Shrimad Bhagavad-gita

by Narayana Gosvami | 2013 | 327,105 words

The Bhagavad-gita Verse 14.2, English translation, including the Vaishnava commentaries Sarartha-varsini-tika, Prakashika-vritti and Rasika-ranjana (excerpts). This is verse Verse 14.2 from the chapter 14 called “Guna-traya-vibhaga-yoga (Yoga through transcending the three modes of Material Nature)”

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration, Word-for-word and English translation of verse 14.2:

इदं ज्ञानम् उपाश्रित्य मम साधर्म्यम् आगताः ।
सर्गेऽपि नोपजायन्ते प्रलये न व्यथन्ति च ॥ २ ॥

idaṃ jñānam upāśritya mama sādharmyam āgatāḥ |
sarge'pi nopajāyante pralaye na vyathanti ca
|| 2 ||

idam–this; jñānam–knowledge; upāśritya–taking refuge in; mama–Mine; sādharmyam–a similar nature; āgatāḥ–attained; sarge–at the time of creation; api–even; na upajāyante–they do not take birth; pralaye–at the time of devastation; na vyathanti–they are undisturbed (do not enter the cycle of repeated birth and death); ca–and.

Taking refuge of this knowledge, the sages attain a transcendental nature similar to Mine. Thus they do not take birth again, even at the time of creation, nor do they experience death at the time of devastation.

Commentary: Sārārtha-Varṣiṇī Ṭīkā

(By Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura; the innermost intention of the commentary named ‘the shower of essential meanings’)

The word sādharmyam means ‘the liberation of attaining a transcendental form like that of Śrī Bhagavān’. Na vyathanti means ‘they do not experience misery’.

Commentary: Sārārtha-Varṣiṇī Prakāśikā-vṛtti

(By Śrīla Bhaktivedānta Nārāyaṇa Gosvāmī Mahārāja; the explanation that illuminates the commentary named Sārārtha-varṣiṇī)

Upon acquiring transcendental knowledge of the self, the living entity who practises sādhana acquires qualities similar to those of Bhagavān. This means that many of his qualities become partially equal to the qualities of Bhagavān. Even after he attains liberation and becomes free from the cycle of birth and death, his individual existence as an eternal associate of Śrī Bhagavān continues, and having become established in his svarūpa, his eternal nature and form, he remains eternally engaged in loving service to Śrī Bhagavān's lotus feet. Thus, even after attaining liberation, the devotees do not give up their svarūpa, or their natural inclination to serve.

The essence of all Bhagavān Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s instructions is that the jīvātmā does not completely become one with Paramātmā by merging with Him. Rather, the living entity’s pure spiritual form continues to exist separately from that of Śrī Bhagavān, and in this pure form he remains engaged in love-filled service to Him. Great realized personalities, like Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura and Śrīla Śrīdhara Svāmī, have accepted the meaning of sādharmya here as sārūpya-mukti, attaining a form similar to the Lord’s. In the fourth prameya of Śrīla Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa’s commentary on Prameya-ratnāvalī, he has commented on the use of the word sāmya in the Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad (3.1.3) and on sādharmya in the present verse. He writes that these two words should be understood to mean that even in the liberated state, there is a difference between the jīva and Īśvara. He explains that the use of aiva in the verse brahma-vid brahmaiva bhavati means ‘like brahma’. The word eva has been used in the sense of similarity. Therefore, brahmaiva means ‘to acquire qualities like those of Bhagavān’, that is, freedom from birth and death. The living entity, however, can never carry out such functions as the act of creation.

Śrī Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa comments on the present verse as follows: “When the faithful living entity through his practice of bhakti acquires the above-stated transcendental knowledge by worshipping the spiritual master, he partially attains eight of Bhagavān’s eternal qualities and becomes free from birth and death. The Śrutis state that the jīvas retain their individuality even in the stage of liberation; they never merge. In other words, more than one living entity is seen there. Tad viṣṇoḥ paramaṃ padaṃ sadā paśyanti sūrayaḥ. “Liberated persons, those who have attained the stage of mukti, constantly see the supreme abode of Śrī Viṣṇu.” The word sāmya is also seen in the Muṇḍaka Śruti, “yadā paśyaḥ paśyate rukma-varṇaṃ... nirañjanaḥ paramaṃ sāmyam upaiti–one who sees that golden-coloured Supreme Lord is liberated,” and also in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.5.48), “tat-sāmyam āpuḥ–they achieve a position on the same level as Him (in His eternal spiritual abode).”

Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura quotes Kṛṣṇa as saying, “Jñāna is generally materially tinged, or saguṇa. Jñāna that is materially untainted, or nirguṇa, is called uttama-jñāna, the topmost knowledge. By taking shelter of this nirguṇa-jñāna, the jīva attains My sādharmya, qualities similar to Mine. Less intelligent persons think that by giving up material qualities, material form and material existence, the living entity himself becomes bereft of all qualities, form and existence. They are not aware that, just as all objects in the material world are distinguished from each other by their unique attributes, similarly, the purest unique attributes, viśuddha-viśeṣa, are situated in My eternal, spiritual abode of Vaikuṇṭha, which transcends this material nature. That viśuddha-viśeṣa makes an eternal display of My transcendental form and existence, which is called My nirguṇa-sādharmya. With knowledge that is beyond the modes of nature, one initially transcends the material varieties within the material world and attains the featureless aspect of the Absolute Truth, or nirguṇa-brahma. Thereafter, transcendental qualities manifest and the jīva never takes birth again in the material world. Even upon the dissolution of the material world, the soul is never destroyed.”

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