by Narayana Gosvami | 2013 | 327,105 words
The Bhagavad-gita Verse 9.8, English translation, including the Vaishnava commentaries Sarartha-varsini-tika, Prakashika-vritti and Rasika-ranjana (excerpts). This is verse 8 from the chapter 9 called “Raja-guhya-yoga (Yoga through the most Confidential Knowledge)”
Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration, Word-for-word and English translation of verse 9.8:
प्रकृतिं स्वाम् अवष्टभ्य विसृजामि पुनः पुनः ।
भूत-ग्रामम् इमं कृत्स्नम् अवशं प्रकृतेर् वशात् ॥ ८ ॥
prakṛtiṃ svām avaṣṭabhya visṛjāmi punaḥ punaḥ |
bhūta-grāmam imaṃ kṛtsnam avaśaṃ prakṛter vaśāt || 8 ||
prakṛtim–material nature (consisting of three qualities); svām–of My; avaṣṭabhya–taking assistance; visṛjāmi–I create; punaḥ punaḥ–repeatedly; bhūta-grāmam–host of beings; imam–this; kṛtsnam–entire; avaśam–helpless; prakṛteḥ–by their (previous) natures (attained as a result of their past activities); vaśāt–being controlled.
Taking the assistance of My material nature, which consists of the three binding qualities, I repeatedly create the host of living beings who are bound by their previous karma in accordance with their individual natures.
Commentary: Sārārtha-Varṣiṇī Ṭīkā
Arjuna may raise the following question: “If You are completely aloof and free from any transformation, how do You create?” Anticipating this question, Śrī Kṛṣṇa speaks this verse beginning with prakṛtim. “Being situated within My material nature and presiding over it, I create a multitude of living entities who are bound by their past karma, or acquired nature.”
Commentary: Sārārtha-Varṣiṇī Prakāśikā-vṛtti
This material world is a manifestation, or transformation, of Bhagavān’s inferior energy (aparā-śakti). As far as the jīvas are concerned, they are His marginal potency, a transformation of the jīva-śakti, and they are eternal, unlike the material world, which is being constantly recreated. They are simply put into the womb of material nature from where they enter various species of life according to their previous actions, or karma, and they undergo the result of that karma. It is necessary to say at this point that all species of life, such as animals, birds and humans, are created simultaneously. The modern principle of evolution, introduced by Darwin, has no foundation and is a completely mistaken belief. Why is it that even after millions of years, no species of life superior to the human being has evolved?
Even after performing His act of creation, Śrī Bhagavān remains completely aloof from all these activities and without any transformation. The jīvas and the material world are manifested only when His energy is transformed.