Shri Gaudiya Kanthahara

by Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati | 83,221 words

Shri Gaudiya Kantahara (English translation) was published by Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati to train devotees in the philosophy of Krishna-consciousness and to be able to quote the authoritative parts of the Vedas. A collection of over a thousand verses, sorted by tattva, includes general index, alphabetical index of verses. Verses in in Roman tr...

Chapter 7 - Kṛṣṇa-tattva

The Krishna Principle

The one Absolute Truth is Realized in Three Different Ways

7.1

vadanti tat tattva-vidas tattvaṃ yaj jñānam advayam
brahmeti paramātmeti bhagavān iti śabdyate

Great seers of the truth, who understand the nature of the Absolute Truth, describe that non-dual truth in three ways as Brahman, Paramātmā, and Bhagavān. (Bhāg. 1.2.11)

7.2

advaya-jñāna tattva-vastu kṛṣṇera svarūpa
brahma, ātmā, bhagavān tina tāora rūpa

Kṛṣṇa is the one Absolute Truth which is conceived of in three ways, as Brahman, Paramātmā, and Bhagavān. (Cc. Ādi. 2.65)

Bhagavān Realization is Complete,

Paramātmā and Brahman are Partial

7.3

bhakti-yoge bhakta pāya yāohāra darśana
sūrya yena savigraha dekhe deva-gaṇa
jñāna-yoga-mārge tāore bhaje yei saba
brahma-ātmā-rūpe tāore kare anubhava

Through devotional service devotees can realize or see that Personality of Godhead, just as the denizens of heaven see the personality of the sun. Those on the paths of knowledge and yoga worship only Him. They perceive Him as the impersonal Brahman and localized Paramātmā. (Cc. Ādi 2.25,26)

The Conclusion of the Śruti About Brahman

7.4

na tatra sūryo bhāti candra-tārakaṃ
nemā vidyuto bhānti kūto 'yamagni
tameva bhāntam anubhāti sarvaṃ
tasya bhāsā sarvam idaṃ vibhāti

In the transcendental abode of the Lord there is no need of sun, moon, or stars for illumination, nor is there any need of electricity, what to speak of lamps. All of them get their power of illumination from the Lord's effulgence alone. In fact the whole universe exists only because of His existence. (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.15)

7.5

hiranmayena pātreṇa satyasyāpihitaṃ mukham
tat tvaṃ pūṣann-apāvṛṇu satya-dharmāya dṛṣtaye

O my Lord, sustainer of all that lives, Your real face is covered by Your dazzling effulgence. Please remove that effulgent covering and show Yourself to Your pure devotee. (īśopaniṣad 15)

7.6

pūṣann akarye yama sūrya prājāpatya
vyuha-raśmīn samūha tejo
yat te rūpaṃ kalyāṇatamaṃ tat te paśyāmi
yo 'sav asau puruṣaḥ so 'ham asmi

O my Lord! O primeval philosopher, maintainer of the universe. O regulating principle, destination of the pure devotees, well-wisher of mankind please remove the effulgence of Your transcendental rays, so that I can see Your form of bliss. You are the eternal Supreme Personality of Godhead, like unto the sun, as am I. (Iśopaniṣad 16)

The Conclusion of Brahmā-saṃhitā

7.7

yasya prabhā prabhavato jagad-aṇḍa-koṭi-
koṭisv aśeṣa-vasudhādi vibhūti-bhinnam
tad brahma niṣkalam anantam aśeṣa-bhūtaṃ
govindam ādi-puruṣaṃ tam ahaṃ bhajāmi

I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, whose effulgence is the source of the nondifferentiated Brahman which is mentioned in the Upaniṣads, and which, being differentiated from the infinity of glories of the mundane universe, appears as the indivisible, infinite, and limitless truth. Millions and millions of universes emanate from that Brahman effulgence, which is infinite, causeless, and unlimited. That Brahman effulgence is simply the light emanating from the brilliant form of the Supreme Lord Govinda. (Brahmā-saṃhitā 5.40)

The Conclusion of Bhagavad-gītā

7.8

brahmaṇo hi pratiṣṭhāham amṛtasyāvyayasya ca
śāśvatasya ca dharmasya sukhasyaikāntikasya ca

I am the basis of the impersonal Brahman, which is immortal, imperishable, and eternal, and is the constitutional position of ultimate happiness. (Bhagavad-gītā 14.27)

The Conclusion of the Gosvāmīs

7.9

yasya brahmeti saṃjñāṃ kvacidapi nigame yāti cin-mātrasattā-
pyaṃśo yasyāṃśakaiḥ svairvibhavati vaśayanneva māyāṃ pumāṃś ca ekaṃ yasyaiva rūpaṃ vilasati paramvyomni nārāyaṇākhyaṃ
sa śrī kṛṣṇo vidhattāṃ svayamiha bhagavān prema-tat-pāda-bhājām

Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He appears in Vaikuṇṭha in the form of Nārāyaṇa. He expands as the Puruṣāvataras, who control the material world. He is Himself the Supreme Spiritual Truth designated by the word "Brahman" in the Vedas and Upaniṣads. May that Lord Kṛṣṇa grant pure love for Him to those engaged in devotional service to His lotus feet (Tattva-sandarbha 8)

7.10

brahma aṅga-kānti tāora, nirviśeṣa prakāśe
sūrya yena carma-cakṣe jyotirmaya bhāse

The manifestation of the impersonal Brahman effulgence, which is without variety, is the rays of Kṛṣṇa's personal bodily effulgence. It is exactly like the sun: When the sun is seen by ordinary eyes, it appears to only consist of effulgence. Similarly, when we view divinity through ordinary eyes, we are unable to penetrate its effulgence to see the beautiful form of Kṛṣṇa within. Rather we are blinded by the powerful rays of impersonal Brahman. (Cc. Madhya 20.159)

7.11

tāohāra aṅgera śudha kiraṇa-maṇḍala
upaniṣat kahe tāore brahma sunirmala

What the Upaniṣads call the impersonal Brahman is but the realm of the glowing effulgence of the Supreme Person. (Cc. Ādi. 2.12)

Nirviśeṣa Means Kṛṣṇa has no Material Qualities

7.12

tāore 'nirviśeṣa' kahi, cic-chakti nā māni
ardha-svarūpa nā mānile pūrṇatā haya hāni

When one speaks of the Supreme as impersonal, one denies His spiritual potencies. Logically, if you accept only half the truth, you cannot understand the whole. (Cc. Ādi 7.140)

7.13

vyāojite bhagavat-tattve brahma ca vyajyate svayam

When the knowledge about Bhagavān is revealed, Brahman automatically becomes known. (Bhagavat-sandarbha 7)

Yogis Worship the Supersoul

7.14

īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṃ hṛd-deśe 'rjuna tiṣṭhati
bhrāmayan sarva-bhūtāni yantrārūḍhāni māyayā

The Supreme Lord is situated in every one's heart, O Arjuna, and is directing the wanderings of all living entities who are seated as on a machine made of material energy. (Bhagavad-gītā 18.61)

7.15

atha vā bahunaitena kiṃ jñātena tavārjuna
viṣṭabhyāham idaṃ kṛtsnam ekāṃśena sthito jagat

What need is there, O Arjuna, for all this detailed knowledge? With a single fragment of Myself, I pervade and support this entire universe. (Bhagavad-gītā 10.42)

7.16

mayādhyakṣeṇa prakṛtiḥ sūyate sa-carācaram
hetunānena kaunteya jagad viparivartate

Material nature, which is one of My energies, is working under My direction, O son of Kuntī, and produces all moving and non-moving beings. Under its rule, this manifestation is created and annihilated again and again. (Bhagavad-gītā 9.10)

7.17

ahaṃ hi sarva-yajñānāṃ bhoktā ca prabhur eva ca
na tu mām abhijānanti tattvenātaś cyavanti te

I am the only enjoyer and master of all sacrifices. Those who do not recognize My true transcendental position fall down. (Bhagavad-gītā 9.24)

Paramātmā is an Ekāṃśa Expansion of the Supreme Lord

7.18

paramātmā yeoho, teṅho kṛṣṇera eka aṃśa
ātmāra 'ātmā' haya kṛṣṇa sarva-avataṃsa

Paramātmā is the partially complete portion (ekāṃśa) of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Kṛṣṇa is the original source of all living entities, and is the source of Paramātmā. (Cc . Mad. 20.161)

7.19

kecit sva-dehāntar-hṛdayāvakāśe
prādeśa-mātram puruṣaṃ vasantam
catur-bhujaṃ kañja-rathāṅga-śaokha-
gadā-dharaṃ dhāraṇayā smaranti

Others conceive of the Personality of Godhead residing within the body in the region of the heart, and measuring only eight inches, with four hands holding lotus, wheel, conch, and club. (Bhāg. 2.2.8)

The Supreme Truth has Three Potencies

Sandhinī (existence), Saṃvit (consciousness) and Hlādinī (ecstasy)

7.20

na tasya kāryaṃ karaṇaośca vidyate
na tat samaś cābhyadhikaś ca dṛśyate
parāsya śaktir-vividhaiva śruyate
svābhāvikī jñāna-bala-kriyā ca

He does not have a bodily form like that of an ordinary living entity: He has a transcendental form of bliss and knowledge. His senses are all transcendental. Nothing is greater than Him or equal to Him. His potencies are multifarious, such as cognitive, will and active potency. (Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad 6.8)

Viṣṇu is the Supreme Truth

7.21

oṃ tad viṣṇo paramaṃ padaṃ sadā
paśyanti sūrayaḥ divīva cakṣur-ātatam
tad viprāso vipanyavo jāgṛvāṃsaḥ
samindhate viṣṇor yat paramaṃ padam

The supreme abode of Lord Viṣṇu, or the lotus feet of Lord Viṣṇu, is spread all around like the sunlight in the sky. Great demigods and saintly persons always see that supreme abode, recognizing Him as the highest truth. Spiritually awake souls learned in transcendental understanding glorify the Lord and make that abode more brilliant. (Eg Veda 1.22.20,21)

Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme

7.22

advaya-jñāna-tattva kṛṣṇa svayaṃ bhagavān
'svarūpa-śakti' rūpe tāora haya avasthāna

Kṛṣṇa is the non-dual Absolute Truth, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Although He is one, He maintains different personal expansions and energies for His divine pastimes. (Cc. Madhya 22.7)

Kṛṣṇa is the Independent Supreme Person

7.23

janmādy asya yato 'nvayād itarataś cārtheṣv abhijñaḥ svarāṭ
tene brahma hṛdā ya ādi-kavaye muhyanti yat sūrayaḥ
tejo-vāri-mṛdāṃ yathā vinimayo yatra tri-sargo 'mṛṣā
dhāmnā svena sadā nirasta-kuhakaṃ satyaṃ paraṃ dhīmahi

Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the Absolute Truth, the primeval cause of all causes of the creation, sustenance, and destruction of the universes. He is directly and indirectly conscious of all manifestations, and He is independent because there is no other cause beyond Him. It was He who imparted Vedic knowledge to the heart of Brahmā, the original living being. By Him even the great sages and demigods are placed into illusion as one is bewildered by the illusory representations of water seen on fire or land seen on water. Only because of Him do the material universes, temporarily manifested by the reactions of the three modes of material nature, appear factual, although they are unreal. I therefore meditate upon Him, Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, who is eternally existent in the transcendent abode which is forever free of illusion. I meditate upon Him, for He is the Absolute Truth. (Bhāg. 1.1.1.)

Kṛṣṇa is the Ultimate Goal of all Vedic Literature

7.24

sarvasya cāhaṃ hṛdi sanniviṣṭo
mattaḥ smṛtir jñānam apohanaṃ ca
vedaiś ca sarvair aham eva vedyo
vedānta-kṛd veda-vid eva cāham

I am seated in every one's heart. From Me comes remembrance, knowledge, and forgetfulness. By all the Vedas I am to be known. Indeed, I am the compiler of Vedānta, and I am the knower of the Vedas. (Bhagavad-gītā 15.15)

7.25

ete cāṃśa-kalāḥ puṃsaḥ kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam
indrāri-vyākulaṃ lokaṃ mṛḍayanti yuge yuge

All these incarnations are either plenary portions or portions of plenary portions of the Supreme Lord, but Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. All the other incarnations appear whenever there is a disturbance created by the enemies of Indra. (Bhāg. 1.3.28)

7.26

īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ
anādir ādir govindaḥ sarva-kāraṇa-kāraṇam

Kṛṣṇa, who is known as Govinda, is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He has a transcendental form of eternal bliss and knowledge. He is the origin of all and the cause of all causes. (Brahmā-saṃhitā 5.1)

7.27

parama īśvara kṛṣṇa svayaṃ bhagavān
sarva-avatārī, sarva-kāraṇa-pradhāna
ananta vaikuṇṭha, āra ananta avatāra
ananta brahmāṇḍa ihāo, sabāra ādhāra
sac-cid-ānanda-tanu, vrajendra-nandana
sarvaiśvarya, sarvaśakti sarvarasa-pūrṇa

The supreme controller is Kṛṣṇa, the original Bhagavān. He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the fountainhead of all incarnations and the cause of material creation. He is the source of the innumerable Vaikuṇṭha planets as well as innumerable incarnations. In the material world there are innumerable universes, and Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme resting place for all of them. The transcendental body of Kṛṣṇa is eternal, full of bliss and knowledge. He is the son of Nanda Mahārāja. He is full of all opulences and potencies, as well as all spiritual mellows. (Cc. Madhya 8.134-136)

The Meaning of Bhagavān

7.28

aiśvaryasya samagrasya vīryasya yaśasaḥ śriyaḥ
jñāna-vairāgyayoś caiva saṇ ṇāṃ bhaga itīogaṇā

One who is complete in the six opulences of wealth, power, fame, beauty, knowledge, and renunciation is known as Bhagavān. (Viṣṇu-Purāṇa 6.5.74)

7.29

yāora bhagavattā haite anyera bhagavattā
'svayaṃ-bhagavān'-śabdera tāhātei sattā

Only that Lord who is the source of all other divinities is eligible to be designated as svayam bhagavān. (Cc. Ādi 2.88)

Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Master, the Supreme Enjoyer,

and the Independent Lord

7.30

ānera ki kathā, baladeva mahāśaya
yāora bhāva śuddha-sakhya-vātsalyādi-maya
teoho āpanāke karena dāsa-bhāvanā
kṛṣṇa-dāsa-bhāva vinu āche kona janā
sahasra-vadane yeoho śeṣa-saokarṣaṇa
daśa deha dhari' kare kṛṣṇera sevana
ananta brahmāṇḍe rudra sadāśivera aṃśa
guṇāvatāra teoho, sarva-deva-avataṃsa
teoho karena kṛṣṇera dāsya-pratyāśa
nirantara kahe śiva, 'muñi kṛṣṇa-dāsa'
kṛṣṇa-preme unmatta, vihvala digambara
kṛṣṇa-guṇa-līlā gāya, nāce nirantara
pitā-mātā-guru-sakhā-bhāva kene naya
kṛṣṇa-premera sva-bhāve dāsya-bhāva se karaya
eka kṛṣṇa sarva-sevya, jagat-īśvara
āra yata saba, tāora sevakānucara
sei kṛṣṇa avatīrṇa caitanya-īśvara
ataeva āra saba, tāohāra kiokara
keha māne, keha nā māne, saba tāora dāsa
ye nā māne, tāra haya sei pāpe nāśa

Not to speak of others, even Lord Baladeva is full of emotion like pure friendship and paternal love towards Śrī Kṛṣṇa. He also considers Himself a servant of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Indeed, who is there who does not consider himself a servant of Kṛṣṇa. The thousand-mouthed Śeṣa Himself serves Kṛṣṇa by assuming ten forms. Rudra, who is an expansion of Sadāśiva, and who appears in unlimited universes is also a guṇa-avatāra and is the crown jewel of all the demigods in the endless universes, but he also desires only to serve Śrī Kṛṣṇa. He always says, "I am Kṛṣṇa dāsa, a servant of Kṛṣṇa." He becomes overwhelmed and dances naked while continuously singing about Kṛṣṇa's qualities and pastimes. All different transcendental emotions that are directed towards Kṛṣṇa, be they those of father, mother, guru, or friend, are imbued with the sentiments of service towards the Lord. That is the nature of kṛṣṇa-prema.

Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the only lord and master of the universe, is worthy of being served by everyone. Everyone is merely a servant of His servants. That same Śrī Kṛṣṇa has now descended as Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Everyone therefore is also a servant of Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Some accept Him, whereas others do not, but in any case, everyone is His servant. One who does not accept Him, however, will be ruined by his sinful activities. (Cc. Ādi 6.76-85)

Kṛṣṇa is the Cause of all Causes

7.31

tenaiva hetu-bhutale vayaṃ jātā maheśvari
kāraṇaṃ sarva-bhūtānāṃ sa ekaḥ parameśvaraḥ

[Śiva said to Parvatī] O Maheśvarī, controller of the world, we have taken birth as instruments to serve the will of the Supreme Person. He alone is the Parameśvara, the Supreme Controller, the master of everyone, and the ultimate cause of all living beings. (Skanda Purāṇa)

Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Shelter of Everything

7.32

daśame daśamaṃ lakṣyam-āśritāśraya-vigraham
śrī kṛṣṇakhyaṃ paraṃ dhāma jagad-dhāma namāmi-tat

The tenth canto of Śrīmad-bhāgavatam describes the ten items which is the shelter of all the sheltered beings. His is called Lord Kṛṣṇa and is the ultimate shelter of both the material and spiritual worlds. I offer my humble obeisances unto Him. (Bhāg. 10.1.1. Bhāvārtha-Dīpikā)

Kṛṣṇa is the Original Person

7.33

avatāra saba puruṣera kalā, aṃśa
svayaṃ-bhagavān kṛṣṇa sarva-avataṃsa
kṛṣṇa eka sarvāśraya, kṛṣṇa sarva-dhāma
kṛṣṇera śarīre sarva-viśvera viśrāma
svayaṃ bhagavān kṛṣṇa, kṛṣṇa sarvāśraya
parama īśvara kṛṣṇa sarva-śāstre kaya

All the incarnations of Godhead are plenary portions or parts of the plenary portions of the puruṣāvatāras, but the primeval Lord is Śrī Kṛṣṇa. He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the fountainhead of all incarnations. He is the shelter and abode of everything all the universes rest in His body. Thus Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the primeval Lord, the source of all other expansions. This is proclaimed in all the revealed scriptures. (Cc. Ādi. 2.70,94,106)

On the Basis of Rasa, Kṛṣṇa is Superior to Nārāyaṇa

7.34

siddhānta-tas-tva-bhede 'pi śrīśa-kṛṣṇa-svarūpayoḥ
rasenot-kṛṣyate kṛṣṇa-rūpameṣā rasasthitiḥ

Although Nārāyaṇa and Śrī Kṛṣṇa are one and the same, on the basis of the fact that Śrī Kṛṣṇa exhibits the super excellence of conjugal mellow, He is considered superior. In Him alone do all rasas find their final and absolute expression. (Bhakti-Rasāmṛta Sindhu, Pūrva-vibhāga, 2.59)

Nārāyaṇa is the Opulent Pastime Expansion of Kṛṣṇa

7.35

nārāyaṇas tvaṃ na hi sarva-dehinām
ātmāsy adhīśākhila-loka-sākṣī
nārāyaṇo 'ogaṃ nara-bhū-jalāyanāt
tac cāpi satyaṃ na tavaiva māyā

O Lord of lords, You are the seer of all creation. You are indeed everyone's dearest life. Are You not, therefore, my father; Nārāyaṇa? Nārāyaṇa refers to one whose abode is in the water born from Nara [Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu], and that Nārāyaṇa is Your plenary portion. All Your plenary portions are transcendental. They are absolute and are not creations of maya. (Bhāg. 10.14.14)

7.36

hariṃtvekaṃ tattvaṃ viddhi-śiva-sūreśa-praṇamitaḥ
yadevedaṃ brahma prakṛtirahitaṃ tattanumahaḥ
parātmā tasyāṃśo jagadanugato viśvajanakaḥ
sa vai radhā-kānto nava-jalada-kāntiścidudayaḥ

Brahmā, Śiva, and Indra offer their obeisances to Śrī Hari as the only Supreme Truth. The undifferentiated Brahman effulgence is simply the emanation from His holy body. The creator, maintainer, and Supersoul of the material universe are only expansions from Him. That Lord whose complexion is the color of a rain cloud, who sports in transcendental pastimes in his original form as the lover of Śrī Rādhā is known as Śrī Kṛṣṇa and He is the Absolute Truth (Daśa-mūla Śikṣā)

The Demigods Recognize Kṛṣṇa as Supreme

7.37

athāpi yat-pāda-nakhāvasṛṣṭaṃ
jagad viriñcopahṛtārhaṇāmbhaḥ
seśaṃ punāty anyatamo mukundāt
ko nāma loke bhagavat-padārthaḥ

Who could be worthy of the name "Supreme Personality of Godhead" but Śrī Kṛṣṇa? Brahmā, the creator of the universe, col-lected the water emanating from the nails of Kṛṣṇa's lotus feet to give to Śiva as a worshipful welcome. This very water, the Ganges, is purifying the whole universe including Lord Śiva. (Bhāg. 1.18.21)

7.38
yac-chauca-niḥsṛta-sarit-pravarodakena
tīrthena mūrdhny adhikṛtena śivaḥ śivo 'bhūt
dhyātur manaḥ-śamala-śaila-nisṛṣṭa-vajraṃ
dhyāyec ciraṃ bhagavataś caraṇāravindam

The blessed Lord Śiva is all the more blessed by bearing on his head the holy waters of the Ganges, which has its source in the water that washed the Lord's lotus feet. The Lord's lotus feet act like thunderbolts hurled to shatter the mountain of sin stored in the mind of the meditating devotee. One should therefore meditate on the lotus feet of the Lord for a long time. (Bhāg. 3.28.22)

7.39

sūta uvāca
yaṃ brahmā varuṇendra-rudra-marutaḥ stunvanti divyaiḥ stavair
vedaiḥ sāṅga-pada-kramopaniṣadair gāyanti yaṃ sāma-gāḥ
dhyānāvasthita-tad-gatena manasā paśyanti yaṃ yogino
yasyāntaṃ na viduḥ surāsura-gaṇā devāya tasmai namaḥ

I offer my obeisances unto Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Brahmā, Rudra, Indra, Varuṇa and all the other demigods glorify Him by chanting transcendental hymns and reciting the Vedas and Upaniṣads. He is the Supreme Person of whom the chanters of the Sāma Veda always sing. The perfected yogis see Him within their minds after fixing themselves in trance and absorbing themselves within him. His limit can never be found by any demigod or demon. (Bhāg. 12.13.1)

7.40

asaṅkhya brahmāra gaṇa āila tata-kṣaṇe
daśa-biśa-śata-sahasra-ayuta-lakṣa-vadana
koṭy-arbuda mukha kāro, nā yāya gaṇana
rudra-gaṇa āilā lakṣa koṭi-vadana
indra-gaṇa āilā lakṣa koṭi-nayana
dekhi' caturmukha brahmā phāopara ha-ilā
hasti-gaṇa-madhye yena śaśaka rahilā
āsi' saba brahmā kṛṣṇa-pāda-pīṭha-āge
daṇḍavat karite mukuṭa pāda-pīṭhe lāge
kṛṣṇera acintya-śakti lakhite keha nāre
yata brahmā, tata mūrti eka-i śarire
pāda-pīṭa-mukuṭāgra-saṅghaṭṭe uṭhe dhvani
pāda-pīṭhe stuti kare mukuṭa hena jāni'
yoḍa-hāte brahmā-rudrādi karaye stavana
"baḍa kṛpā karilā prabhu, dekhāilā caraṇa
bhāgya, more bolāilā 'dāsa' aṅgīkari'
kon ājñā haya, tāhā kari śire dhari' "

The countless Brahmās had different numbers of heads. Some had ten, some twenty, some one hundred, some one thousand, some ten thousand, some one hundred thousand, some ten million, others one hundred million. No one could count the number of heads they had. Many Śivas with many heads also arrived there. Some of them had heads numbering one hundred thousand and ten million. Many Indras also arrived with millions of eyes all over their bodies. When the four-headed Brahmā of this universe saw all these opulences of Kṛṣṇa, he became very bewildered and considered himself a rabbit among many elephants. All the Brahmās who came to see Kṛṣṇa offered their respects at His lotus feet, and when they did this, their helmets touched His lotus feet. No one can estimate the inconceivable potency of Kṛṣṇa. All the Brahmās who were there were resting in the one body of Kṛṣṇa. When all their helmets struck together at the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa, there was a tumultuous sound. It appeared that the helmets themselves were offering prayers unto Kṛṣṇa's lotus feet. With folded hands the Brahmās and Śivas began offering prayers unto Lord Kṛṣṇa saying, "O Lord, You have shown me great favor. I have been able to see Your lotus feet "All of them said, "It is my great fortune, Lord, that You have called me, thinking of me as Your servant. Now let me know what is Your order, so that I may carry it on my heads." (Cc. Madhya 21.66-74)

This World is Maintained by an Expansion of

an Expansion of an Expansion of Kṛṣṇa

7.41

yasyāṃśāṃśāṃśa-bhāgena viśvotpatti-layodayāḥ
bhavanti kila viśvātmaṃs taṃ tvādyāhaṃ gatiṃ gatā

O Kṛṣṇa, You are the soul of the universe. You bring about the creation, sustenance, and dissolution of the universe by Your minutest part. I offer my respectful obeisances unto You and surrender myself before You. (Bhāg. 10.85.31)

The Form of Kṛṣṇa is as Lord of Vṛndāvana,

With two Hands Holding the Flute

7.42

kṛṣṇo 'nyo yadu sambhūto yaḥ pūrṇaḥ so 'styataḥ paraḥ
vṛndāvanaṃ parityajya sa kvacit naiva gacchati

The Kṛṣṇa known as Yadu-kumāra is Vāsudeva Kṛṣṇa; He is different from the Kṛṣṇa who is the son of Nanda Mahārāja. Yadu-kumāra manifests His pastimes in the cities of Dvāraka and Mathurā, but Kṛṣṇa never leaves Vṛndāvana. (Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛta, Pūrva-khaṇḍa 165)

7.43

dvibhujaḥ sarvadā so 'tra na kādacit caturbhūjaḥ
gopyaikayā yutas tatra parikrīḍati nityadā

That original Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, always manifests two arms. He never manifests four arms; He is always at the right hand side of the foremost gopī, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. (Laghu-Bhāgavatāmṛta, Pūrva-khaṇḍa 165)

The Real Form of Kṛṣṇa

7.44

kṛṣṇera svarūpa-vicāra śuna, sanātana
advaya-jñāna-tattva, vraje vrajendra-nandana
sarva-ādi, sarva-aṃśī, kiśora-śekhara
cid-ānanda-deha, sarvāśraya, sarveśvara
svayaṃ bhagavān kṛṣṇa, 'govinda' para nāma
sarvaiśvarya-pūrṇa yāora goloka nitya-dhāma

[Caitanya Mahāprabhu said] O Sanātana, please hear about the eternal form of Lord Kṛṣṇa; He is the Absolute Truth, devoid of duality, but present in Vṛndāvana as the son of Nanda Mahārāja. Kṛṣṇa is the original source and sum total of everything. He appears as the Supreme Youth. His body is composed of spiritual bliss. He is the shelter of everything and the master of everything. The svayam bhagavān is Śrī Kṛṣṇa, His supreme name is Govinda, He is full in all opulence, and His eternal abode is Goloka Vṛndāvana. (Cc. Madhya 20.152-153,155)

The Vedas Speak of the Pastimes of the Supreme Lord

7.45

apaśyaṃ gopāmani-padyamānamā ca parā ca pathibhiś carantam
sa sadhrīcīḥ sa viṣūcīrvasān āvarīvarti-bhuvanesvantaḥ

I saw a gopāla before me, but could not understand if He came from nearby or from far away. He wanders from place to place at different times, adopting different modes of dress. In this way He comes again and again to establish and withdraw His transcendental pastimes within this material world. (Eg Veda Maṇḍala, 22, Anuvāka, 164 Sūkta, 31 Ek)

By serving Kṛṣṇa the Universe is Satisfied

7.46

yathā taror mūla-niṣecanena
tṛpyanti tat-skandha-bhujopaśākhāḥ
prāṇopahārāc ca yathendriyāṇāṃ
tathaiva sarvārhaṇam acyutejyā

By pouring water on the root of a tree, all the leaves and branches are automatically nourished. In the same way, by offering service to the lotus feet of Viṣṇu, all other purposes are satisfied. Just as by offering food to the stomach, all the limbs of the body are satisfied, similarly, by offering service to Kṛṣṇa the entire universe is satisfied. (Bhāg. 4.31.14)

The Demigods are Never Envious of Kṛṣṇa

7.47

harir eva sadārādhyaḥ sarvadeveśvareśvaraḥ
itare brahmā-rudrādyā nāvajñeyāḥ kadācana

Śrī Hari alone should be worshiped as the supreme master of the universe. Brahmā, Śiva and all the demigods never violate this principle at any time. (Padma Purāṇa)

7.48

ahaṃ sarvasya prabhavo mattaḥ sarvaṃ pravartate
iti matvā bhajante māṃ budhā bhāva-samanvitāḥ

I am the origin of everything. From Me everything emanates. The wise who know this perfectly engage in My devotional service and worship Me with all their hearts. (Bhagavad-gītā 10.8)

Kṛṣṇa Appears in Three Categories of Forms

Svayaṃ-rūpa, Tadekātmā-rūpa and Aveśa-rūpa

7.49

svayaṃ-rūpa, tad-ekātmā-rūpa, āveśa nāma
prathamei tina-rūpe rahena bhagavān

That Supreme Personality of Godhead. Kṛṣṇa appears in His selfsame form as svayam-rūpa, in His first expansion as tad-ekātmā-rūpa, and in His empowered manifestations, known as āveśa. (Cc. Madhya 20.165)

The two Divisions of Svayaṃ-rūpa

7.50

'svayaṃ-rūpa' 'svayaṃ-prakāśa' dui rūpe sphūrti
svayaṃ-rūpe eka 'kṛṣṇa' vraje gopa-mūrti

Kṛṣṇa reveals Himself in two forms, as svayam-rūpa, His own form) and svayam-prakāśa (His own manifestation). Svayam-rūpa is Kṛṣṇa Himself in Vṛndāvana, in the figure of a cowherd boy. (Cc. Madhya 20.166)

Two Divisions of Svayaṃ-rūpa Prābhava and Vaibhava

7.51

'prābhava-vaibhava'-rūpe dvividha prakāśe
eka-vapu bahu rūpa yaiche haila rāse

An example of prābhava-prakāśa is when the Lord accepts two or more identical forms for the sake of enjoying His pastimes, just as He accepted many identical forms during the rāsa-līlā. (Cc. Madhya 20.167)

Prābhava-vilāsa Expanding Many Forms

to Marry Thousands of Queens

7.52

mahiṣī-vivāhe haila bahu-vidha mūrti
'prābhava prakāśa' ei śāstra-parasiddhi

In order to marry 16,108 queens, Kṛṣṇa accepted 16,108 forms. These forms are known as prābhava-vilāsa, and the scriptures have declared they are all trancendentally perfect. (Cc. Madhya 20.168)

Vaibhava-prakāśa

7.53

sei vapu, sei ākṛti pṛthak yadi bhāse
bhāvaveśa-bhede nāma 'vaibhava-prakāśe'

If a form is differently manifested, according to different emotional features, it is called vaibhava-prakāśa. (Cc. Madhya 20.171)

Examples of Vaibhava prakāśa

7.54

vaibhava-prakāśa kṛṣṇera śrī-balarāma
varṇa-mātra-bheda, saba kṛṣṇera samāna
vaibhava-prakāśa yaiche devakī-tanuja
dvibhuja-svarūpa kabhu, kabhu haya caturbhuja

The first manifestation of the vaibhava feature of Kṛṣṇa, known as vaibhava-prakāśa, is Śrī Balarāma. Balarāma and Kṛṣṇa have different bodily colors, otherwise Balarāma is equal to Kṛṣṇa in all respects. Another example of vaibhava-prakāśa is the son of Devakī. He sometimes has two hands and sometimes has four hands. (Cc. Madhya 20.174,175)

The Four-handed Vāsudeva is Prābhava-vilāsa

7.55

ye-kāle dvibhuja, nāma vaibhava-prakāśa
caturbhuja haile, nāma prābhava-prakāśa
svayaṃ-rūpera gopa-veśa, gopa-abhimāna
vāsudevera kṣatriya-veśa, 'āmi kṣatriya'-jñāna
saundarya, aiśvarya, mādhurya, vaidagdhya-vilāsa
vrajeodra-nandane ihā adhika ullāsa

When the Lord is two-handed, He is called vaibhava-prakāśa, and when He is four-handed, He is called prābhava-prakāśa. In His original form, the Lord dresses like a cowherd boy and thinks Himself one of them. When He appears as Vāsudeva, the son of Vasudeva and Devakī, His dress and consciousness are those of a kṣatriya. When one compares the beauty, opulence, sweetness, and intellectual pastimes of Vāsudeva, the warrior, to that of Kṛṣṇa, the cowherd son of Nanda Mahārāja, one sees that Kṛṣṇa's attributes are more pleasant. (Cc. Madhya 20.176-178)

Tad-ekātma-rūpa

7.56

sei vapu bhinnābhāse kichu bhinnākāra
bhāvaveśākṛti-bhede 'tad-ekātma' nāma tāora

When the Lord's form is a little differently manifest and its features a little different in transcendental emotion and form, it is called tad-ekātma-rūpa. (Cc. Madhya 20.183)

Two Divisions of Tad-ekātma-rūpa

7.57

tad-ekātmā-rūpe 'vilāsa', 'svāṃśa' dui bheda
vilāsa, svāṃśera bhede vividha vibheda

In the tad-ekātma-rūpa there are two divisions pastime expansions (vilāsa) and personal expansions (svaṃśa). According to pastime and personal expansion, there are various differences. (Cc. Madhya 20.184)

Two Divisions of Vilāsa Prābhava and Vaibhava

7.58

prābhava-vilāsa vāsudeva, saokarṣaṇa
pradyumna, aniruddha, mukhya cāri-jana

The chief quadruple expansions are named Vāsudeva, Saṅkarśaṇa, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha. These are called prābhava vilāsa. (Cc. Madhya 20.186)

Balarāma is a Vilāsa Form

7.59

vraje gopa-bhāva rāmera, pure kṣatriya-bhāvana
varṇa-veśa-bheda, tāte 'vilāsa' tāora nāma

Balarāma, who has the same original form as Kṛṣṇa, is Himself a cowherd boy in Vṛndāvana. He also considers Himself to belong to the kṣatriya race in Dvāraka. Thus His color and dress are different, and He is called a pastime (vilāsa) form of Kṛṣṇa. (Cc. Madhya 20.187)

Vaibhava-prakāśa and Prābhava-vilāsa Forms are

According to Different Moods and Pastimes

7.60

vaibhava-prakāśe āra prābhava-vilāse
eka-i mūrtye baladeva bhāva-bhede bhāse

Lord Balarāma is a vaibhava-prakāśa manifestation of Kṛṣṇa. He is also manifest in the original quadruple expansion of Vāsudeva, Saṅkarśaṇa, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha. These are prābhava-vilāsa expansions with different emotions. (Cc. Madhya 20.188)

From That Prābhava-vilāsa Comes the Catur-vyūhas,

Which are Vaibhava-vilāsa Features of the Lord

7.61

ādi-catur-vyuha iohāra keha nāhi sama
ananta caturvyuha-gaṇera prākaṭya-kāraṇa

The first expansion of the catur-vyūha is unique. There is nothing to compare with them. These quadruple forms are the source of unlimited quadruple forms. (Cc. Madhya 20.189)

The Original Catur-vyūha are the Lords in Mathurā and Dvāraka

7.62

kṛṣṇera ei cāri prābhava-vilāsa
dvārakā-mathurā-pure nitya iohāra vāsa

These four prābhava-vilāsa pastime forms of Lord Kṛṣṇa reside eternally in Dvāraka and Mathurā. (Cc. Madhya 20.190)

The Twenty-four Principle Expansions From

the Original Catur-vyūha are Known as Vaibhava-vilāsa

7.63

ei cāri haite cabbiśa mūrti parakāśa
astra-bhede nāma-bheda vaibhava-vilāsa

From the original quadruple expansions, twenty-four forms are manifest. They differ according to the placement of weapons in Their four hands. They are called vaibhava-vilāsa. (Cc. Madhya 20.191)

The Original Catur-vūyha Expands into Vaikuṇṭha

7.64

punaḥ kṛṣṇa catur-vyūha lañā pūrva-rūpe
paravyoma-madhye vaise nārāyaṇa-rūpe
tāohā haite punaḥ catur-vyūha-parakāśa
āvaraṇa-rūpe cāri-dike yāora vāsa

Lord Kṛṣṇa again expands, and within the spiritual sky, He is situated in fullness as the four-handed Nārāyaṇa, accompanied by expansions of the original quadruple form. Thus, the original quadruple forms again manifest Themselves in a second quadruple expansion. The residences of these second quadruple expansions cover the four directions. (Cc. Madhya 20.192,193)

Further Expansions of the Second Quadruples

7.65

cāri-janera punaḥ pṛthak tina tina mūrti
keśavādi yātā haite vilāsera pūrti

Again these quadruple forms expand three times, beginning with Keśava. That is the fulfillment of the pastime forms. (Cc. Madhya 20.194)

Svāṃśa Expansions Appear in the Material World

7.66

saokarṣaṇa, matsyādika, dui bheda tāora
saokarṣaṇa puruṣāvatāra, līlāvatara āra

The first personal expansion is Saokarṣaṇa, and the others are incarnations like the fish incarnation. Saokarṣaṇa is an expansion of the Puruṣa, or Viṣṇu. The incarnations such as Matsya appear in different ages for specific pastimes, and are known as līlā-avatāras. (Cc. Madhya 20.244)

Six Kinds of Avatāras

7.67

avatāra haya kṛṣṇera ṣaḍ-vidha prakāra
puruṣāvatāra eka, līlāvatāra āra
guṇāvatāra, āra manvantarāvatāra
yugāvatāra, āra śaktyāveśāvatāra

There are six types of avatāras of Kṛṣṇa: Incarnations of Viṣṇu (puruṣa-avatāras), pastime incarnations (līlā-avatāras), incarnations that control the modes of nature (guṇa-avatāras), incarnations as Manu (manvantara-avatāras), incarnations in different milleniums (yuga-avatāras), and śaktyāveśa-avatāras. (Cc. Madhya 20.245,246)

Who is Called Svayaṃ-Bhagavān

7.68

yāora bhagavattā haite anyera bhagavattā
'svayaṃ-bhagavān'-śabdera tāhātei sattā

Only the Personality of Godhead, the source of all other expansions is eligible to be described as svayaṃ-bhagavān, or the primeval Lord. (Cc. Ādi 2.88)

Avatārī and the Different Avatāras of the Lord

7.69

dīpa haite yaiche bahu dīpera jvalana
mūla eka dīpa tāhā kariye gaṇana
taiche saba avatārera kṛṣṇa se kāraṇa
āra eka śloka śuna, kuvyākhyā-khaṇḍana

When from one candle many others are lit, I consider that one the original. In the same way, Kṛṣṇa is the cause of all causes and the fountainhead of all avatāras. (Cc. Ādi 2.89,90)

The Distinction Between Avatāra and Avatārī

7.70

vāsudevaḥ saokarṣaṇaḥ pradyumno 'niruddho 'haṃ matsyaḥ kūrmo varāhaḥ nṛsiṃho vāmano rāmo rāmo rāmaḥ kṛṣṇo buddhaḥ kalkir aham iti

The Supreme Lord said, "I am Kṛṣṇa. I appear as Vāsudeva, Saṅkarśaṇa, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha. I also appear as Baladeva, Matsya, Kūrma, Varāha, Nṛsiṃha, Vāmana, Rāma, and Paraśurāma. I also appear as Buddha and Kalki. (Catur-Veda-Śikṣā)

The Avatāras of the Lord are Divine

7.71

naivaite jāyante naivaite mriyate naiyāmavandho na muktiḥ sarva eva hyete purṇā ajarā amṛtāḥ paramānandā iti

The avatāras of Kṛṣṇa do not take birth as ordinary living entities, who are all conditioned by the modes of nature. The avatāras are never covered by ignorance or have to attain freedom from material illusion. They are complete in every way. They are never subject to old age. They are immortal and eternal. They are the supreme truth and They personify the highest bliss. (Catur-Veda-Śikṣā)

Time and Purpose for the Lord's Avatāra

7.72

yadā yadā hi dharmasya glānir bhavati bhārata
abhyutthānam adharmasya tadātmānaṃ sṛjāmy aham

Whenever and wherever there is a decline in religion and a rise in irreligion, at that time I advent Myself. (Bhagavad-gītā 4.7)

7.73

paritrāṇāya sādhūnāṃ vināśāya ca duṣkṛtām
dharma-saṃsthāpanārthāya sambhavāmi yuge yuge

To protect the sādhus, destroy the envious, and reestablish the principles of religion, I advent myself millennium after millennium. (Bhagavad-gītā 4.8)

To Protect the Saintly and Chastise the Demoniac

is not the Principle Reason for Kṛṣṇa's Advent

7.74

svayaṃ-bhagavānera karma nahe bhāra-haraṇa
sthiti-kartā viṣṇu karena jagat-pālana
kintu kṛṣṇera yei haya avatāra-kāla
bhāra-haraṇa-kāla tāte ha-ila miśāla
pūrṇa bhagavān avatare yei kāle
āra saba avatāra tāote āsi' mile
ataeva viṣṇu takhana kṛṣṇera śarīre
viṣṇu-dvāre kare kṛṣṇa asura-saṃhāre

Removing the burden of the earth is not the work of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa. It is Lord Viṣṇu, who protects the universe. But the time to lift the burden of the world mixed with the time for Śrī Kṛṣṇa's appearance. When the complete personality of Godhead descends, all other incarnations of the Lord meet within Him and Lord Viṣṇu, present within the body of Kṛṣṇa, kills the demons through Him. (Cc. Ādi 4.8-10,13)

Kṛṣṇa's Avatāras are Countless

7.75

avatārā hy asaokhyeyā hareḥ sattva-nidher dvijāḥ
yathāvidāsinaḥ kulyāḥ sarasaḥ syuḥ sahasraśaḥ

[Sūta Gosvāmī said] O brāhmaṇas, just as the waves of the ocean are countless, the thousands and thousands of avatāras of the Lord are limitless. No one can count the appearances and disappearances of the Lord. (Bhāg. 1.3.26)

The Puruṣa-avatāras are the Origin of Everything

7.76

viṣṇostu trīṇi rūpāṇi puruṣākhyānyatho viduḥ
ekastu mahataḥ sraṣṭṛ dvitīyaṃ tvaṇḍasaṃsthitam
tṛtīyaṃ sarvabhutasthaṃ tāni jñātvā vimucyate

Viṣṇu has three forms called Puruṣas. The first, Mahā-viṣṇu, is the Creator of the total material energy (mahāt-tattva). The second, Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu, is within every universe, and the third, Kṣīrodakaśāyī Viṣṇu, lives in the heart of every living being as the Supersoul. One who recognizes these three as the Personality of Godhead becomes liberated from the bondage of material illusion. (Laghu-Bhāgavatāmṛta, Pūrva-khaṇḍa 5)

Because He Descends to the Material World,

the Lord is Called Avatāra

7.77

sṛṣṭi-hetu yei mūrti prapañce avatāre
sei īśvara-mūrti 'avatāra' nāma dhare
māyātīta paravyome sabāra avasthāna
viśve avatāri' dhare 'avatāra' nāma

The form of the Lord that descends to the material world to create is called an avatāra. All the expansions of Lord Kṛṣṇa are actually residents of the spiritual world. When they descend to the material world, however, they are called avatāras. (Cc. Madhya 20.263,264)

Mahāviṣṇu is but a Partial Part of Kṛṣṇa

7.78

jagṛhe pauruṣaṃ rūpaṃ bhagavān mahad-ādibhiḥ
sambhūtaṃ ṣoḍaśa-kalam ādau loka-sisṛkṣayā

At the beginning of creation, the Lord first expanded Himself in the form of the puruṣa-avatāra and manifest all the ingredients of the material creation. And thus, at first there was the creation of the sixteen principles of material action. This was for the purpose of creating the material universe. (Bhāg. 1.3.1)

7.79

ādyo 'vatāraḥ puruṣaḥ parasya
kālaḥ svabhāvaḥ sad-asan-manaś ca
dravyaṃ vikāro guṇa indriyāṇi
virāṭ svarāṭ sthāsnu cariṣṇu bhūmnaḥ

Kāraṇārṇavaśāyī Viṣṇu is the first incarnation of the Supreme Lord. He is the master of eternal time, space, cause, and effects, including mind, the elements, material ego, the modes of nature, the senses, the universal form of the Lord, Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu, and the sum total of all living beings, both moving and non-moving. (Bhāg. 2.6.42)

7.80

yasyaika-niśvasita-kālam athāvalambya
jivanti loma-vilajā jagad-aṇḍa-nāthāḥ
viṣṇur mahān sa iha yasya kalā-viśeṣo
govindam ādi-puruṣaṃ tam ahaṃ bhajāmi

Brahmā and the other lords of the mundane worlds, appearing from the pores of the transcendental body of Mahāviṣṇu, remain alive for the duration of one exhalation of the latter. I adore the primeval Lord, Govinda, of whose subjective personality Mahāviṣṇu is but a portion of a portion. (Brahmā-Saṃhitā 5.48)

7.81

sahasra-patra-kamalaṃ gokulākhyaṃ mahat padam
tat-karṇikāraṃ tad-dhāma tad-anantāṃśa-sambhavam

The super excellent station of Kṛṣṇa, which is known as Gokula, has thousands of petals and a corolla like that of a lotus sprouted from a part of His infinitary aspect, the whorl of the leaves being the actual abode of Kṛṣṇa. (Brahmā-Saṃhitā 5.2)

Mahāviṣṇu is Beyond the Modes of Nature

7.82

yasyāvayava-saṃsthānaiḥ kalpito loka-vistaraḥ
tad vai bhagavato rūpaṃ viśuddhaṃ sattvam ūrjitam

It is believed that all the universal planetary systems are on the extensive body of the puruṣa, but He has nothing to do with the material creative ingredients. His body is eternally in spiritual existence par excellence. (Bhāg. 1.3.3.)

Pradyumna Becomes Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu,

who is the Root of the Other Avatāras

7.83

brahmā, viṣṇu, śiva tāora guṇa-avatāra
sṛṣṭi-sthiti-pralayera tinera adhikāra
hiraṇyagarbha-antaryāmī garbhodakaśāyī
'sahasra-śīrṣādi' kari' vede yāore gāi

Brahmā, Viṣṇu, and Śiva are His incarnations in the material qualities. They are in charge of creation, maintenance, and destruction respectively. Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu, known within the universe as Hiraṇyagarbha and as the indwelling Supersoul, is glorified in the Vedic hymn known as the Puruṣa-śukta, beginning with the word sahasra-śirṣa. (Cc. Madhya 20.291,292)

Aniruddha is Ksirodakaśāyī Viṣṇu

7.84

virāṭ vyaṣṭi-jivera teoho antaryāmī
kṣīrodakaśāyī teoho pālana-kartā, svāmī

Kṣirodakaśāyī Viṣṇu is the universal form of the Lord and the Supersoul within every living entity. He is known as Kṣirodakaśāyī, or the Lord who lies within the ocean of milk. He is the maintainer and master of the universe. (Cc. Madhya 20.295)

Brahmā is the Avatāra of Rajo-guṇa

7.85

bhakti-miśra-kṛta-puṇye kona jīvottama
rajo-guṇe vibhāvita kari' tāora mana
garbhodakaśāyī-dvārā śakti sañcāri'
vyaṣṭi sṛṣṭi kare kṛṣṇa brahmā-rūpa dhari'

Because of his past pious deeds mixed with devotional service, a first-class living entity who is influenced by the mode of passion within his mind and empowered by Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu becomes Brahmā, the qualitative incarnation of the Lord in the mode of passion. His purpose is to engineer the creation of universe. (Cc. Madhya 20.302,303)

Brahmā is Empowered for the Work of Creation

7.86

bhāsvān yathāśma-sakaleṣu nijeṣu tejaḥ
svīyaṃ kiyat prakaṭayaty api tadvad atra
brahmā ya eṣa jagad-aṇḍa-vidhāna-kartā
govindam ādi-puruṣaṃ tam ahaṃ bhajāmi

I adore the primeval Lord Govinda from whom the separated subjective portion Brāhma receives his power for the regulation of the mundane world, just as the sun manifests some portion of his own light in all the effulgent gems that bear the names of sūryakāntha. etc. (Brahmā-saṃhitā 5.49)

Rudra is the Avatāra of the Mode of Ignorance

7.87

nijāṃśa-kalāya kṛṣṇa tamo-guṇa aṅgikari'
saṃhārārthe māyā-saṅge rudra-rūpa dhari

Kṛṣṇa expands a portion of His plenary portion, and accepting the association of the material mode of ignorance, assumes the form of Rudra to dissolve the cosmic manifestation. (Cc. Madhya 20.307)

The Distinction Between Kṛṣṇa, Śiva, and Jīva

7.88

māyā-saṅga-vikāri rudra bhinnābhinna rūpa
jīva-tattva nahe, nahe kṛṣṇera 'svarūpa'

Rudra has various forms that are transformations brought about by association with māyā. Although Rudra is not on the same level as jīva-tattva, he cannot be considered a personal expansion of Lord Kṛṣṇa. (Cc. Madhya 20.308)

Rudra is one With yet Different From the Lord

7.89

dugdha yena amla-yoge dadhi-rūpa dhare
dugdhāntara vastu nahe, dugdha haite nāre

Milk is transformed into yogurt when it associates with a yogurt culture. Thus yogurt is nothing but milk; still it is not the same as milk. [In the same way, Viṣṇu transforms Himself into Śiva. Thus Śiva-tattva is similar to Viṣṇu-tattva, but not identical.] (Cc. Madhya 20.309)

7.90

kṣiraṃ yathā dadhi-vikāra-viśeṣa-yogāt
sañjāyate na hi tataḥ pṛthag asti hetoḥ
yaḥ śambhutām api tathā samupaiti kāryāt
govindam ādi-puruṣaṃ tam ahaṃ bhajāmi

Milk changes into yogurt when it is mixed with a yogurt culture; but yogurt is constitutionally nothing but milk. Similarly, Govinda, the Supreme Lord, assumes the form of Lord Śiva for the special purpose of material transactions. I offer my obeisances at the lotus feet of Govinda, the primeval Lord. (Brahmā-Saṃhitā 5.45)

The Difference Between Śiva and Kṛṣṇa

7.91

'śiva māyā-śakti-saṅgī, tamo-guṇāveśa
māyātīta guṇātīta 'viṣṇu' parameśa

Lord Śiva is an associate of the external energy (māyā). He is absorbed in the material quality of darkness. Lord Viṣṇu is transcendental to māyā and the qualities of māyā. He is, therefore, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. (Cc. Madhya 20.311)

Rudra is Always Absorbed in a Synthesis of the Qualities of Māyā

7.92

śivaḥ śakti-yutaḥ śaśvat tri-liogo guṇa-saṃvṛtaḥ
vaikārikas taijasaś ca tāmasaś cety ahaṃ tridhā

The truth about Lord Śiva is that he is always covered with the three material coverings: vaikārika, tejasa, and tamasah (the modes of goodness, passion, and ignorance and their perverted egoic misconceptions). Because of these three modes of nature he always associates with the external energy and with egotism itself. (Bhāg. 10.88.3)

Viṣṇu is Above the Modes of Nature

7.93

harir hi nirguṇaḥ sākṣāt puruṣaḥ prakṛteḥ paraḥ
sa sarva-dṛg upadraṣṭā taṃ bhajan nirguṇo bhavet

Śrī Hari is beyond the range of material nature. He is the Supreme Transcendental Person. He can see everything, inside and outside. Therefore, He is the Supreme overseer of all living entities. Whoever takes shelter at His lotus feet and worships Him attains the transcendental position. (Bhāg. 10.88.5)

Viṣṇu in Sattva-guṇa is the Pastime Form of

Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu and a Svāṃśa Expansion of Kṛṣṇa

7.94

pālanārtha svāṃśa viṣṇu-rūpe avatāra
sattva-guṇa draṣṭā, tāte guṇa-māyā-pāra
svarūpa aiśvarya-pūrṇa, kṛṣṇa-sama prāya
kṛṣṇa aṃśī, teoho aṃśa, vede hena gāya

To maintain the universe, Lord Kṛṣṇa descends as His personal plenary expansion in the form of Lord Viṣṇu and directs the mode of goodness. Therefore He is transcendental to the material energy. Lord Viṣṇu is in the category of svāṃśa, because He has opulences almost equal to Kṛṣṇa's. The verdict of all Vedic literature is that Kṛṣṇa is the original person and Lord Viṣṇu is His personal expansion. (Cc. Madhya 20.314,315)

Kṛṣṇa Expands as Viṣṇu Just as an

Original Candle Lights Other Candles

7.95

dīparcireva hi daśāntaramabhyupetya
dīpayate vivṛta-hetu-samānadharmā
yas-tadṛg eva hi ca viṣṇutayā vibhāti
govindam ādi-puruṣaṃ tam ahaṃ bhajāmi

When one candle lights other candles, they all burn with the same intensity. Still, the first one may be said to be the original candle. In the same way, although so many Personalities of Godhead may expand from Him, Govinda is the original Supreme Personality of Godhead. I adore that primeval Lord Govinda. (Brahmā-Saṃhitā 5.45)

The Constitutional Position of Viṣṇu, Brahmā, and Śiva

7.96

brahmā, śiva ājñā-kārī bhakta-avatāra
pālanārthe viṣṇu kṛṣṇera svarūpa-ākāra

The conclusion is that Lord Brahmā and Lord Śiva, are simply devotee incarnations who carry out orders. However, Lord Viṣṇu, the maintainer, is the personal feature of Lord Kṛṣṇa. (Cc. Madhya 20.3l7)

7.97

sṛjāmi tan-niyukto 'haṃ haro harati tad-vaśaḥ
viśvaṃ puruṣa-rūpeṇa paripāti tri-śakti-dhṛk

[Lord Brahmā said] I am engaged by the Supreme Lord to create: following His orders, Lord Śiva dissolves everything. The Supreme Lord in His form of Ksirodakaśāyī Viṣṇu maintains all the affairs of material nature. Thus, the Supreme controller of the modes of material nature is Lord Viṣṇu. (Bhāg. 2.6.32)

The Eternal and Transcendental Character

of Kṛṣṇa's Birth and Pastimes

7.98

janma karma ca me divyam evaṃ yo vetti tattvataḥ
tyaktvā dehaṃ punar janma naiti mām eti so 'rjuna

One who can understand the transcendental character of My birth and pastimes O Arjuna, will never take birth again in this world. He certainly attains Me. (Bhagavad-gītā 4.9)

Evidence From the Śrutis About the

Transcendental Character of Kṛṣṇa's Pastimes

7.99

tā vāṃ vāstūnyuśmasi gamadhyai yatra gāvo bhūriśṛogā ayāsaḥ
atrāha tadurugāyasya vṛṣṇaḥ paramaṃ padamavabhāti bhūri

Attaining the transcendental abode of Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa, I shall rejoice. There, in the midst of the cows, Kṛṣṇa enjoys His loving pastimes, which are all-auspicious. In that supreme abode, Kṛṣṇa enjoys transcendental pastimes, with His different devotees. (Puruṣa-sūkta 1.154.6 Eg Veda)

The Apāṇi-pādaḥ Verse Means That His Body is Transcendental

7.100

'apāṇi-pāda'-śruti varje 'prākṛta' pāni caraṇa
punaḥ kahe, śīghra cale, kare sarva grahaṇa

The Upaniṣad verse, apāṇi-pādaḥ...means that Kṛṣṇa has no material hands or legs. It rejects material hands and legs and yet states that the Lord runs very quickly and accepts everything offered to Him. (Cc. Madhya 6.150)

The Lord's Body is not Material

7.101

ajo 'pi sann avyayātmā
bhūtānām īśvaro 'pi san
prakṛtiṃ svām adhiṣṭhāya
sambhavāmy ātma-māyayā

Although I am unborn and My transcendental body never deteriorates, still, I advent Myself in every millennium by My own transcendental potency. (Bhagavad-gītā 4.6)

The Transcendental Science Cannot

be Understood by Material Intelligence

7.102

aprākṛta vastu nahe prākṛta-gocara
veda-purāṇete ei kahe nirantara

The Vedas and Purāṇas repeatedly warn against considering divine or non-material substance as under material nature. (Cc. Madhya 9.194)

7.103

acintyā khalu ye bhāvā nā tāṃs tarkeṇa yojayet
prakṛtibhyaḥ paraṃ yattu tad-acintyasya lakṣaṇam

One should not try to understand by logic that which is inconceivable. That object which is beyond material nature is called inconceivable. (Mahābhārāta, Bhīṣma Parva, 5.12)

7.104

tarkāpratiṣṭhānāt

The Absolute Truth can never be established through argument. (Brahma-sūtra 2.1.11)

7.105

athāpi te deva padāmbuja-dvaya-prasāda-leśānugṛhīta eva hi
jānāti tattvaṃ bhagavan-mahimno na cānya eko 'pi ciraṃ vicinvan

My Lord, if one is favored by even a slight trace of the mercy of Your lotus feet, He can understand the greatness of Your personality, but those who speculate in order to understand are unable to know You, even though they study the Vedas for many years. (Bhāg. 10.14.29)

7.106

anumāna pramāṇa nahe īśvara-tattva-jñāne
kṛpā vinā īṣvarere keha nāhi jāne

One can understand the Supreme Lord only by His mercy, not by guesswork or hypothesis. (Cc. Madhya 6.82)

7.107

pāṇḍityādye īśvara-tattva-jñāna kabhu nahe'

One cannot understand the Supreme Lord simply by scholarship. (Cc. Madhya 6.87)

7.108

tvāṃ śīlarūpacaritaiḥ parama-prakṛṣṭa
sattvena sāttvikatayā prabalaiś ca śāstraiḥ
prakhyāta-daiva-paramārtha-vidāṃ mataiś ca
naivāsura-prakṛtayaḥ prabhavanti boddhum

O Lord. Those who are demonic are unable to understand You by following good behaviour, culture of the mode of goodness, doing activties in mode of goodness, by logic, scripture, or even by the opinion of the famous scholars who know the essence of the Absolute. (Stotra-Ratnam, Yamunācārya, 15)

7.109

ullaṃghita-trividha-sīma-samātiśāyi
sambhāvanaṃ tara parivraḍim-asvabhāvam
māyā-balena bhavatā 'pi niguhyamānaṃ
paśyanti kecidaniśaṃ tvad-ananya-bhāvāḥ

O Lord, only those devotees who have completely surrendered unto You are able to see Your opulence continously, although You hide Yourself by Your yoga-māyā. Your opulence is beyond time, space and any material object and there is nothing equal or superior to it. (Stotra-ratnam, Yamunācārya 13)

The Body of the Lord is Transcendental Substance

7.110

īśvarera śrī-vigraha sac-cid-ānandākāra
se-vigrahe kaha sattva-guṇera vikāra
śrī-vigraha ye nā māne, sei ta' pāṣaṇḍi
adṛśya aspṛśya, sei haya yama-daṇḍī

The Lord's transcendental form is eternal, full of bliss and knowledge. Those who don't properly regard the Deity of the Lord are atheists. The Lord never reveals Himself to such persons, but remains invisible. After death such men are punished by Yamarāja. (Cc. Madhya 6.166,167)

The Name and Form of the Lord

7.111

'nāma', 'vigraha', 'svarūpa' tina eka-rūpa
tine 'bheda' nāhi, tina 'cid-ānanda-rūpa'
deha-dehīra, nāma-nāmīra kṛṣṇe nāhi 'bheda'
jīvera dharma nāma-deha-svarūpe 'vibheda'
ataeva kṛṣṇera 'nāma', 'deha', 'vilāsa'
prākṛtendriya-grāhya nahe, haya sva-prakāśa

The Lord's holy name, form, and personality are all one and the same. There is no difference between them. Since all of them are absolute, they are transcendentally blissful. There is no difference between Kṛṣṇa's body and Himself, nor between His name and Himself. For conditioned souls everything is different. One's name is different from one's body, from one's original form, and so on. The holy name of Kṛṣṇa, as well as His body and His pastimes cannot be understood by the blunt material senses; they are self-manifest. (Cc. Madhya 17.131,132,134)

Who Cannot Understand Kṛṣṇa's Form is a Muḍha

7.112

avajānanti māṃ mūḍhā mānuṣīṃ tanum āśritam
paraṃ bhāvam ajānanto mama bhūta-maheśvaram

Fools who know Me not think I have assumed this form and personality. They do not know My Supreme Transcendental nature, which is unborn and limitless. Nor do they know My supreme dominion over all. (Bhagavad-gītā 9.11)

7.113

pūrṇānanda-cit-svarūpa jagannātha-rāya
tāore kaili jaḍa-naśvara-prākṛta-kāya!!
pūrṇa-ṣad-aiśvarya caitanya svayaṃ bhagavān
tāore kaili kṣudra jīva sphulioga-samāna!!
dui-ṭhāñi aparādhe pāibi durgati!
atattva-jña 'tattva' varṇe, tāra ei riti!
āra eka kariyācha parama 'pramāda'!
deha-dehi-bheda īśvare kaile 'aparādha'!
īśvarera nāhi kabhu deha-dehi-bheda
svarūpa, deha, cid-ānanda, nāhika vibheda

Lord Jagannātha is completely spiritual and full of transcendental bliss, but you have compared Him to a dull destructible body composed of material elements. You have calculated that Śrī Caitanya, who is Godhead Himself and full in six opulences, to be on the level of an ordinary living being. Instead of knowing Him as the Supreme fire, you have accepted Him as a spark. Because of this offense against Lord Jagannātha and Lord Caitanya you will go to hell. You do not know how to describe the Absolute Truth, nevertheless you have tried to do so, and therefore you must be condemned. You are in complete illusion, for you have distinguished between the body and soul of Lord Jagannātha and Caitanya Mahāprabhu. That is a great offense. At no time is there any distinction between the Supreme Lord and His body and soul. His personal identity and His body are made of eternal, blissful spiritual energy. There is no distinction between them. (Cc. Antya 5.118-122)

The Deity Form of the Lord Appears in

Eight Kinds of Material Substances

7.114

śailī dāru-mayī lauhī lepyā lekhyā ca saikatī
mano-mayī maṇi-mayī pratimāṣṭa-vidhā smṛtā

The Deity form of the Lord appears in eight varieties of material substances: stone, metal, wood, earth, paint, sand, the mind, and jewels. (Bhāg. 11.27.12)

Thus ends the Seventh Jewel of the Gauḍīya Kaṇṭhahāra, entitled Kṛṣṇa-tattva.

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