by Narayana Gosvami | 2013 | 327,105 words
The Bhagavad-gita Verse 11.20, English translation, including the Vaishnava commentaries Sarartha-varsini-tika, Prakashika-vritti and Rasika-ranjana (excerpts). This is verse Verse 11.20 from the chapter 11 called “Vishvarupa-darshana-yoga (beholding the Lord’s Universal Form)”
Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration, Word-for-word and English translation of verse 11.20:
द्याव् आ-पृथिव्योर् इदम् अन्तरं हि व्याप्तं त्वयैकेन दिशश् च सर्वाः ।
दृष्ट्वाद्भुतं रूपम् इदं तवोग्रं लोक-त्रयं प्रव्यथितं महात्मन् ॥ २० ॥
dyāv ā-pṛthivyor idam antaraṃ hi vyāptaṃ tvayaikena diśaś ca sarvāḥ |
dṛṣṭvādbhutaṃ rūpam idaṃ tavograṃ loka-trayaṃ pravyathitaṃ mahātman || 20 ||
dyau-ā-pṛthivyoḥ–between heaven and Earth; idam–this (space); antaram–in between; hi–indeed; vyāptam–pervaded; tvayā–by You; ekena–alone; diśaḥ–directions; ca–and; sarvāḥ–all; dṛṣṭvā–seeing; adbhutam–astonishing; rūpam–form; idam–this; tava–of Yours; ugram–terrible; loka-trayam–the three worlds; pravyathitam–are very fearful and perturbed; mahā-ātman–O great personality.
You alone pervade all directions and all the space between Earth and the heavens. O Great Soul! Seeing this wondrous and terrible form of Yours, all the inhabitants of the three worlds are becoming most fearful and perturbed.
Commentary: Sārārtha-Varṣiṇī Ṭīkā
In this verse beginning with dyau, Śrī Bhagavān is displaying, as part of that universal form, His feature as all-devouring time, because it has a purpose in the present context. This continues into the next nine verses.
Commentary: Sārārtha-Varṣiṇī Prakāśikā-vṛtti
After seeing Śrī Bhagavān’s form as time (kāla), Arjuna says, “O resting place of everything, You are pervading the whole Earth, the firmament, the sky and all directions with Your universal form. You alone pervade the three worlds. Upon seeing this most wonderful divine form, the people of the three worlds become disturbed and agitated in fear.”
The point to be noted is that it was not only Arjuna who saw the universal form. The great battle of Kurukṣetra itself was also seen by demigods such as Lord Brahmā, by many demons, by the Pitṛs (fore-fathers), and by Gandharvas, Yakṣas, Rākṣasas, Kinnaras and human beings. All saw the battle according to their respective temperaments, such as friendship, enmity and indifference, but by Kṛṣṇa’s mercy, only those who were devotees could see the universal form, having received divine vision.
It was not that only Arjuna saw the universal form, just as a person sleeping is the only one to see the chariots, horses and so on in his dream. Exalted personalities like Vyāsa, Sañjaya, Grandsire Bhīṣma, Lord Brahmā and many others also witnessed this majestic form of Śrī Bhagavān. This is the confidential meaning of this verse.