Shri Gaudiya Kanthahara

by Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati | 83,221 words

Shri Gaudiya Kantahara (English translation) was published by Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati to train devotees in the philosophy of Krishna-consciousness and to be able to quote the authoritative parts of the Vedas. A collection of over a thousand verses, sorted by tattva, includes general index, alphabetical index of verses. Verses in in Roman tr...

Chapter 10 - Jīva-tattva

The Jiva Principle

The Jīva is a Separated Infinitesimal Particle

(Vibhināṃśa) of the Lord

10.1

svāṃśa-vibhināṃśa-rūpe hañā vistāra
ananta vaikuṇṭha-brahmāṇḍe karena vihāra
svāṃśa-vistāra catur-vyuha, avatāra-gaṇa
vibhinnāṃśa jīva tāñra śaktite gaṇana

Kṛṣṇa expands into many forms. Some are personal expansions, and some are separate expansions. Thus He performs pastimes in both the spiritual and material worlds. The spiritual worlds are the Vaikuṇṭha planets, and the material universes are brahmāṇḍas, gigantic globes governed by Brahmā's. Expansions of His personal self like the quadruple manifestations of Saokarṣaṇa, Pradyumna, Aniruddha, and Vāsudeva descend as incarnations from Vaikuṇṭha to this world. The separated expansions (vibhinnāṃś) are living entities. Although they are expansions of Kṛṣṇa they are counted among His different potencies. (Cc. Madhya 22.8-9)

10.2

mamaivāṃśo jīva-loke jīva-bhūtaḥ sanātanaḥ
manaḥ-ṣaṣṭhānīndriyāṇi prakṛti-sthāni karṣati

The living entities in this world are My eternal atomic parts. Because of conditioned life, they are struggling hard with the six senses, including the mind. (Bhagavad-gītā 15.7)

The Nature of the Jīva is Transcendental Substance

10.3

na jāyate mriyate vā kadācin nāyaṃ bhūtvā bhavitā vā na bhūyaḥ
ajo nityaḥ śāśvato 'yaṃ purāṇo na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre

For the soul there is never birth or death. Having once been, he never ceases to be. He is unborn, eternal, ever-existing, undying, primeval. He is not slain when the body is slain. (Bhagavad-gītā 2.20)

10.4

nainaṃ chindanti śastrāṇi nainaṃ dahati pāvakaḥ
na cainaṃ kledayanty āpo na śoṣayati mārutaḥ

The soul can never be cut into pieces, nor can he be burned by fire, nor moistened by water, nor withered by the wind. (Bhagavad-gītā 2.23)

10.5

acchedyo 'yam adāhyo 'yam akledyo 'śoṣya eva ca
nityaḥ sarva-gataḥ sthāṇur acalo 'yaṃ sanātanaḥ

This individual soul is unbreakable and insoluble, and can be never be burned nor dried. He is everlasting, all-pervading, un-changeable, immovable, and eternally the same. (Bhagavad-gītā 2.24)

The Jīva is a Particle of a ray of Paramātmā

10.6

yathāgneḥ kṣudrā visphuliogā vyuccarantyevam evāsmādātmanaḥ
sarve prāṇāḥ sarve lokāḥ sarve devāḥ sarvāṇi bhūtāni vyuccaranti

As innumerable sparks emanate from a fire, so all the jīvas with their particular characteristics emanate from the Paramātma, along with the gods, planets, animate and inanimate beings. (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Upaniṣad 2.1.20)

10.7

īśvarera tattva yena jvalita jvalana
jivera svarūpa yaiche sphuliogera kaṇa

The Lord is like a great blazing fire, and the living entities are like small sparks of that fire. (Cc. Ādi 7.116)

The Jīva is Conscious Atomic Energy

10.8

bālāgra-śata bhāgasya śatadhā kalpitasya ca
bhāgo jivaḥ sa vijñeyaḥ sa cānantyāya kalpate

If we divide the tip of a hair into one hundred parts and then take one part and divide this into another one hundred parts, that ten-thousandth part is the dimension of the living entity. And this living entity is capable to attain the unlimited Lord. (Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad 5.9)

The Infinitesimal Soul is Pure,

but Sometimes is Involved in Piety and Impiety

10.9

aṇurhyera ātmāyaṃ vā ete sinītaḥ puṇyaṃ cāpuṇyañ ca

This soul is atomic, and sometimes takes shelter of piety and impiety. (Madhva-bhāṣyoddhṛta Gautama-śruti-vākaya 2.3.18)

10.10

eṣo' ṇurātmā cetasā veditavyo
yasmin prāṇaḥ pañcadhā saṃvieśa
prāṇaiścittaṃ sarvamotaṃ prajānāṃ
yasmin viśuddhe vibhavatyeṣa ātmā

The soul is atomic in size and can be perceived by perfect intelligence. This atomic soul is floating in the five kinds of air (prāṇa, apāna, vyāna, samāna, and udāna). It sits within the heart and spreads its influence throughout the body. When the soul is purified from the contamination of the five kinds of material air, its spiritual influence is exhibited. (Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad 3.1.9)

The Soul Pervades the Body With Consciousness

10.11

yathā sarva-gataṃ saukṣmyād ākāśaṃ nopalipyate
sarvatrāvasthito dehe tathātmā nopalipyate

The sky, due to its subtle nature, does not mix with anything, although it is all-pervading. Similarly, the soul, being spiritual, although it is in the body, does not mix with the body. (Bhagavad-gītā 13.33.)

The Evidence of Vedānta on the Nature of the Soul

10.12

guṇādvālokavat

Just as fire pervades a room by its light the soul pervades the body by its quality of intelligence. (Brahma-sūtra 2.3.24)

Two Kinds of Souls Bound and Liberated.

10.13

sei vibhinnāṃśa jīva dui ta' prakāra
eka 'nitya-mukta', eka 'nitya-saṃsāra'
'nitya-mukta' nitya kṛṣṇa-caraṇe unmukha
'kṛṣṇa-pāriṣada' nāma, bhuñje sevā-sukha
'nitya-bandha' kṛṣṇa haite nitya-bahirmukha
'nitya-saṃsāra', bhuñje narakādi duḥkha
sei doṣe māyā-piṣacī daṇḍa kare tāre
ādhyātmikādi tāpa-traya tāre jāri' māre

The jīvas are divided in two categories. Some are eternally liberated, and others are eternally conditioned. Those who are eternally liberated are always awake to Kṛṣṇa consciousness, and they render transcendental loving service at the feet of Kṛṣṇa. They are eternal associates of Kṛṣṇa, and eternally enjoy the transcendental bliss of serving Kṛṣṇa. Apart from these ever-liberated devotees, there are the conditioned souls who always turn away from the service of the Lord. They are perpetually conditioned in this material world and are subjected to the material tribulations brought about by different bodily forms in hellish conditions. Owing to being opposed to Kṛṣṇa consciousness the conditioned soul is punished by the witch of the external energy, māyā. He suffers the threefold miseries caused by the body and mind, the inimical behavior of other living entities, and natural disturbances caused by the demigods. (Cc. Madhya 22.10-13)

The Soul's Constitutional Position

10.14

jivera 'svarūpa' haya kṛṣṇera 'nitya-dāsa'
kṛṣṇera 'taṭasthā-śakti', 'bhedābheda-prakāśa
sūryāṃśa-kiraṇa, yaiche agni-jvālā-caya
svābhāvika kṛṣṇera tina-prakāra 'śakti' haya

The living entity's constitutional position is to be an eternal servant of Kṛṣṇa. As a manifestation of Kṛṣṇa's marginal energy he is simultaneously one and different from the Lord, like a particle of sunshine or fire. Kṛṣṇa has three varieties of energy: cit-śakti, taṭastha-śakti, and māyā-śakti. (Cc. Madhya 20.108-109)

The Jīva is an Eternal Servant of Kṛṣṇa

10.15

sabrahmakāḥ sa-rudrāśca sendrā devam maharṣibhiḥ
arcayanti suraśeṣṭhaṃ devaṃ nārāyaṇaṃ hariḥ

The Brahmās, Rudras, Indras, and Mahaṛṣīs, as well as the demigods all worship the Supreme God, Śrī Nārāyaṇa, Hari. (Prameya-ratnāvalī 5.2 as quoted from the Māhābhārata)

The Jīva is Kṛṣṇa's Taṭastha śakti

10.16

tasya vā etasya puruṣasya dve eva sthāne bhavata idaṃsca paraloka
sthānañca sandhyaṃ tṛtīyaṃ svapna-sthānaṃ tasmin sandhye sthāne tiṣṭhannete ubhe sthāne paśyatīdañca paraloka-sthānañca

There are two states of the jīva in bondage the state with a corporeal body in the world and the state without a corporeal body in the world gained after death. There is an intermediate state that of sleep (dream). In this intermediate state one may at times have a dream of both worlds. Whatever is the way to the conditioned state of being in the other world, having obtained that way, one sees the evils of both this world and the joys of the other world. When he goes to sleep, he takes a little of the impressions of this variegated world, puts the body aside, and creates a dream body in its place, revealing his own brightness by his own light and dreams. Then he becomes illuminated. (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Upaniṣad 4.3.9)

The Jīva, is a Manifestation one With and

Different From the Lord

10.17

'māyādhīśa' 'māyā-vaśa' īśvare-jīve bheda
hena-jīve īśvara-saha kaha ta' abheda
gītā-śāstre jīva-rūpa 'śakti' kari' māne
hena jive 'bheda' kara īśvarera sane

The Lord is the master of His potency, and the jīvas are the servants of His potency. That is the difference between the Lord and the living beings. You may say that they are the same, but in Bhagavad-gītā the living being is established as the marginal potency of the Supreme Lord. (Cc. Madhya 6.162-163)

10.18

bhakti-yogena manasi samyak praṇihite 'male
apaśyat puruṣaṃ pūrṇaṃ māyāṃ ca tad-apāśrayam

Fixing his mind by perfectly engaging it in bhakti-yoga, without any tinge of materialism, he saw the Supreme Person along with His external energy, māyā, which was under full control. (Bhāg. 1.7.4)

10.19

yayā sammohito jīva ātmānaṃ tri-guṇātmakam
paro 'pi manute 'narthaṃ tat-kṛtaṃ cābhipadyate

Due to this external energy, the living entity, although transcendental to the three modes of nature, thinks himself a material product; thus he suffers the reactions of material miseries. (Bhāg. 1.7.5)

The Jīvas are Dependent on God

10.20

nityo 'nityānāṃ cetanaś cetanānām
eko bahūnāṃ yo vidadhāti kāmān
tam ātmasthaṃ ye' nupaśyanti dhīrās-teṣaṃ
śāntiḥ śāśvatī netareṣām

Of the innumerable, eternal, conscious beings, there is one eternal Supreme Being. He maintains the innumerable living beings according to individual work and reaction of work. By His expansion as Paramātma that Supreme Lord is also present within the heart of every living being. Only through saintly persons, who can see that Supreme Lord within and without, can one attain perfect and eternal peace (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13)

10.21

ekasmād-īśvarān-nityāc-cetanāt-tādṛśā-mithaḥ
bhidyante na bahavo jīvās-tena bhedaḥ sanātanaḥ

The above verse explains that both the Supreme Lord and the individual souls are eternal and conscious. By affirming their eternal condition, their eternal distinction is also affirmed. (Prameya-ratnāvalī 4.5)

Śuddhādvaita on the Difference Between Jīva and Iśvara

10.22

yathā samudre bahavas-taraṅgā stathā vayaṃ brahmaṇi bhuri jīvāḥ
bhavet taraṅgo na kadācidabdhi stvaṃ brahma kasmād-bhavitāsi jīva

O soul, in the same way that there are unlimited waves in the ocean so within the ocean of consciousness there are innumerable jīvas. If a wave cannot become the ocean, how can a jīva soul become the Supreme Lord? (Tattva-muktāvalī 10)

The Difference Between Jīva and Iśvara is Eternal

10.23

idaṃ jñānam upāśritya mama sādharmyam āgatāḥ
sarge 'pi nopajāyante pralaye na vyathanti ca

By being fixed in this knowledge, one can attain to the transcendental nature, which is like My own nature. Thus established, one is not born at the time of creation nor disturbed at the time of dissolution. (Bhagavad-gītā 14.2)

Śruti on the Eternal Difference Between Jīva and Iśvara

10.24

prāṇaikādhīna-vṛttitvād vāgādeḥ praṇatā yathā
tathā brahmādhīnavṛtter-jagato brahmatocyate

As speech and other organs are also called prāṇa or life air because their functions are dependent upon the functioning of the life air. So somethimes the material world is called Brahman because it functions by Brahman's support. (Prameya-ratnāvalī 4.6)

10. 25

na vai vāco na cakṣūṃṣi na śrotrāṇi na manāmsītyācakṣate
prāṇā ityevācakṣate, prāṇā hyevaitāni sarvāṇi bhavanti

[Baladeva Vidyābhuṣaṇa develops his point by quoting from the Upaniṣads] The different senses, such as the voice, sense of sight, sense of hearing, and the mind, all are known as the life force, but the actual life force is different from all these senses, which depend on it. They are named after the life-force, although it is actually different from them. The idea is that although the senses are dependent on the life force, and may be collectively known as the life force, they are all distinct. In the same way, the souls, which are dependent on Brahman, are sometimes known as Brahman, in order to show their origin, but they are always distinct from Brahman. (Chandogya Upaniṣad 5.1.15)

Śaṅkarā was Really a Proponent of the Difference

Between Jīva and Iśvara

10.26

śrī sūtra-kāreṇa kṛto vibhedo yat-karma-karturvyūpadeśa uktaḥ
vyākhyā kṛta bhāṣyakṛtā tathaiva guhāṃ praviṣṭhāviti bhedavākyaiḥ

"Karma-karturvyḥpadeśācca." In this sūtra the author, Vedavyāsa, recognizes the eternal distinction between Brahman and the jīva. Thus the eternal distinction between the soul and God is established by Vedānta. In Śaṅkarācārya's commentary on the Brahma-Sūtra, guhāṃ praviṣṭhavātāmānau hi tad-darśanāt, "It is therefore seen that both the jīva and Paramātma occupy the heart." (Brahma-Sūtra 1.2.11), Śaṅkarācārya quotes the "ṛtam pibantau" Upaniṣad verse, Kaṭha Upaniṣad 1.3.1. This verse asserts, "There are two selves residing in the core of the heart the jīva and Paramātma. The jīva enjoys the fruits of karma whereas Paramātma directs the soul to do good. Those who know Brahman speak of these two as being as distinct as shadow and light". The sūtra upon which this comment is made comes in reply to a question as to the difference between "intelligence" (buddhi) and the jīva. The sūtra explains that Paramātma is the source of intelligence and accepts the distinction between Paramātma and the jīva. By quoting this verse in his commentary, Śaṅkarācārya substantively agrees with the intent of the author of the Brahma-sūtra, and recognizes the difference between the soul and God. (Tattva-muktāvalī 5.83)

Note: The word karma here means object or Brahman. The word kartur (agent) here means jīva according to Baladeva Vidyābhuṣaṇa. Therefore, the line quoted means, "There is a difference between the object and the agent or between the soul and God.

10.27

yadyapi ha jagate īśvare bheda nāi
sarvamaya paripūrṇa āche sarvaṭhāñi
tabho tomāhaite se haiyāchi "āmi"
āmā haite nāhi kabhu haiyācha tumi
yena samudrera se "taraṅga" loke bole
taraṅgera samudra nā haya kona kāle
ata eva jagat tomāra, tumi pitā
ihaloke paraloke tumi se rakṣitā
yāhā haite haya janma, ye kare pālana
tāre ye nā bhaje, varjya haya sei jana
ei śaṅkarera śloka ei abhiprāya
ihā nā jāniyā māthā ki kārye muḍhāya

[In his heart, Śaṅkarā is a servant of Kṛṣṇa, although he has given many arguments promoting oneness just to confuse the atheists and bewilder the demons. In admitting this to Lord Caitanya, Sarvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya said:] Whatever Śaṅkarācārya says, his ultimate intent is to promote the service of Kṛṣṇa. A verse from Śaṅkarācārya's own mouth confirms this, satyāpi bhadāpagame, nātha! tavāhaṃ na māmakīyastvam, sāmudro hi taraṅgaḥ, kvacan samudro na tāraṅgaḥ. Śaṅkarācārya himself says that whenever he remarks that there is no difference between God and the world, he is simply promoting the all-encompassing nature of the Lord. [In other words, when Śaṅkarācārya says that the world and God are one, He means that everything flows from the Lord and exists in Him, and is therefore nondifferent from Him.] Śaṅkarācārya says to Lord Viṣṇu: "You are the Supreme Lord. Everything emanates from You. I have also emanated from You. You certainly did not emanate from me. The waves flow forth from the ocean; the ocean does not flow forth from the waves. This whole world flows forth from You, O Lord; You are the Lord and master of the universe. You protect and maintain both material and spiritual worlds. From You they have taken birth, and by You they are maintained. One who doesn't worship You is fit to be abandoned." [Sarvabhauma continued] These are the words of Śaṅkarācārya, and this is his intent. What will it benefit a fool who can't get this understanding into his head? (C.Bhāg. Antya 3.48-53)

The Cause of the Jīva's Ignorance

10.28

dvā suparṇā sayujā sakhāyā samānaṃ vṛksaṃ pariṣasvajāte
tayoranyaḥ pippalaṃ svādvattya-naśnan-nanyo a'bhicākaśīti

The Supreme Lord is the friend of the living being, and is so kind upon him that He always accompanies the soul. In the same way that two birds occupy the same branch of a tree, the Lord sits in the heart of every living being ready to bestow auspiciousness upon the soul. In this way the Lord acts as the in-dwelling witness, even while the soul pursues the fruits of karma and experiences happiness and distress (Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad 4.6,7)

10.29

samāne vṛkṣe puruṣo nimagno'nīśayā śocati muhyamānaḥ
juṣṭham yadā paśyatyanyamiśam asya mahimānamiti vītaśokaḥ

Although the two birds are in the same tree, the enjoying bird is full of anxiety and morose; but if somehow he turns to his friend, the Lord, and knows His glories, at once he is freed from all anxiety. (Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad 4.7)

In Ignorance, the Soul Identifies With the

Gross and Subtle Body and Suffers Repeated Birth and Death

10.30

avidyāyāmastare varttamānāḥ,
svayaṃ dhīrāḥ paṇḍitammanyamānāḥ
daṃdramayamāṇāḥ pariyanti muḍhā,
andhenaiva nīyamānā yathāndhāḥ

Illusioned by ignorance (and thus identifying the gross and subtle bodies as the self), bewildered souls think themselves steady and wise. Baffled by their own conceit they set themselves up as scholars and thus lead other ignorant souls further into darkness. In this way, those blinded by ignorance lead similarly blind men into the darkness of oblivion. (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 1.2.5)

10.31

kṛṣṇa bhuli' sei jīva anādi-bahirmukha
ataeva māyā tāre deya saṃsāra-duḥkha
kabhu svarge uṭhāya, kabhu narake ḍubāya
daṇḍya-jane rājā yena nadīte cubāya

Forgetting Kṛṣṇa, the living entity has been attracted by the external energy from time immemorial. Therefore the illusory energy gives him all kinds of misery. As a result, sometimes he is raised to heaven, and sometimes he is drowned in hell, just as a criminal is raised and again lowered into a pond on a dunking stool as punishment. (Cc. Madhya 20.117-118)

Attaining Kṛṣṇa's Lotus Feet is

Liberation From all Material Suffering

10.32

jñātvā devaṃ sarva-pāśāpahāniḥ
kśīṇaiḥ kleśair-janma-mṛtyu-prahāṇiḥ
tasyābhidhyānāt tṛtīyaṃ dehabhede
viśveśvaryaṃ kevala āptakāmaḥ

By understanding the truth of the Supreme Lord, one can slip the bonds of material life and get free from the miseries of repeated birth and death. Liberated from the gross and subtle material bodies, as an associate of the Supreme Lord in His transcendental abode, he attains an eternal divine form and realizes his heart's desires. (Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad 1.11)

10.33

sādhu-śāstra-kṛpāya yadi kṛṣṇonmukha haya
sei jīva nistare, māyā tāhāre chāḍaya

If the conditioned soul becomes Kṛṣṇa conscious by the mercy of saintly persons, who voluntarily preach scriptural injunctions and help him to become Kṛṣṇa conscious, the conditioned soul is freed from the clutches of māyā. (Cc. Madhya 20.120)

The Siddhānta of Viṣiṣṭhādvaitāvāda

Consciousness and Matter are Like the

Gross and Subtle Body of the Lord

10.34

yaḥ sarveṣu bhūteṣu tiṣṭhan sarvebhyo bhūtebhyo' ntaro yaṃ
sarvāṇi bhūtāni na viduryasya sarvāṇi bhūtāni śarīraṃ
yaḥ sarvāṇi bhūtānyantaro yamayatyeṣa ta ātmāntaryāmvamṛta

He dwells in all beings, and yet is different from them and unknown to them. All beings are His creation. He rules over them as the inner self. He is the soul of all souls. Just as the body is ruled by the soul, so all souls and all bodies are ruled by Him, the Soul of all souls. (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Upaniṣad 3.7.15)

The Siddhānta of Dvaitādvaitā-vāda on the Subject of the Jīva

10.35

jñāna-svarūpaś ca hareradhīnaṃ śarīra-yoga-viyoga-yogyam
aṇūm hi jīvaṃ pratideha-bhinnaṃ jñātṛtvavantaṃ yadanantam āhuḥ

The soul is both knower and known, unlimited in number, atomic, and an eternal servant of Kṛṣṇa. Because of his atomic size he is sometimes enveloped by māyā in the form of a material body. Sometimes he is disembodied. In any case, there are innumerable jīvas appearing in countless material bodies. (Nimbārkācārya, Daśa-śloka)

The Siddhānta of Śuddhādvaitā-vāda

(Viṣṇusvāmī as represented by Śrīdhāra Svāmī)

10.36

hlādinyā saṃvidāśliṣṭaḥ sac-cid-ānanda īśvaraḥ
svāvidyā-saṃvṛto jīvaḥ saṃkleśa-nikarākaraḥ

The nature of the Supreme Lord is sat-cit-ānanda: He is the ultimate embodiment of eternity, knowledge, and bliss, and is richly endowed with the hlādinī and samvit śaktis. The jīvas of this world, however, are covered by ignorance, which is the cause of their suffering the threefold miseries. (Śrīdhāra Svāmī on Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 1.7.5-6)

10.37

vastuno'ṃśo jīvo vastunaḥ śaktirmāyā
vastunaḥ kāryaṃ jagac-ca tat sarvaṃ vastveva

The Supreme Lord alone is the substance of all reality; a particle of His substance is the jīva; the energy of that substance is māyā and the effect of that substance is this material world. Therefore, everything having emanated from that supreme substance, all things may be said to be "nondifferent" from it. (Bhāvārtha-dīpikā 1.1.2)

A Liberated Soul Attains a Perfect Spiritual Body

in the Service of Kṛṣṇa

10.38

muktā api līlayā vigrahaṃ kṛtvā bhagavantaṃ bhajante

Liberated souls have divine forms with which they worship the Supreme Lord by taking part in His transcendental pastimes. (Cited by Śrīdhāra Svāmī while commenting on Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 10.87.21)

Śuddhādvaitā-vāda on the Distinct Position

of the Eternally Liberated Souls

10.39

pārṣada-tanū-nāmā-karmārabdhaṃ nityatvaṃ śuddhatvaṃ ca

The eternal associates of the Lord are free from karma. They are eternally pure, transcendental, and free from all material qualities. (Bhāvārtha-dīpikā 1.6.21)

One who Equates the Jīva with the Supreme Lord is an Atheist

10.40

aparimitā dhruvās tanu-bhṛto yadi sarva-gatās
tarhi na śasyateti niyamo dhruva netarathā
ajani ca yan-mayaṃ tad avimucya niyantṛ bhavet
samam anujānatāṃ yad amataṃ mata-duṣṭatayā

If the countless living entities were all-prevading and possessed forms that never changed, You could not possible be their absolute ruler, O immutable One. But since they are Your localized expansions and their forms are subject to change, You do control them. Indeed, that which supplies the ingredients for the generation of something is necessarily its controller because a product never exists apart from its ingredient cause. It is simply illusion for someone to think that he knows the Supreme Lord, who is equally present in each of His expansions, since whatever knowledge one gains by material means must be imperfect. (Bhāg. 10.87.30)

10.41

yei mūḍha kahe, jīva īśvara haya 'sama'
seita 'pāṣāṇḍi' haya, daṇḍe tāre yama

Any fool who says that the Supreme Lord and the jīva are the same is an infidel, an offender, and an atheist. He is punished by the Lord of death, Yamarāja. (Cc. Madhya 18.115)

Thus ends the Tenth Jewel of the Gauḍīya Kaṇṭhahāra entitled Jīva-tattva

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