Satapatha-brahmana

by Julius Eggeling | 1882 | 730,838 words | ISBN-13: 9788120801134

This is Satapatha Brahmana VII.5.2 English translation of the Sanskrit text, including a glossary of technical terms. This book defines instructions on Vedic rituals and explains the legends behind them. The four Vedas are the highest authortity of the Hindu lifestyle revolving around four castes (viz., Brahmana, Ksatriya, Vaishya and Shudra). Satapatha (also, Śatapatha, shatapatha) translates to “hundred paths”. This page contains the text of the 2nd brahmana of kanda VII, adhyaya 5.

Kanda VII, adhyaya 5, brahmana 2

[Sanskrit text for this chapter is available]

1. He puts the heads of the victims in (the fire-pan),--the heads of the victims being animals (or cattle), it is animals he thus puts thereon. He puts them in the fire-pan;--the pan being these worlds, and the heads of the victims being beasts, he thus puts animals in these worlds; whence there are animals in these worlds.

2. And as to why (he puts the heads) in the fire-pan;--the fire-pan being a womb, and the heads of the victims being animals, he thus establishes the animals in the womb: hence animals, though being eaten and cooked, do not diminish, for he establishes them in the womb.

3. And, again, why he puts the heads of the victims therein;--what (animal) perfections (śrī)[1] there were, they are these victims’ heads; and what rumps there were, they are those five layers (of the altar). Now those five layers are these worlds, and these worlds are this very fire-pan: thus, when he puts the heads of the victims in the fire-pan, he thereby unites those rumps with those heads.

4. He puts them in the fore-part, so as to look towards the back (west). For when, on that (former) occasion, Prajāpati wanted to slaughter these animals, they, being about to be slaughtered, wanted to run away. He seized them by (the organs of) the vital airs[2]; and having seized them by the vital airs, he took them into himself from the front (mouth) towards the back (inside).

5. Now the same thing which the gods did is done here. The animals do not, indeed, want to run away from him; but when he does this, it is because he wants to do what the gods did: having thus seized them by (the outlets of) the vital airs, he takes them into himself from the front towards the back.

6. And, again, why he puts the heads of the victims thereon. Prajāpati alone was here at first[3]. He desired, 'May I create food, may I be reproduced!' He fashioned animals from his vital airs, a man from his soul (mind), a horse from his eye, a cow from his breath, a sheep from his ear, and a goat from his voice; and inasmuch as he created them from the vital airs, people say that 'Animals are vital airs.' The soul is the first of the vital airs; and inasmuch as he fashioned man from his soul, they say that 'Man is the first, and strongest of animals.' The soul is all the vital airs, for in the soul all the vital airs are established. And inasmuch as he fashioned man from his soul, they say that 'Man is all animals,' for they all belong to man.

7. Having created that food, he took it into himself from the front towards the back; and hence whosoever prepares for himself food, takes it into himself from the front towards the back (inside). That (animal food being put) in the fire-pan, and the fire-pan being the belly, he thus puts the food into the belly.

8. He now (in the first place[4]) thrusts gold chips into each of them,--gold is vital air, and the vital airs go out of these animals when slaughtered: thus, when he thrusts gold chips into each of them, he puts the vital airs into them.

9. Seven (chips) he thrusts into each,--seven vital airs there are in the head: these he thereby puts into it. And if there are five victims, let him thrust in five times seven (chips); for those five victims he puts on (the fire-pan), and there are seven vital airs in each victim: he thus puts the vital airs into all of them.

10. Now, even if there is only one victim[5], some people thrust five times seven (into that one head), thinking, 'Those five victims he puts down (symbolically), and there are seven vital airs in each victim: thus we put the vital airs into all of them.' Let him not do so, for in this animal the form of all animals is contained[6]; and when he thrusts (seven chips) into this one, he thereby puts the vital airs into all of them.

11. The first (chip) he thrusts into the mouth, with (Vāj. S. XIII, 38; Ṛk S. IV, 58, 6, 5), 'Fitly flow the draughts of milk like rivers,'--draughts of milk are food, and that indeed flows fitly into this mouth;--'purified within by the heart, by the mind,'--for the food is indeed purified by the heart and mind within him who is righteous;--'the streams of ghee I behold,' he thereby means the libations he is about to offer on that fire;--'the golden reed (is) in the middle of Agni,' he thereby means that gold man.

12. With (Vāj. S. XIII, 39), 'For praise thee!' (he thrusts one in) here (into the right nostril); praise (or splendour) means breath, for with breath one praises;--with, 'For sheen thee!' here (into the left nostril); sheen means breath, for by breath one shines; and also because everything here shines for breath;--with, 'For brightness thee!' here (into the right eye);--with, 'For lustre thee!' here (into the left eye), for bright and lustrous these two eyes indeed are;--with, 'This hath become the fiery spirit of all the world, and of Agni Vaiśvānara,' here (into the right ear);--with (Vāj. S. XIII, 40), 'Agni, bright with brightness, the golden disk, lustrous with lustre,' here (into the left ear),--thus with two (formulas) containing 'all[7]'; for the ear is all.

13. He then lifts up the human head--he thereby exalts it--with, 'Giver of a thousand thou art: for a thousand thee!' a thousand means everything: thus, 'the giver of everything, for everything (I bestow) thee!'

14. He then puts them (the heads) in (the fire-pan), first (that of) the man--having taken possession of the man by strength he sets him up;--the man in the middle; on both sides the other victims: he thus sets the man, as the eater, in the midst of cattle; whence man is the eater in the midst of cattle.

15. The horse and ram on the left (north) side: he thereby puts those two (kinds of) cattle in that region; whence those two (kinds of) cattle are most plentiful in that region.

16. The bull and he-goat on the right (south) side: he thereby puts those two (kinds of) cattle in that region; whence those two (kinds of) cattle are most plentiful in that region.

17. The (head of the) man he places on the milk[8],--milk means cattle: he thus establishes the Sacrificer among cattle,--with (Vāj. S. XIII, 41), 'With milk anoint thou Āditya, the unborn child!' that unborn child, the man, is indeed the sun: thus, Him anoint thou with milk!--'the all-shaped maker of a thousand,' the maker[9] of a thousand is man; for to him belong a thousand;--'spare him with thy heat, harbour not evil thoughts against him!' that is, spare him with thy fire, do not hurt him!--'make him live a hundred years, while thou art built!' he thereby makes man the one among animals (capable of) living a hundred years; whence man, among animals, lives up to- a hundred years.

18. Then on the left side (he puts the head of) the horse, with (Vāj. S. XIII, 42), 'The speed of the wind,'--this one, the horse, is indeed the speed of the wind;--'Varuṇa's navel'--for the horse is Varuṇa;--'the horse, born in the midst of the flood;' the flood is the water, and the horse is indeed the water-born;--'the tawny, rock-founded child of rivers;' rock means mountain, and the waters are indeed founded on the mountains;--'harm him not, Agni, in the highest region!' the highest region means these worlds: thus, do not harm him in these worlds!

19. Then on the right side (the head of) the bull, with (Vāj. S. XIII, 43), 'The imperishable, red drop,' the drop doubtless is Soma; and that bull is the same as the imperishable Soma;--'the eager one (bhuraṇyu),' that is, the bearer (bhartṛ);--'Agni, the forward-striving, I glorify with homages;' for the bull is sacred to Agni; and 'the forward-striving,' he says, because forward (towards the east) they hold up Agni[10], and towards the front[11] they attend upon him;--'duly fitting thyself by limbs,' when he is built up, then he does indeed duly fit himself limb by limb;--'harm not the inexhaustible, wide-ruling cow[12],' the cow is indeed wide-ruling (virāj), and the wide-ruling is food, and accordingly the cow is food.

20. Then on the left side (he puts the head of) the ram, with (Vāj. S. XIII, 44), 'The defender of Tvaṣṭṛ, the navel of Varuṇa,' for the ewe is sacred both to Varuṇa and to Tvaṣṭṛ;--'the ewe born from the highest sphere;' the highest sphere doubtless is the ear, and the ear is the regions,--(thus[13]) the highest sphere is the regions;--'the mighty, thousandfold artifice of the Āsura,' that is, the great, thousandfold artifice of the Āsura[14];--'O Agni, harm it not in the highest region!' the highest region are these worlds: thus, do not harm him (the ram) in these worlds!

21. Then on the right side (he puts the head of) the he-goat, with (Vāj. S. XII I, 45), 'The Agni who was born from Agni,' for that Agni was indeed born from Agni[15];--'from the pain of the earth or also of the sky;' for what was born from the pain (or heat) of Prajāpati, that was born from the pain of the sky and the earth;--'whereby Viśvakarman begat living beings,'--the he-goat (or, the unborn one) is Vāc (Speech)[16], and from Vāc Viśvakarman[17] begat living beings;--'him, O Agni, may thy wrath spare!' as the text, so the meaning.

22. These are the victims; separately he puts them down, separately he 'settles' them, and separately he pronounces the Sūdadohas on them; for separate from one another are those animals.

23. He then offers on the human head,--sacrifice is offering: he thus makes man the one among animals fit to sacrifice; whence man alone among animals performs sacrifice.

24. And, again, why he offers thereon:--he thereby lays vigour into the head. He offers with ghee,--ghee is a thunderbolt, and the thunderbolt means vigour: he thus lays vigour into it. With 'Hail' (he offers),--the 'Hail' (svāhākāra, m.) is a male, and the male means vigour: he thus lays vigour into it. With a triṣṭubh verse (he offers);the Triṣṭubh is a thunderbolt, and the thunderbolt means vigour; the Triṣṭubh is vigour: with vigour he thus lays vigour into it.

25. Having run through[18] the (first) half-verse, he pronounces the Svāhā;--the ṛc (verse) is a bone: having cleft asunder that skull-bone which is here inside the head, he there lays vigour into it.

26. Having then run through the (second) half-verse, he pronounces the Svāhā,--having joined together that skull-bone which is here on the top of the head, he there lays vigour into it.

27. [Vāj. S. XIII, 46; Ṛk S. I, 115, 1] 'The brilliant front of the gods hath risen,' for that man is yonder sun, and he indeed rises as the brilliant front (face) of the gods;--'the eye of Mitra, Varuṇa, and Agni,' for that (sun) is the eye of both gods and men;--'he hath filled heaven, and earth, and the air,' for when he rises he indeed fills these worlds;--'Sūrya, the soul of the movable and immovable;' for that (sun) is indeed the soul of everything here that moves and stands.

28. He then stands by (the heads, revering them) with the Utsargas[19]. For at that time when Prajāpati wanted to slaughter the victims, they, being about to be slaughtered, were distressed (or pained); and by these Utsargas he drove out their distress[20], their evil. In like manner does this one, by these Utsargas, now drive out their distress, their evil.

29. Now some remove the distress of whichever (head of a) victim they put down, thinking lest they might put distress, evil, thereon; but it is they that put distress, evil, thereon; for the distress they remove from the preceding one, they put on (the altar) with the succeeding one.

30. And some revere (the heads) whilst moving round them, thinking, 'we remove distress upwards;' but these indeed follow the distress, the evil, upwards; for upwards he (the Sacrificer) goes by this performance[21], and upwards they remove the distress.

31. Let him remove it outside the fire (-altar); that fire (-altar) being these worlds, he thus puts distress outside these worlds;--outside the Vedi; the Vedi being this earth, he thus puts distress outside this earth; (he does so) standing with his face towards the north; for in that region those animals are, and he thus puts distress into them in the region in which they are.

32. He first removes that of the man--for him he puts down first--with (Vāj. S. XIII, 47), 'Harm not this two-footed animal!' the two-footed animal doubtless is the same as man: thus, 'do not harm that one!'--'(thou) the thousand-eyed, being built for pith;'--the thousand-eyed he (Agni) is on account of the chips of gold; 'for pith,' that is, 'for food.'--'Graciously accept thou, O Agni, the sham-man, the victim, as pith!' a sham-man is a kim-puruṣa (mock-man)[22]: thus, 'accept graciously the kim-puruṣa, O Agni!'--'Building up therewith thy forms, get thee settled!' the form is the self: thus, 'Building up therewith, perfect thyself[23]!'--'Let thy burning heat reach the sham-man! let thy burning heat reach him whom we hate!' he thereby lays burning heat into the sham-man, and into him whom he hates.

33. Then that of the horse, with (Vāj. S. XIII, 48), 'Harm not this one-hoofed animal!' the one-hoofed animal doubtless is the same as the horse: thus, do not harm that one!--'the racer neighing among the racers;' for neighing indeed he is, and a racer among racers;--'The wild fallow (beast) do I assign unto thee,' he thereby assigns to him the wild fallow (beast)[24];--'building up therewith thy forms, get thee settled!' that is, 'building up therewith, perfect thyself!'--'Let thy burning heat reach the fallow beast! let thy burning heat reach him whom we hate!' he thereby lays burning heat into the fallow beast, and into him whom he hates.

34. Then that of the bull, with (Vāj. S. XIII, 49), 'This thousandfold, hundred-streamed well--,' for a thousandfold, hundred-streamed well he, the bull (cow), indeed is;--'extended in the middle of the flood,' the flood doubtless are these worlds: thus, subsisted upon in these worlds;--'the inexhaustible, milking ghee for man,'--for ghee this inexhaustible (cow) indeed milks for man- 'harm not, O Agni, in the highest region!' the highest region doubtless are these worlds: thus, do not harm it in these worlds!--'The wild buffalo do I assign unto thee,' he thereby assigns to him the wild buffalo (gavaya);--'building up therewith thy forms, get thee settled!' that is, 'building up therewith, perfect thyself!'--'Let thy burning heat reach the buffalo! let thy burning heat reach him whom we hate!' he thereby lays burning heat into the buffalo, and into him whom he hates.

35. Then that of the sheep, with (Vāj. S. XIII, 50), This woollen--,' that is, 'this woolly,'--'navel of Varuṇa,' for the sheep is sacred to Varuṇa;--'the skin of animals, two-footed and four-footed,' for that (sheep) indeed is the skin of both kinds of animals[25], two-footed and four-footed;--'the first birth-place of Tvaṣṭṛ's creatures,' for Tvaṣṭṛ indeed fashioned this as the first form;--'harm not, O Agni, in the highest region!' the highest region is these worlds: thus, 'do not harm him in these worlds!'--'The wild buffalo do I assign unto thee,' he thereby assigns the wild buffalo (uṣṭra) to him;--'building up therewith thy forms, get thee settled!' that is, 'building up therewith, perfect thyself!'--'Let thy burning heat reach the buffalo! let thy burning heat reach him whom we hate!' he thereby lays burning heat into the buffalo, and into him whom he hates.

36. Then that of the he-goat, with (Vāj. S. XIII, 51), 'Verily, the he-goat was produced from Agni's heat;'--that which was produced from

Prajāpati's heat, was indeed produced from Agni's heat;--'he saw the progenitor at first,' the progenitor doubtless is Prajāpati: thus, 'he saw Prajāpati at first;'--'thereby the gods at first (agre) went to the godhead;' the he-goat[26] doubtless is speech; and from speech the gods doubtless first went to the godhead, to the summit (agram);--'thereby they went to the height, the wise;' the height doubtless is the heavenly world: thus, 'thereby they went to the heavenly world, the wise;'--'The wild śarabha do I assign unto thee,'--he thereby assigns the wild śarabha[27] to him;--'building up therewith thy forms, get thee settled!' that is, 'building up therewith, perfect thyself!'--'Let thy burning heat reach the śarabha! let thy burning heat reach him whom we hate!' he thereby lays burning heat into the śarabha, and into him whom he hates.

37. As to this they say,--The pain (heat), the evil of these animals, which Prajāpati drove out, became these five animals; they, with their pith (sacrificial essence) gone out of them, are pithless, unfit for sacrifice; a Brāhmaṇa should not eat of them: he consigns them to that region; whence Parjanya does not rain in that region where these are.

38. He returns (to the offering-fire) and stands thereby worshipping it;--for when he goes outside the Vedi, whilst Agni (the fire-altar) is only half built up, he does what is improper; he now makes amends to him to prevent his doing injury. With a verse to Agni (he worships): it is to Agni he thereby makes amends;--with an undefined one; the undefined means everything: by means of everything he thus makes amends to him;--with (a verse) containing the word 'youngest:' this indeed, to wit, the youngest, is his favourite form.;--inasmuch as when born he took possession (yu) of everything here, he is the youngest (yaviṣṭha).

39. [Vāj. S. XIII, 52; Ṛk S. VIII, 84, 3] 'Shield thou, O youngest, the men of the liberal worshipper!' the liberal worshipper is the Sacrificer, and the men are the people;--'hear thou the songs!' that is, hear this hymn of praise!--'protect thou kin and self!' the kin (race) means offspring: thus, 'protect both (the Sacrificer's) offspring and himself.'

40. Having stepped on the altar and walked round behind the naturally-perforated (brick), he lays down the Apasyāḥ (water-bricks);--now the Apasyāḥ are the same as water, and the water has gone out of these victims: he thus puts water into these victims, when he lays down the Apasyāḥ (bricks). He lays them down close to the (heads of the) animals: he thereby puts the water together with the animals. He lays down five (bricks) in each quarter, for five are those victims. He lays them down in every (quarter): everywhere he thus puts water into them.

41. Now the first fifteen are the Apasyāḥ,--water is a thunderbolt, and the thunderbolt is fifteenfold;--hence wherever the waters flow, there they destroy evil; and verily the thunderbolt destroys the evil of this place: hence, when it rains one should go about uncovered, thinking, 'May that thunderbolt remove evil from me!'

42. And the last five are the Chandasyāḥ (the metres’ bricks);--the metres are cattle, and cattle is food; or rather the flesh of cattle is food, and the flesh has departed from these victims: he therefore puts flesh on those cattle when he lays down the Chandasyāḥ. He places them close to the victims: he thereby puts the flesh close to the (bones of the) cattle. The Apasyāḥ are inside, the Chandasyāḥ outside; for the water is inside, and the flesh outside.

43. As to this they say, 'If there are that water and that flesh, where then is the skin, and where the hair?' Well, the skin of cattle is food, and the hair of cattle is food; and when he lays down the Chandasyāḥ, that is the skin of the victims, that is their hair. Or, again, those goats’ hair which are in the fire-pan[28], they are hair. The fire-pan is outside, and the victims’ heads are inside, for outside is the hair, and inside is the body. 'Whether in the one way, or whether in the other,' so Śāndilya was wont to say, 'in any case we make up the victims wholly and completely.'

44. And, again, why he lays down the Apasyāḥ. When Prajāpati was disjointed the water went from him; that being gone, he sank down; and because he sank down (viś), therefore there are twenty (viṃśati, viz. such bricks). It flowed from his fingers,--the fingers being the end, it (the water) went from him in the end.

45. Now the Prajāpati who became disjointed is this very Agni who is now being built up; and the water (āpaḥ) which went from him is these very

Apasyāḥ;--hence when he lays them down, he thereby puts back into him that very water which went from him: therefore he now lays these down.

46. [Vāj. S. XIII, 43] 'In the way of the waters I settle thee!' the way of the waters is the wind; for when he blows hither and thither then the waters flow: in the wind he 'settles' this (first brick).

47. 'In the swell of the waters I settle thee!' the swell of the waters is the plants, for wherever the waters keep swelling there plants grow: in the plants he settles this (brick).

48. 'In the ashes of the waters I settle thee!' the ashes of the waters are the foam: in foam he settles this one.

49. 'In the light of the waters I settle thee!' the light of the waters is the lightning: in the lightning he settles this one.

50. 'In the path of the waters I settle thee!' the path of the waters is this earth, for on the earth the waters flow: on this earth he settles this one. Whatever water flowed from those (five) forms of his, that water he now (by these five formulas) puts back into him; and those forms themselves he thereby restores to him.

51. 'In the flood, the seat, I settle thee!' the flood is the breath: in the breath he settles this one.

52. 'In the ocean, the seat, I settle thee!' the sea is the mind; from the mind-ocean, with speech for a shovel, the gods dug out the triple science. Thereto this verse applies,--'May the true god know this day where the gods placed that offering, they who dug it out from the ocean with sharp shovels;'--the ocean is the mind, the sharp shovel is speech, the offering is the triple science: it is thereto this verse applies. In the mind he settles this (brick).

53. 'In the stream, the seat, I settle thee!' the stream is speech: in speech he settles this one.

54. 'In the abode of the waters I settle thee!' the abode of the waters is the eye, for there water always abides: in the eye he settles this one.

55. 'In the goal of the waters I settle thee!' the goal of the waters is the ear: in the ear he settles this one. Whatever water flowed from those (five) forms of his, that water he now (by these five formulas) puts back into him; and those forms themselves he thereby restores to him.

56. 'In the seat of the waters I settle thee!' the seat of the waters is the sky, for in the sky the waters are seated: in the sky he settles this one.

57. 'In the home of the waters I settle thee!' the home of the waters is the air: in the air he settles this one.

58. 'In the womb of the waters I settle thee!' the womb of the waters is the sea: in the sea he settles this one.

59. 'In the sediment of the waters I settle thee!' the sediment (purīṣa) of the waters is sand: in the sand he settles this one.

60. 'In the resort of the waters I settle thee!' the resort of the waters is food: in food he settles this one. Whatever water flowed from those (five) forms of his, that water he now (by these five formulas) puts back into him; and those forms themselves he thereby restores to him.

61. 'By the Gāyatrī metre I settle thee!-By the Triṣṭubh metre I settle thee!--By the Jagatī metre I settle thee!--By the Anuṣṭubh metre I settle thee!--By the Paṅkti metre I settle thee!' Whatever water flowed from those metres of his, that he now (by these formulas) puts back into him; and those metres themselves he thereby restores to him.

62. These (bricks) are fingers (and toes): he puts them on all sides[29], for these fingers (and toes) are on all sides; he puts them at the ends, for these fingers (and toes) are at the ends; in four sets he puts them on, for these fingers (and toes) are in four sets; five he puts on each time, for there are five fingers (or toes) at each (limb); separately he puts them on, for separate are these fingers (and toes); only once he 'settles' each (set): he thereby makes (each set) one and the same, whence they have a common connecting-link.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

See VI, 1, 1, 4; 2, 1, 7.

[2]:

That is, by the head, according to Sāyaṇa.

[3]:

See J. Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, V, p. 391.

[4]:

That is, before putting the heads in the fire-pan.

[5]:

Viz. a he-goat, as the animal sacrifice to either Prajāpati, or (Vāyu) Niyutvat; see pp. 178, 184.

[6]:

See VI, 2, 2, 15.

[7]:

Only the first of the two formulas, however, contains the word 'viśva,' all.

[8]:

The pan was partly filled with sand and milk, see VII, 1, 1, 41, 44.

[9]:

'Pratimā' is perhaps taken here by the dogmatic expositor in the sense of 'likeness, counterpart;' in which case one would have to translate, 'the counterpart of a thousand, the all-shaped one.'

[10]:

See VI, 4, 3, 10.

[11]:

Or, 'they attend upon him (Agni, the fire-altar) who tends towards the front (east);' inasmuch as the altar is built in the shape of a bird flying eastwards.

[12]:

Or, harm not the cow, the wide-ruling (or wide-shining) Aditi!

[13]:

After the two premises (with 'vai') the inference seems here to be introduced without any particle. Similarly in paragraph 24; while in paragraph 19 the particle 'u' is used to perform that office. Cf. however VII, 4, 2, 1, where a third parallel clause (which logically might have been the inference) is introduced by 'u vai.'

[14]:

Sāyaṇa refers to the legend in Taitt. S. II, I, 2, 2, here alluded to:--Svarbhānu, the Āsura, struck the sun with darkness. The gods sought an expiation for that (darkness): the first darkness of his which they dispelled became a black ewe, the second a red one, the third a white one; and what they cut off from the surface of the bone (?) that became a barren sheep, &c.

[15]:

Viz. inasmuch as the fire to be ultimately deposited on the fire-altar was taken from the original (hall-door) fire.

[16]:

See VI, 1, 1, 9.

[17]:

That is, Prajāpati, the lord of procreation; see VI, 1, 2, 6 seq.

[18]:

That is, having rapidly muttered it.

[19]:

That is, (means of) deliverance or removal, a term applied to the next five mantras.

[20]:

Lit. their burning heat (śuc); cf. par. 32 seq.

[21]:

The Sacrificer builds the fire-altar with a view to his securing for himself a place in heaven.

[22]:

It is doubtful what is meant here by this term, unless it be a monkey, or a counterfeit human head; cf. p. 197, note 4.

[23]:

This paraphrase does not make it clear how the author construes and interprets this part of the formula; especially in what sense he takes 'niṣīda.'

[24]:

Thus Mahīdhara (gauravarṇaṃ mṛgam). In the St. Petersburg dictionary 'gaura' is taken here in the sense of 'buffalo, bos gavæus.' The parallelism in the next two formulas might indeed seem to point to that meaning.

[25]:

Viz. inasmuch as its wool serves as a cover for man and beast.

[26]:

'Aja,' he-goat, is here again taken in the sense of 'a-ja,' unborn. As to the gods having sprung from Vāc, see VI, 1, 2, 6 seq.

[27]:

A fabulous animal with eight legs.

[28]:

See VI, 4, 4, 22; 5, 1, 4.

[29]:

The four sets of bricks are placed in the middle of the four sides of the square 'body' of the altar-site, or at the ends of the two spines' intersecting each other.

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