephant, is light in digestion, subdues Kapha, and is heat-making in its potency. It impairs digestion, leaves an astringent after-taste and increases the quantity of fecal matter. Of all the preceding kinds of curd, the one prepared with cow’s milk should be regarded as the best in virtue and quality. This curd well filtered through a piece of clean linen, imparts a relish to the food, whereas the curd, which had been prepared with boiled milk, should be deemed the most efficacious. The cloth-filtered curd subdues the deranged Vayu. It is demulcent and restorative, though it tends to increase the Kapha without bringing about a similar augmentation of the Pitta. The curd prepared with boiled milk subdues the deranged Vayu and Pitta, imparts a relish to the food, and acts as a good stomachic remedy. It increases the strength and the root principle of life.
The cream of curd is heavy and spermatopoietic. It subdues the deranged Vayu, impairs digestion and is phlegma-gogic and aphrodisiac. Curd made without cream is parchifying, astringent and arrests stool and urine (Vistambhi), It increases the bodily Vayu. It is appetising and is comparatively lighter, a little astringent in taste, and imparts a relish to food.
The use of curd is generally prohibited in (Vasanta) spring, (Grishina) summer, and (Sharat) autumn, whereas it is recommended during the rains (Varsha) and in the forepart of winter (Hemanta), and in the cold season proper (Shishira). The residuary sediment of curd (Mastu) is frigorific and refrigerant, light and purifying to the internal channels of the body. It has a sweet and astringent taste and is anti-aphrodisiac. It destroys the deranged Vayu and Kapha, and is pleasant and palatable. It acts as a speedy purgative, and imparts strength to the system and relish to the food. In this group have been described the virtues of the seven kinds of curd such as, the sweet, the acid, the extremely acid, the curd of incomplete curdling, the curd of boiled milk, curd cream, and the creamless curd, as well as the residuary sediment (Mastu).
The Takra Group:—
The Takra (whey) is sweet and acid in taste, and leaves an astringent aftertaste. It is light, appetising and heat-making in its potency, and has a parchifying effect upon the organism. Its curative efficacy is witnessed in cases of chemical or combinative poisoning, edema, dysentery, diarrhea, jaundice, piles, enlarged spleen, abdominal glands, nonrelish for food, intermittent fever, thirst, vomiting, water-brash, colic and obesity. It subdues the deranged Vayu and Kapha, and is non-aphrodisiac. It is sweet in its digestive reaction and pleasant to the system. It proves curative in difficult urination, and in diseases due to the abuse of emollient medicinal remedies and applications.
A compound made of equal parts of curd and water and subsequently churned so as to have the contained cream or butter completely skimmed off, and which is neither too thick nor too thin, is called Takra. It possesses a taste blended of the sweet, acid and astringent. Waterless curd, churned with the entire butter or creamy substance inherent in it, is called Gholam (a kind of whey). The use of Takra is prohibited in the hot season, nor should it be given to a weak person, nor to one suffering from an ulcer, or laid up with an attack of hemoptysis, or to one suffering from epileptic fits, vertigo (Bhrama), or from a burning sensation in the body. The use of Takra is recommended during the cold months of the year, as well as to persons suffering from diseases due to the action of the deranged Kapha, or from suppression of stool or urine, etc., or from the effects of the deranged Vayu.
Again sweetened Takra soothes the deranged Pitta and aggravates the Kapha. Acid Takra subdues the Vayu and produces Pitta.
In a case of deranged or disordered Vayu, acid Takra should be drunk mixed with rock-salt, and with sugar in disorders of the Pitta, while in a case of deranged Kapha it should be mixed with Yavakshara and the powders of the drugs known as Vyosha. Takrakurchika (Inspissated milk) is astringent (Grahi), parchifying and hard to digest. It produces Vayu. The Manda or the residuary sediment of a compound made of the aforesaid Kurchika and Dadhi Takra (curd-whey) is lighter than whey. Kilata is heavy, hypnotic, spermatopoietic and subdues Vayu. Similarly, Moratha and Piyusha are sweet to the taste and restorative and aphrodisiac in their properties.
Fresh butter (Navanita) is an albuminous substance, and is light, sweet, cooling, demulcent, pleasant, appetising, slightly acid and astringent. It subdues the deranged Vayu and Pitta. It is spermatopoietic, antacid in its reaction, and conduces to the improvement of one’s memory and intellectual capacities. It proves beneficial in cases of consumption, cough, dyspnea, ulcer, piles and facial paralysis.
Butter (of a few days standing) is heavy. It increases the quantity of fat and Kapha, and imparts strength and rotundity to the body, and proves especially wholesome to children. Butter made of thickened milk is the best of all oily or (Kshira) substances. It is sweet, cooling and astringent; and imparts softness to the body, improves the eye-sight, and proves curative in hemoptysis and eye-diseases.
Cream subdues the deranged Vayu. It is a pleasing (Tarpani) tonic, is spermatopoietic, demulcent, palatable, heavy and sweet in taste and digestion, and proves remedial to hemoptysis.
The virtues and properties of these modifications of curdled cow-milk have been described in detail since it is the best of all kinds of milk described before. The virtues and properties of similar preparations made from the milk of other animals should be regarded as identical with those of the milk of the animal out of which they have been prepared.
Clarified Butter (Ghrita):—
Ghrita or clarified butter is Saumya or cooling in its essence and potency, and is mild and sweet. It slightly increases the slimy secretions of the organs, and acts as a lubricating moistener, proving efficacious in Udavarta insanity, epilepsy, colic, fever (chronic) and distention of the abdomen from the suppression of stool and urine (Anaha). It is appetising and subdues the Vayu and the Pitta. It improves memory, intelligence, complexion, voice, personal beauty, amiability of features and the principle of strength (albumen, Ojas) in the body. It is vitalising, rejuvenating, spermatopoietic and heavy. It improves the eyesight, increases the quantity of bodily Kapha and the duration of life. It is sacred and is regarded as an appeaser of adverse fate. It eliminates poison from the body and wards off the invasions of monsters and demons.
Clarified butter made of cow milk is sweet in digestion, and cool in its potency. It subdues the deranged Vayu and Pitta, and serves to eliminate poison from the system. It improves the eyesight and possesses excellent tonic and invigorating properties. Cow-butter, in its clarified state, is the best of all kinds of butter. Clarified butter made of the milk of a she-goat is appetising (Dipana), eye-invigorating and strength-increasing. It proves a wholesome diet in cases of cough, dyspnea and consumption (any wasting disease), and is light in digestion. Clarified butter prepared with the milk of a she-buffalo is sweet, heavy in digestion, and proves remedial in hemoptysis. It is cooling and increases the quantity of bodily Kapha, and subdues the deranged Vayu and Pitta. Clarified butter made with the milk of a she-camel is anti-toxic, appetising and pungent in digestion. It subdues the deranged Vayu and Kapha, and proves curative in edema, worms in the intestines, cutaneous affections, abdominal glands, and ascites. Clarified butter made with the milk of a ewe is light in digestion. It does not enrage Pitta, and proves beneficial in cases of rigour, phthisis (Shosha) and in diseases due to the action of the deranged Vayu and Kapha, as well as in those which affect the female organs of generation. Clarified butter made with the milk of a mare (lit:—any female mammal with unbifurcated hoops) is light in digestion, heatmaking in its potency, and astringent in taste. It is appetising, anuretic, and subdues the action of the deranged Kapha.
Clarified butter made with the milk of a woman is possessed of eye-invigorating virtues, and should be regarded as the prototype of divine ambrosia on earth. It is light (in digestion), anti-toxic, stomachic, and constructive. Clarified butter prepared with the milk of a she-elephant is astringent in taste, and brings about a suppression of stool and urine. It is bitter, light, and stomachic (Agnikara), and proves curative in cutaneous affections (Kushtha), poisoning, worms in the intestines, and derangements of the Kapha.
Butter churned out of thickened milk and clarified (Kshira Ghrita) is astringent, and proves beneficial in eye-diseases, hemoptysis, epileptic fits, and vertigo.
The condensed upper stratum of clarified butter (Jhrita-manda) acts as a laxative, cures aching pain in the vagina, ears, eyes, or in the head, and is recommended to be used as an errhine, an enema or as eye-drops.
Old clarified butter is laxative and pungent in digestion. It subdues the three deranged bodily humours, and proves curative in epileptic fits, obesity, insanity, abdominal dropsy, fever, chemical poisoning, edema, hysteria, and in aching pain in the vagina, ears, eyes or head. It is appetising and is recommended to be used as eye-drops and enema, and for sternutatory purposes.
Authoritative verses on the subject:—
Old or matured clarified butter proves curative m Timira (Gutta Serena), dyspnea, catarrh, fever, cough, epileptic fits, and Kushta, in cases of poisoning, mental aberration, and hysteria ascribed to the influence of malignant planets. Clarified butter matured from eleven to a hundred years is called the Kumbha Grita (Pitcher clarified butter), while that, which is older than the one of the preceding kind, is called the Maha Ghrita (the great clarified butter). Kumbha Ghrita is said to be possessed of the mystic potency of warding off the invasions of monsters, while the Maha Ghrita is highly efficacious, sacred, and specifically curative in the disease known as Timira. It acts as a prophylactic against the malignant influences of all evil spirits and baneful planets, and should be taken by men in whom Vayu predominates. It subdues the deranged Kapha, and improves the strength and intellect.
The Oil Group:—
Oils, which belong to the category of fiery (agneya) substances, are hot or heatmaking in their potencies, irritating, and sweet in taste and digestion, and are constructive (Vrinhana), and pleasant. They expand through the entire system immediately after being drunk or rubbed (Vyavayi), and are subtile, clear, heavy, and laxative (Sara). They tend to expand the bone-joints and contribute to their free and easy movements (Vikasi). They act as spermatopoietics (Vrishyam), and purify the skin, improve the memory, and impart softness to the skin and complexion. They are flesh-making and strength-imparting, and increase the firmness of the body. They are possessed of eye-invigorating virtues, and are anuretic, liquefacient (Lekhana), bitter and stomachic (Pacana). They cure Vayu and Kapha. They are vermifuge and produce a slight Pitta, leaving an astringent after-taste. They relieve aching pain in the head, ears, and the female organs of generation (Yoni), act as purifying agents in respect of the uterus, and prove curative in urticaria.
The use of sesamum oil is recommended in cases of cut, cleft, punctured, severed, lacerated, blistered, thrashed or contused wounds and ulcers, and in bums and scalds whether due to the application of heat or any vesicant alkaline solution, as well as in bites of wild beasts and- birds, etc., and act beneficially in baths, unguents and lubrications.
Oil should be used in snuffing, and as enematas (Vasti), eye-drops, ear-drops, as well as in seasoning soups, curries and cordials, etc. It pacifies the bodily Vayu.
Castor Oil is sweet, hot (in its potency), irritating and appetising. It leaves a pungent astringent after-taste, and is subtile. It acts as a cleansing agent in respect of the internal channels of the body, and is wholesome to the skin. It is spermatopoietic, sweet in digestion (Vipaka), and rejuvenating. It purifies the semen, vagina, and removes vaginal and uterine disorders, and contributes to the preservation of sound health. It improves the memory, complexion and intellect (of its user), subdues the bodily Vayu and Kapha, and cleanses the system from all injurions principles by inducing purging.
Oils obtained from the seeds of Nimba, Atasi, Mulaka, Jimutaka, Vrikshaka, Kritavedhana, Arka, Kampillaka, Hastikarna, Prilhvika, Pilu, Karanja, Ingudi, Shigru, Sarsapa, Suvarchala, Vidanga or of Jyotishmati seeds, are irritating, light, non-heat-making in their potency, and pungent in taste and digestion. They act as a good laxative, and prove curative in diseases due to the deranged Vayu, or Kapha, as well as in cases of Kushtha, Prameha, head disease, and intestinal parasites.
Kshauma (Linseed) oil is sweet. It subdues the bodily Vayu and is strengthgiving, and pungent in digestion. Devoid of any eye-invigorating properties, it is hot though demulcent, and heavy. It increases the Pitta.
Mustard oil is light, and acts as a vermifuge. It proves curative in itch and cutaneous affections, reduces Vayu, Kapha and fat, and is pungent, appetising and Lekhana (liquefacient). Oil obtained from the seeds of Ingudi is a vermifuge, and is light, and slightly bitter in taste. It proves curative in Kushtha and parasitic disorders, and affects the strength, semen and the eyesight of its user. The oil obtained from Kushumbha flowers is pungent in digestion and leads to the derangement of all the bodily humours. It is irritating, and acid in its reaction (Vidahi). It is devoid of any eye-cleansing property and brings on hemoptysis.
The Oils obtained from the Kirata-tiktaka, Atimuktaka, Vibhitaka, Narikela, Kola, Akshoda, Jivanti, Piyala, Karvudara, Surjavalli, Trapusa, Ervaruka, Karkaru, and Kushmanda seeds, etc. are sweet in taste, potency and digestion, and tend to pacify the deranged Vayu and Pitta. Cooling in their potency, they increase the slimy secretions of the organs, impair digestion, and help the copious evacuation of stool and urine.
The Oils of the Madhuka (Maula), Kashmarya, and Palasha seeds are sweet and astringent. They pacify the deranged Kapha and Pitta. The oils of the Tuvaraka and Bhallataka are heat-making, sweet and astringent, and leave a bitter after-taste. They prove curative in diseases due to the action of deranged Vayu and Kapha, as well as in obesity, Meha, cutaneous affections, and intestinal worms, and cleanse the system both by their emetic and purgative actions. The Oils obtained from the piths (Sara) of such trees as, Sarala, Devadaru, Gandira, Shinshapa and Aguru, are bitter, pungent and astringent in their tastes, and act as purifying agents in respect of bad ulcers. They prove curative in skin diseases and destroy the deranged Vayu, Kapha, and intestinal worms. The Oils obtained from the seeds of Tumvi, Koshamra, Danti, Dravanti, Shyama, Saptala, Nilika, Kampillaka, and Shankhini, are bitter, pungent and astringent in their tastes. They serve to cleanse the system from all impurities and baneful principles through their purgative properties. They act as purifying agents in respect of malignant ulcers, and prove curative in diseases due to the deranged Vayu and Kapha, as well as in skin-diseases (Kushtha), and parasitic complaints. Yavatikata-oil tends to subdue all the deranged humours, is slightly bitter, and acts as a good elixir. It is appetising, acid, and liquefacient. It is holy and wholesome (Pathyam), and serves to improve the memory of its user. The Oil from Ekaishika seeds is sweet, and extremely cooling. It subdues the Pitta, increases the Kapha and aggravates the Vayu. The Oil of the seeds of mango stones is slightly bitter in taste, and extremely aromatic. It subdues the Vayu and Kapha. It is parchifying, sweet and astringent, palatable, and not highly Pitta-making.
The therapeutic properties of the oils from the seeds of fruits, which have not been specifically described in the present chapter, should be considered as identical with those of the fruits or seeds of which they have been so pressed out. All the vegetable oils (Sneha) described above should be regarded as possessed of the virtue of subduing the bodily Vayu, and they possess some of the properties, which specifically belong to sesamum oil. Sesamum oil is the most commendable of all oils inasmuch as the very word, which signifies oil (Tailam), is etymologically derived from Tilam (sesamum).
The oil, myosin (Vasa), fat, marrow, and Ghrita obtained from animals, which live in villages (Gramya), or frequent the marshy swamps (Anupa), or are aquatic (Audoka) in their habits, are heavy, heat-making in their potency, and sweet in taste. They subdue the bodily Vayu, while those obtained from Jangala (such as deer, etc.) or carnivorous animals, or from those possessed of unbifurcated hoofs, are light, cool in their potency, astringent in taste, and prove curative in cases of hemoptysis. The fat, marrow, etc. of animals of the Pratuda and Vishkira species (doves, pigeons, etc.) reduce the bodily Kapha. Of clarified butter, oil, myosin (Vasa), fat and marrow of animals each is heavier in digestion, and possesses a greater power of subduing the bodily Vayu than the one immediately preceding it in the order of enumeration.
The Honey Group:—
Honey is sweet, and leaves an astringent after-taste. It is parchifying, cold, stomachic, cosmetic, tonic, light, softening, palatable, liquefacient (Lekhanan), and fermenting (Sandhana). It acts as a purifying and healing agent in respect of ulcers and eyes, is aphrodisiac, astringent, and tends to permeate all the minutest channels and capillaries of the organism. It is antifat and pacifies the deranged Pitta and Kapha, and proves curative in hiccough, Meha, dyspnea, cough, dysentery, vomiting and thirst. It is a vermifuge, antitoxic and demulcent, and influences the subduing of the three deranged humours. Owing to its lightness it subdues the deranged Kapha, and proves a good antidote to the deranged Vayu and Pitta owing to its sliminess, sweetness and astringent taste.
Eight different kinds of honey are commonly used such as, the Pauttika, Bhramara, Kshaudram, Makshika, Chatram, Arghyam, Auddalaka and Dala. Of these the honey obtained from the hives of bees, known as the Futtikas, is hot and parchifying owing to their habit of sucking the juice or sap of flowers and plants without eliminating therefrom other foreign or poisonous matter, that might have become naturally or accidentally mixed with it. This kind of honey is intoxicating and acid in its re-action, and tends to aggravate the Vayu, blood and Pitta. It acts as a liquefacient or discutient agent. Honey, known as the Bhramara, is extremely heavy owing to its extremely sweet taste and slimy character, while the one known as the Kshaudram is extremely cool, light and liquefacient. Honey known as the Makshika is lighter, dryer and more efficacious than the honey of the preceding class (Kshaudram), and proves specially beneficial in cases of dyspnea, etc. Honey, known as the Chatram, is sweet in digestion, heavy, cooling and slimy. It acts as a vermifuge, proves curative in hemoptysis, psoriasis and Meha, and is possessed of a high efficacy. Honey known as the Arghyam is possessed of properties highly beneficial to the eye. It is a greater subduer of Pitta and Kapha than any other kind of honey, is astringent in taste, and pungent in digestion. It is a bitter tonic and does not generate Vayu in the system. Honey known as the Auddalaka improves the voice and relish for food. It is antitoxic, and proves curative in cutaneous affections. It is heat-making in its potency, and acid and astringent in taste. It generates Pitta, and is pungent in digestion. Honey, known as the Dala, is parchifying and proves beneficial in cases of vomiting and Meha. Fresh honey is constructive and aphrodisiac, acts as a mild laxative, and to a small extent subdues the deranged Kapha. Old honey is astringent and liquefacient, and reduces fat and obesity. Honey, that has attained a thickened or condensed state in course of time (Pakka Madhu), tends to subdue the three deranged humours, while thin and immatured honey (Ama Madhu) is possessed of contrary properties, and tends to agitate the three fundamental humours of the body. In conjunction with many other drugs and medicinal remedies, honey proves curative in various diseases, and partakes of the virtues of the drugs or substances with which it is so used (Yoga-Vahika).
Honey is not collected from the flowers of any particular species. On the other hand, the honeymaking bees cull it from the sap and juice of flowers and plants, which are incompatible with one another in respect of their nature, taste, virtue, potency and re-actionary (chemical) effect. For these reasons, and further from the fact of it being prepared by poisonous bees, honey becomes positively injurious after contact with heat or fire, and accordingly the use of hot or boiled honey is forbidden.
On account of its poisonous contact in its origin honey exerts a similar injurious virtue. Used in a boiling or heated state, or in a hot country, or during the hot season of the year, or in a heated state of the body, honey is sure to prove fatal like poison. Honey is specially made injurious by hot contact owing to its placidity and coolness, and further for the reason of its being collected from the sap of a variety of flowers and plants. Atmospheric water (rain-water), like heat, serves to impart an injurious character to all kinds of honey (except the one known as the arghyam Madhu).
For emetic purposes honey may be administered with any other hot substance, inasmuch as it is intended in such a case that the imbibed honey, instead of being retained or digested in the stomach, should be ejected immediately after its use.
Undigested honey is more painful, or gives rise to a greater discomfort than all other undigested substances in the stomach, more so because internal fermentation and use of hot water, which are usually resorted to in a case of deranged digestion, can not be used in a case of undigested honey retained in the stomach, owing to the poisonous nature of the chemical change (Vipaka) it undergoes therein in contact with hot substances in general. Hence, undigested honey is as fatal as any poison.
The Sugar-cane group:—
Sugar cane is sweet in taste and digestion, heavy, cool, demulcent, strength-giving, spermatopoietic, and diuretic. It produces Kapha in the body, and proves remedial in hemoptysis, and helps the germination of worms in the intestines.
There are many species of sugar-cane such as, the Paundraka, Bhiruka, Vanshaka, Shataporaka, Kantara, Tapasekshu, Kastekshu, Suchipatraka, Naipala, Dirghapatraka, Nilapora, and Koshakrit. Now we shall deal with the specific virtues of each of them. The Sugar-cane of the Paundraka and Bhiruka types is cooling, sweet, demulcent and constructive. It produces Kapha and is laxative without giving rise to imperfect gastric digestion. It is heavy and spermatopoietic. The Sugarcane of the Vanshaka species is possessed of similar properties as the two foregoing ones, though a little alkaline in its constitution, while that of the Shatapora species is a little more heat-making than that of the preceding class, and is found to subdue the deranged Vayu. The Sugar-cane of the Kantara and Tapasa species is possessed of the same virtues as that of the Vanshaka class. The Sugar-cane of the Kastekshu species is identical in its properties with that of the aforesaid Vanshaka class, though it tends to agitate the bodily Vayu. The Sugar-cane of the Suchipatra, Nilapora, Naipala and Dirghpatra species produces Vayu in the system, and subdues the Kapha and Pitta. It is slightly astringent in taste and indigestible (gives rise to acidity after digestion). The Sugar-cane of the Koshakara species is heavy (in digestion), cooling and proves curative in cases of hemoptysis and wasting diseases in general. Sugar-cane is extremely sweet about the roots, sweet at the middle, and saline at the tops and joints.
The juice of a sugar-cane when eaten raw is not marked by any acid reaction after digestion. It is spermatopoietic, and subdues the Vayu and the Kapha, and is pleasant to the taste. The juice of sugar-cane otherwise pressed out is heavy in digestion, is long retained in the stomach, and is followed by reactionary acidity, and arrests the evacuation of stool and urine. The juice of ripe sugar-cane is heavy in digestion, possessed of laxative properties, keen, and demulcent. It subdues the Vayu and Kapha. The inspissated or half boiled juice of sugar-cane (Phanita) is sweet in taste and heavy. It increases the slimy secretions of the organs, acts as a flesh-builder, and is devoid of all spermatopoietic properties. It brings about a simultaneous derangement of the three bodily humours.
Common treacle is found to be charged with a little alkali. It is sweet in taste and not too cooling. It acts as a demulcent and purifier of the blood and urine. It subdues the deranged Vayu and, to a slight extent, deranges the Pitta as well. It increases fat, Kapha, and corpulency, and is possessed of tonic and spermatopoietic properties. White and purified (Shuddha) treacle is sweet in taste, and purifies the blood. It subdues the deranged Vayu and Kapha, and is one of the most wholesome diets for man. Its efficacy increases with its years.
The different modifications of treacle such as, the Matsandika, Khamda, and Sharkara (sugar) which are progressivly more refined, should be deemed as gaining more in their cooling, demulcent and aphrodisiac properties, and getting heavier in digestion in each of the successive stages of refinement. They are successively more frigorific, and beneficial in cases of hemoptysis.
To the properties considered as specially belonging to each of these modifications of treacle should be attributed its power of producing its own refinement and efficacy. The virtues of sugar such as, laxativeness, etc., should be regarded as proportional to its refinement, freedom from alkaline saturation, and the actual quantity of sweetening matter (lit. substance) contained in it.
Sugar prepared from concentrated honey (Madhu Sharkara) is parchifying and liquefacient. It proves beneficial in cases of vomiting and dysentery, is pleasant, has a sweet and astringent taste, and is sweet in digestion. Sugar prepared from a decoction of Yavasa Sharkara (Duralabha) has a sweet and astringent taste, leaves a bitter after-taste, and is possessed of laxative properties, and subdues the deranged Kapha. All kinds of sugar tend to assuage burning sensations in the body, and prove curati ve in hemoptysis, vomiting, epileptic fits, and thirst. The sweet and concentrated extract (Phanita) of Modhuka flowers should be regarded as parchifying. It produces Vayu and Pitta, and subdues Kapha. It is sweet, astringent in its digestive transformation, and deranges the blood.
Madya Varga (Wines and spirits):—
All species of wine are acid in taste, and appetising. They generate Pitta, and impart a greater relish to one’s food. They act as mild purgatives, subdue the deranged Vayu and Kapha, and are pleasing, exhilarating and diuretic.
They are light in digestion and give rise to a kind of re-actionary acidity. They are keen and heat-making, stimulate the sense organs, expand the joints and increase the discharge of urine and stool. Now hear me specifically describe the properties of each kind of wine.
The wine know ?????? Madvirka and prepared ??? the ???? fruits as grapes and raisins, does not ????? to any sort of reactionary acidity after its use, and accordingly is not forbidden by learned physicians even in cases of hemoptysis. It has a sweet taste, and leaves an astringent after-taste. It is parchifying, light and easy of digestion, acts as an aperient, and proves curative in chronic fevers, phthisis and other wasting diseases.
The wine prepared from the juice of the date palm (Kharjuram) possesses properties, which are slightly different from those of the preceding kind. It tends to enrage the bodily Vayu, is clear, and imparts a relish to one’s food, and reduces fat and Kapha. It is light, has a sweet and astringent taste, is pleasing and aromatic and increases the agility of the limbs and organs.
The wine known as the Sura (made of rice-paste and other fermenting drugs) proves curative in cough, piles, chronic indigestion and diarrhea, and retention of urine. It subdues the deranged Vayu and is tonic and appetising. It purifies the breast milk of a woman and proves beneficial in all types of diseases of the blood, as well as in wasting diseases. White Sura is used with benefit in all cases of cough, piles, diarrhea, dyspnea and catarrh. It builds up new???d tissues, and increases the quantity of blood, It is ga????guic in its effect, and increases the quantity of Kapha in the body.
The wine known as the Prasanna (the cream or the limpid surface of Sura) may be taken with advantage in vomiting, non-relish for food, aching or colic pain at the sides or about the cardiac region, constipation, suppression of stool and urine or flatus, as well as in all cases of obstinate constipation and derangement of the bodily Vayu.
The wine prepared from barley (Yavasura) generates Pitta and tends to enrage the bodily Vayu. It is dry and slightly generates Kapha.
The Ahshiki (wine prepared from the bark of Vibhitaka trees etc.) is parchifying, digestant, and slightly produces Kapha. It is possessed of aphrodisiac properties.
The wine known as the Kohala brings on the simultaneous derangement of the three fundamental bodily humours, is pleasant to the taste, acts as a purgative (Bhedya) and is possessed of aphrodisiac properties.
The wine known as the Jagala (the underlying dregs or residue of wine) is astringent and heat-making in its potency, and acts as a digestant. It is parchifying, and proves beneficial in cough, thirst and phthisis. It is pleasant to the taste, cures diarrhea, distention of the stomach, piles and edema. It forms and subdues the deranged Vayu as well.
The wine known as the Vakkasa???? long undigested in the stomach owing t??????t??eing pithless. It is a good appetiser and tends to enrage the deranged Vayu, and acts as a purgative and diuretic (tonic.—A.T.) It is heavy and slightly intoxicating.
Sugar wine (Sharkara Sidhu) is sweet in its taste, increases one’s relish for food, is appetising and diuretic. It subdues the deranged Vayu and is exhilarating, sweet in digestion, and increases the action (lit: rouses up) of the sense organs.
The wine known as the Pakka Rasa Sidhu is possessed of properties similar to the preceding kinds (Sharkara Sidhu). It improves the complexion and imparts strength to the system and relish to one’s food. It is pleasant, laxative, appetising and proves beneficial in cases of Kapha and piles and reduces swellings.
The wine known as the Shita Rasika Sidhu (prepared from the unboiled juice of Sugar-cane in contradistinction with the preceding kinds prepared from the boiled juice of sugar-cane), acts as an anti-epispastic, and a digestant and vocal tonic, proves curative in edema and abdominal dropsy, improves the complexion, removes the suppression of flatus, urine and stool (Vivandha), and proves beneficial in cases of piles.
The wine known as the Akshika Sidhu (prepared from a decoction of Vi???? with treacle etc. and improved with the?????? Dhataki) proves beneficial in cases of ulcer and jaundice. It is light and astringent, and has a sweet and astringent taste. It subdues the deranged Pitta and purifies the blood.
The wine known as the Jamvava Sidhu (wine prepared from the expressed juice of the Jambalin fruit, a decoction of coriander seeds, treacle and Dhataki flowers, etc.) is anuretic, reduces the quantity of urine, has an astringent taste, and tends to enrage the bodily Vayu.
The wine known as the Surasava (Asava distilled with wine instead of with water) is keen, pleasant, and diuretic. It subdues the deranged Vayu and Kapha, or the deranged Vayu alone, and is palatable, and possessed of a more durable intoxicating power.
The wine known as the Madhvasava wine is light, tends to disintegrate the knotty accumulations or collections of phlegm (Chedi), and proves curative in Meha (unhealthy discharges from the urethra), cutaneous affections, and poisoning (antitoxic). It has a taste blended of the sweet and the astringent, is keen and anti-epispastic, and does not generate an abnormal quantity of Vayu in the System.
The wine known as the Maireya (prepared from the Paishtisura, treacle-made spirit and honey) is keen, and has a sweet and astringent taste. It is intoxicating, and proves curative in piles, Kapha and Gulma (abdominal glands). It is antifat and a vermifuge, and is heavy in digestion, and subdues the deranged Vayu.
Wines prepared from the juice of grapes or sugar-cane (Ikshu or Dhrakshasava) are tonic and choleric. They subdue the deranged Pitta, and serve to improve the complexion.
Sidhu (wine) prepared from the Madhuka flowers is parchifying, takes a long time to be digested, and is followed by an acid re-action. It improves the strength and digestive capacity, and has an astringent taste. It subdues the deranged Kapha, and serves to aggravate the Vayu and Pitta.
Wines prepared from the distilled juice of bulbs or roots should be deemed as possessed of properties pertaining to them individually.
New wine is heavy, bad smelling, insipid, unpleasant, unpalatable, and tends to increase the slimy secretions of the organs. It enrages the deranged humours of the body, takes a long time to be digested, and is followed by an acid re-action.
Old Wine is sweetsmelling, acts as an appetiser, and brings on a relish for food. It is pleasant and a vermifuge, and cleanses the internal channels of the organism. It is light and subdues the deranged Vayu and Kapha.
The species of wine known as the Arishta (fermented liquor) is highly efficacious owing to the concerted action of a variety of drugs entering into its composition. It proves curative in a large number of diseases, tends to subdue the deranged humours of the body, and is a good appetiser. It subdues the Vayu and Kapha and is laxative and not hostile to the Pitta. It proves beneficial in colicpain, distention of the stomach, abdominal dropsy, fever, enlarged spleen, indigestion and piles. Asava wine prepared from the drugs known as the Pippali, etc. (Pippalyadi Asava) proves curative in Gulma (abdominal glands) and diseases due to the deranged Kapha. The Aristhas of other therapeutic virtues will be specially described later on in chapters on Therapeutics (Chikitsita). An experienced physician should prescribe the different species of wine such as, the Aristha, Asava, Sidhu, etc., in different diseases in consideration of the therapeutic properties of drugs, which enter into their composition, or with which they have been purified, and according as each of them would be indicated in practice.
The following kinds of wine should always be rejected viz., such as are thick, bad smelling, or insipid or full of worms, or heavy and acid in digestion, unpleasant, new, strong and heat-making in their potency, or which have been preserved in an improper vessel, or which have been prepared with a comparatively lesser number of ingredients or have been decanted over-night, or are extremely slimy or transparent, as well as the dregs of all kinds of wine.
The wine prepared from a comparatively lesser number of ingredients, or that which is slimy, heavy and takes a long time to be digested, should be deemed as an agitator of the bodily Kapha. The wine which is marked by a deep yellow colour is strong and hot, is only imperfectly digested and followed by a kind of acid re-action. It tends to aggravate the Pitta. The wine, which is frothy or putrified, heavy or insipid or is marked by the germination of worms in its body, or is decanted over-night, tends to enrage or agitate the bodily Vayu. The wine which is well-matured, and possessed of its characteristic taste, and the virtue of improving the appetite and bringing on a relish for food, and which subdues the Vayu and Kapha, and is mild, good, aromatic and exhilarating, should be regarded as the only wine fit for use. Wines may be divided into a variety of species according to their different tastes and strength. The potency of a wine promoted by the bodily heat of a man courses upward through the arteries, and ultimately reaches the heart; and thence, through its own subtility and expansiveness, permeates the entire organism and gradually attacks and overwhelms the organs of sense perception, dethrones the mind from her throne of reason, usurps the permanent seat of intellect, and thus brings on intoxication. A man of phlegmatic temperament (Kapha-prakriti) can carry his wine well, and symptoms of intoxication usually appear later in him. A man of bilious temparament (Pitta Prakriti), under such circumstances, gets easily intoxicated, while the man whose temperament is marked by a predominance of Vayu is often found to be tipsy after his first cup. A man of a Sattvika frame of mind exhibits under the influence of wine, a decided predilection for fine dress, jollity, and acts of purity and compassion. He sings, or reads, or evinces a strong desire for female company. A man of a Rajasika frame of mind becomes extremely melancholy or pugnacious in his cups, indulges in despondent reveries, and evinces suicidal tendencies; while wine in a subject of a Tamasika cast of mind exhibits the latent and innate vileness of his soul. Such a person generally sleeps when intoxicated, falsely boasts of his own excellence, and evinces a desire for women with whom connection is forbidden by both social and canonical laws.
Fermented liquors known as the Shukta (treacle, honey, fermented rice gruel, and curd cream kept in a new and clean vessel underneath a bushel of paddy for three consecutive days) bring on an attack of hemoptysis. They disintegrate the lumps or knots of accumulated Kapha, are digestant and prove curative in jaundice and diseases due to the derangement of Kapha. They are light and vermifugenous, and strong and heat making in their potency. They act as diuretic, are pleasant, and pungent in digestion. Bulbs and roots pickled in Shukta acquire the properties of the latter. Of the Shuktas prepared with treacle, juice of sugar-cane, or honey, each preceding one should be deemed heavier and as giving rise to greater secretions of internal organs than the one immediately following it in the order of enumeration.
The different kinds of fermented rice gruel known as the Tushamvu and Sauvira are pleasant and appetising beverages. They prove efficacious in cases of jaundice, worms in the intestines, dysentery, piles, and in diseases affecting the heart. They are possessed of purgative (Bhedi) properties.
The fermented gruel known as the Dhanyamlam is a good appetiser (tonic—D. R) owing to the fact of its being a preparation of paddy. As a plaster, it alleviates the burning sensation of the skin, and as a potion it subdues the Vayu and Kapha, and allays thirst. Used as a gargle it forms one of the best remedies for reducing Kapha owing to its keenness. It is light of digestion, acts as a deodorant, removes the sense of exhaustion and bad taste from the mouth, allays thirst, acts as a good appetiser and dissolvent, is possessed of purgative virtues, and is advantageously used as an enemata (Asthapana). It is very wholesome to seafaring men.
The Urine Group:—
The urine of cows, buffaloes, goats, sheep, mules, horses, and camels are commonly hot and bitter, and leave a saline after-taste. They are light and are used as purifying agents, and will prove curative in diseases due to the derangement of the Vayu or Kapha, as well as in worms in the intestines, obesity, poisoning, abdominal glands, piles, ascites, cutaneous affections, edema, non-relish for food, and jaundice. In general they act as cardiac stimulants (Hridyam) and appetisers.
Authoritative verses on the Subject:—
They are all pungent, strong, hot, light and have a saline after-taste. They act as blood-purifiers or disinfecting agents, reduce corpulency, act as vermifuges and are anti-toxic. They subdue the deranged Vayu and Kapha. They prove beneficial in cases of piles, ascites, abdominal tumours, edema and non-relish for food. They prove beneficial in jaundice, and act as cardiac stimulants, and are possessed of appetising, purgative and stomachic virtues.
The urine of a cow is pungent, strong and hot, and does not generate Vayu on account of its being saturated with alkali. It is light, stomachic, slightly generates the Pitta, and subdues the Vayu and Kapha. It proves beneficial in cases of colic, abdominal glands, ascites and distention of the abdomen, and is used for the purposes of purging and enematas (Asthapana). In cases, which prove amenable to the use of urine, the urine of a cow should be used to the exclusion of that of any other animal, even to that of an ox.
The urine of a (she) buffalo proves beneficial in piles, abdominal dropsy, colic, cutaneous affections, Meha, imperfect action of emetics or purgatives, constipation, edema, abdominal glands, and jaundice.
The urine of a (she) goat has a pungent, bitter taste. It sligthly agitates the bodily Vayu and proves curative in cases of cough, dyspnea, consumption, jaundice and chlorosis.
The urine of a ewe contains alkali, and has a bitter pungent taste. It subdues the deranged Vayu, and is heat-making in its potency. It proves beneficial in cough, enlarged spleen, abdominal dropsy, dyspnea, consumption and in obstinate constipation of the bowels.
The urine of a horse is appetising and pungent in taste, strong and heat-making in its potency. It subdues the deranged Vayu and Kapha, and cures mental aberrations. It is usually recommended in cases of ringworm and worms in the intestines.
The urine of an elephant has a bitter and saline taste. It is keen and purgative, and subdues the Vayu and enrages the Pitta. It is commonly used in the treatment of (Kilasa) leucoderma and in the preparation of alkalies.
The urine of an ass tends to neutralise the effects of poison generated through the chemical action of two different substances in the organism. It is strong and proves curative in cases of chronic dysentery. It is a vermifuge and subdues the Vayu and Kapha, and is appetising.
The urine of a camel proves beneficial in cases of edema, leprosy, abdominal dropsy, insanity, worms in the intestines, piles and in diseases due to the action of the deranged Vayu.
Human urine is strong anti-toxic.
I have now briefly described the properties of all kinds of liquid food or drink. An experienced physician should prescribe them for the use of his king according to the nature of season and the country in which they are to be applied.
Footnotes and references:
Enlivens the body during fits of fainting and such like cases.
Imparts strength to the exhausted or emaciated frames.
A tank or a large well with its sides protected by buttresses of masonry work.
A well with flights of masonry steps descending to its bottom.
An ordinary well, unprotected by buttresses and unprovided with steps.
A flow of subterranean water dug out of a bed of sand.
The “rains” in the present passage should be interpreted to mean the end of the rainy season or the month of Ashvina, and not the month of Bhadra, as its use is specially forbidden in that month.
Light according to Jejjada.
From the construction of the present sentence in the original texts, we are warranted to include the milk of a doe, or of a she-mule, or of a cow-rhinoceros in the list, as they sometimes prove beneficial for external applications.
It has been recently discovered by a German physician that tuberculosis bacilli do no not thrive in goat’s-blood—Translator.
Boiled milk curdled and subsequently heated and made into a paste is called Kilata.
The milk of a cow recently delivered of a calf is called Piyusha till the seventh day after its birth, while, it is subsequently called Moratha till it is perfectly purified and becomes fit for the use of man.
(1) The kind of honey obtained from hives of large, yellow bees, is called the Pauttika.
(2) The kind of honey obtained from hives of bees of the Bhramara species is called Bhramara.
(3) The kind of honey obtained from hives of small, tawny brown bees is called the Kshaudram.
(4) The kind of honey obtained from the hives of large, brown bees of the Makshika species is called Makshika.
(5) The kind of honey obtained from the umbrella shaped hives of bees of the Chatra species is called Chatram.
(6) The honey obtained from the hives of thin-mouthed bees of the Argha species often found in ant-hills is called Arghyam.
(7) The kind of honey obtained from the hives of small brown bees of the Uddalaka species is called Auddalaka.
(8) The kind of honey found accumulated in leaves of honey-bearing plants is called Dalam.
Though the use of honey with hot substances is not forbidden in such cases, still many an experienced physician of the Ayurvedic school thinks it safe to refrain from its use, lest it might be retained in the stomach for a considerable time, or find out a downward outlet and pass off with the stool.
These couplets emphatically prove that the framers of ancient Ayurveda were fully conversant with the circulation of the blood—Tr.
The urine of a cow, she-buffalo, ewe and she-goat should be taken and used, while similar secretions of the male should be taken where man, camel and elephant should be indicated.