Shrimad Bhagavad-gita

by Narayana Gosvami | 2013 | 327,105 words

The Bhagavad-gita Re-establishing the Doctrine of Parakiya, English translation, including the Vaishnava commentaries Sarartha-varsini-tika, Prakashika-vritti and Rasika-ranjana (excerpts).

Re-establishing the Doctrine of Parakīyā

When a slight decline in the influence of the six Gosvāmīs took place in Śrī Vṛndāvana, a controversy arose around the doctrines of wedded love (svakīyāvāda) versus paramour love (parakīyāvāda). To dispel miscon-ceptions regarding svakīyāvāda, Śrīla Cakravartī Ṭhākura wrote Rāga-vartma-candrikā and Gopī-premāmṛta, both of which are replete with scriptural philosophical conclusions. Thereafter, in his Ānanda-candrikā commentary on the verse laghutvam atra yat proktam, of Śrī Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi (1.21), he showed that the theory of svakīyāvāda was fallacious, and he established the conception of parakīyā, with scriptural evidence and irrefutable arguments. Further, in his Sārārtha-darśinī commentary on Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, he gave strong support to parakīyā-bhāva.

Certain scholars opposed the conclusions of Śrīla Cakravartī Ṭhākura on worship in the mood of parakīyā. When he defeated them with superior erudition and sound reasoning, they resolved out of envy to kill him. They knew that Śrī Cakravartī Ṭhākura used to circumambulate Śrī Vṛndāvana early each morning, so they hid in a dark, dense grove and waited for him to walk by. As his adversaries watched him approach, he suddenly disappeared, and in his place, a beautiful young girl of Vraja appeared, picking flowers with some of her friends.

The scholars asked the girl, “Dear child, just a moment ago a great devotee was coming this way. Did you see where he went?” The girl replied that she had seen him, but that she did not know where he had gone. Her astonishing beauty, gentle smile, graceful manner and sidelong glances captivated the scholars. Their hearts melted, and all the impurities in their minds were vanquished. They asked the girl who she was, and she replied, “I am a maidservant of Śrīmatī Rādhikā. She is presently at Her in-laws’ house at Yāvaṭa, and She sent me here to pick flowers.” Having spoken thus, the girl disappeared, and in her place the scholars saw Śrīla Cakravartī Ṭhākura once again. They fell at his feet and prayed for forgiveness, and he forgave them all. There are many such astonishing occurrences in the life of Śrīla Cakravartī Ṭhākura.

In this way, Śrīla Cakravartī Ṭhākura refuted the theory of svakīyā and established the truth of pure parakīyā–an achievement of great import for the Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavas.

Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura not only protected the integrity of the Śrī Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava dharma, but he also re-established its influence in Śrī Vṛndāvana. Anyone who evaluates this accomplishment will be struck with wonder at his uncommon genius. Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava ācāryas have composed the following verse in praise of his extraordinary work:

viśvasya nātha-rūpo’sau
bhakta-cakre vartitatvāt
cakravarty ākhyayābhavat

He is known by the name Viśvanātha, lord of the universe, because he indicates the path of bhakti;and he is known as Cakravartī, or he around whom the circle, or assembly, turns, because he always remains within the assembly (cakra) of pure devotees. Therefore, his name is Viśvanātha Cakravartī.

In about 1754, on the fifth day of the light phase of the moon in the month of Māgha (January–February), when Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura was around a hundred years old, he left this material world in Vṛndāvana, deeply absorbed in internal consciousness. His samādhi stands today next to the temple of Śrī Śrī Rādhā-Gokulānanda in Śrī Dhāma Vṛndāvana.

Below is a list of his books, commentaries and prayers, which comprise a storehouse of incomparable wealth of Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava devotional literature:

(1) Vraja-rīti-cintāmaṇi

(2) Camatkāra-candrikā

(3) Prema-sampuṭa (Khaṇda-kāvya–a poetic work which displays only partial characteristics or ornamentation or poetry)

(4) Gītāvalī

(5) Subodhinī (Alaṅkāra-kaustubha ṭīkā)

(6) Ānanda-candrikā (Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi ṭīkā)

(7) ṭīkā on Śrī Gopāla-tāpanī

(8) Stavāmṛta-laharī (‘Waves of Nectarean Prayers’, included in which are the following:

  1. Śrī Guru-tattvāṣṭaka,
  2. Mantra-dātṛ-guror-aṣṭaka,
  3. Parama-guror-aṣṭaka,
  4. Parātpara-guror-aṣṭaka,
  5. Parama-parātpara-guror-aṣṭaka,
  6. Śrī Lokanāthāṣṭaka,
  7. Śrī Śacīnandanāṣṭaka,
  8. Śrī Svarūpa-caritāmṛta,
  9. Śrī Svapna-vilāsāmṛta,
  10. Śrī Gopāla-devāṣṭaka,
  11. Śrī Madana-mohanāṣṭaka,
  12. Śrī Govindāṣṭaka,
  13. Śrī Gopināthāṣṭaka,
  14. Śrī Gokulānandāṣṭaka,
  15. Svayaṃ-bhagavad-aṣṭaka,
  16. Śrī Rādhā-kuṇḍāṣṭaka,
  17. Jagan-mohanāṣṭaka,
  18. Anurāga-vallī,
  19. Śrī Vṛndā-devyaṣṭakam,
  20. Śrī Rādhikā-dhyānāmṛta,
  21. Śrī Rūpa-cintāmaṇi,
  22. Śrī Nandīśvarāṣṭaka,
  23. Śrī Vṛndāvanāṣṭaka,
  24. Śrī Govardhanāṣṭaka,
  25. Śrī Saṅkalpa-kalpa-druma,
  26. Śrī Nikuñja-virudāvalī (Virut-kāvya, laudatory poetry),
  27. Surata-kathāmṛta,
  28. Śrī Śyāma-kuṇḍāṣṭaka.)

(9) Śrī Kṛṣṇa-bhāvanāmṛta-mahākāvya

(10) Śrī Bhāgavatāmṛta-kaṇā

(11) Śrī Ujjvala-nīlamaṇī-kiraṇa

(12) Śrī Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu-bindu

(13) Rāga-vartma-candrikā

(14) Aiśvarya-kādambinī (unavailable)

(15) Śrī Mādhurya-kādambinī

(16) Śrī Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu ṭīkā

(17) Dāna-keli-kaumudī ṭīkā

(18) Śrī Lalita-mādhava-naṭaka ṭīkā

(19) Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta ṭīkā (incomplete)

(20) Brahma-saṃhitā ṭīkā

(21) Śrīmad Bhagavad-gītā Sārārtha-varṣiṇī-ṭīkā

(22) Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam Sārārtha-darśinī-ṭīk

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