The Shiva Purana (English translation)

by J. L. Shastri | 1970 | 616,585 words

This page relates “the family of kashyapa” as found in the Shiva-purana, which, in Hinduism, represents one of the eighteen Mahapuranas. This work eulogizes Lord Shiva as the supreme deity, besides topics such as cosmology and philosophy. It is written in Sanskrit and claims to be a redaction of an original text consisting of 100,000 metrical verses.

Chapter 32 - Description of Creation (3): The family of Kaśyapa

Sūta said:—

1-2. O brahmin, they are Aditi, Surasā, Ariṣṭelā, Danu, Surabhi, Vinatā, Ilā, Tāmrā, Krodhavaśā, Kadru and Muni. Now listen to the names of their sons. In the previous excellent Manvantara twelve excellent gods were born.

3-6. They are Tuṣitas. During the intervening period of the Vaivasvata and Cākṣuṣa Manvantaras they consulted one another for the welfare of the worlds. After meeting together they spoke—“We will enter Aditi and be born. This will happen for the welfare of the gods.” After conferring they were born of Aditi daughter of Dakṣa and Kaśyapa son of Marīci. Viṣṇu and Indra were born again.

7-9. They along with Aryaman, Dhātṛ, Tvaṣṭṛ, Pūṣan, Vivasvat, Savitṛ, Mitrāvaruṇa, Aṃśa, Bhaga and Atitejas are the twelve Ādityas. Those who were born before as Tuṣitas were born again as the twelve Ādityas in the Cākṣuṣa Manvantara, O Śaunaka thus the names of Aditi’s sons have been mentioned to you.

10. Dīptis of immeasurable splendour became the children of the twenty-seven women of sacred rites and the wives of Soma.

11-12. The children of Ariṣṭanemi’s wives were sixteen in number. “O celestial sage, the learned Kṛśāśva had many sons. Four of them are known as Devapraharaṇa. O sage, in his wife Arcis, Dhūmrakeśa too was born.

13. Two wives were Svadhā and Satī of whom Svadhā was the elder and Satī the younger. Svadhā gave birth to the Pitṛs and Satī to the Atharvāṅgirasaveda.

14. At the end of a thousand Yugas these will be born again. All the groups of the gods are thirty-three.

15. Just as the sun rises and sets every day so also the groups of gods are born in every Yuga.

16. We have heard that Hiraṇyakaśipu and Hiraṇyākṣa were born as the sons of Diti and Kaśyapa.

17. Siṃhikā their daughter became the wife of Vipracitti. The four sons of Hiraṇyakaśipu were famous for their strength and prowess.

18. They are Anuhrāda, Hrāda, Saṃhrāda and Prahlāda. The youngest Prahlāda was a devotee of Viṣṇu.

19. Pūloman and Mahiṣa were the sons of Anuhrāda born of Sūryā. Hrāda’s wife Dhamani gave birth to Vātāpi and Ilvala.

20. Saṃhrāda’s wife Kṛti gave birth to Pañcajana. Virocana was the son of Prahlāda. Bali was born of his queen Devī.

21-22. O great sage, Bali begot hundred sons of his wife Aśanā. He was a great devotee of Śiva. He engaged himself in the activities of devotion to Śiva. He was charitably inclined and liberal-minded. He attained meritorious fame and austerity. His son Bāṇa was foremost among the devotees of Śiva. By propitiating Śiva he attained the leadership of Gaṇas.

23. The story of Bāṇa has already been heard by you. In the battle Kṛṣṇa was delighted with him.

24-25 Hiraṇyākṣa’s five sons were strong and learned. They were Kukura, Śakuni, Bhūta Santāpana, Mahānāda and Kālanābha. Thus the sons of Diti have been mentioned. O sage, now listen to the names of the sons of Danu.

26-28. Danu’s sons were hundred in number and were of severe exploits. Ayomukha, Śambara, Kapola, Vāmana, Vaiśvānara, Puloman, Vidrāvaṇa, Mahāśira, Svarbhānu, Vṛṣaparvan and the powerful Vipracitti—these were the sons of Danu begot by Kaśyapa. O sage, now listen to the names of their sons. O sinless one, incidentally I shall mention a few of them.

29-30. Prabhā was the daughter of Svarbhānu. Śacī was the daughter of Puloman. So also Upadānavī, Hayaśirā and Śarmiṣṭhā were daughters of Vṛṣaparvan. Pulomā and Pulomikā were the daughters of Vaiśvānara. They were the wives of Kaśyapa son of Marīci and had many heroic sons.

31. Kaśyapa, son of Marīci, endowed with great penance, begot of them sixty thousand sons delighting the Dānavas.

32. Kālakhañjas, the powerful sons of Pulomā, lived in Hiraṇyapura.[1] They could not be killed either by the Dānavas or by the gods.

33. Vipracitti’s sons, born of Siṃhikā, were later killed by Arjuna by the grace of Brahmā.

34. Due to the intermixture of Daityas and Dānavas these sons became valorous and famous as Saiṃhikeyas. They are thirteen in number.

35-36. They were the very powerful Rāhu and Śalya, Bala, Mahābala, Vātāpi, Namuci, Ilvala, Svasṛpa, Ajika, Naraka, Kālanābha, Śaramāṇa and Śarakalpa. These increased their races.

37. Many sons and grandsons were born of them increasing the race of Danu. Being innumerable they are not mentioned in detail.

38. In the family of Saṃhrāda the Daiteyas Nivātakavacas and Maruts were born and they were purified by penance.

39-40. Ṣaṇmukha and others are glorified as the sons of Tāmrā. Kākī, Śyenī, Bhāsī, Sugrīvī, Śukī, Gṛdhṛkā, Aśvī, and Ulūkī were the daughters of Tāmrā. Kākī gave birth to crows and Ulūkī to owls.

41. Śyenī gave birth to vultures, Bhāsī to Bhāsas Gṛdhrī to Gṛdhrakas. Śukī gave birth to parrots and Sugrīvī to auspicious birds.

42. Tāmrā the beloved of Kaśyapa gave birth to horses, camels and donkeys. Thus the family of Tāmrā has been described to you.

43. Vinatā had two sons Aruṇa and Garuḍa. The latter was the most excellent among birds. He was terrible by virtue of his activities.

44-47. Surasā gave birth to a thousand serpents of immeasurable power. They had many hoods. They were powerful enough to traverse the sky, the important among them were the kings Śeṣa, Vāsuki and Takṣaka, Airāvata, Mahāpadma, Kambala and Aśvatara. The sons of Ailā were Padma, Karkoṭaka, Dhanañjaya, Mahānīla, Mahākarṇa, Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Balāhaka, Kuhara, Puṣpadanta, Durmukha, Sumukha, Khararoman, Kharapāṇi and many others.

48. Krodhavaśā gave birth to many who. were the fanged animals and birds both of land and water. Varā’s sons were animals.

49. Anāyuṣā’s sons were fifty. They were very strong. The chief amongst them were Bala, Vṛtta, Vikṣara and Bṛhan.

50-51. Surabhi gave birth to rabbits and buffaloes; Ilā to trees, creepers, spreading vines and all kinds of grass; Khaśā gave birth to Yakṣa and Rākṣasas, Muni gave birth to the celestial damsels. Ariṣṭā gave birth to serpents more excellent than human beings in their power.

52. O great sages, thus the descendants of Kaśyapa have been explained to you. They had hundreds of sons and grandsons.

Footnotes and references:

1.

This city of the Paulomas and Kālakhañjas (or Kālakeyas) as mentioned in the Mahābhārata (Vana P. CLXXIII.13) and the Kathāsaritsāgara (XLV. 135) stood on the sea-route leading to Pātāla. Its exact locus remains still unidentified.

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