Sahitya-kaumudi by Baladeva Vidyabhushana

by Gaurapada Dāsa | 2015 | 234,703 words

Baladeva Vidyabhusana’s Sahitya-kaumudi covers all aspects of poetical theory except the topic of dramaturgy. All the definitions of poetical concepts are taken from Mammata’s Kavya-prakasha, the most authoritative work on Sanskrit poetical rhetoric. Baladeva Vidyabhushana added the eleventh chapter, where he expounds additional ornaments from Visv...

उपमानोपमेययोर् लिङ्ग-वचन-भेदः काल-पुरुष-विध्यादि-भेदश् च भग्न-प्रक्रमता। क्रमेणोदाहरणम्। सुधेव मधुरं वारि अत्र लिङ्ग-भेदः। कीर्तिर् ज्योत्स्ना इवोज्ज्वला। अत्र वचन-भेदः। हरिर् आनन्दयद् राधां पद्मिनीम् इव दीप्तिमान्। अत्र काल-भेदः। आनन्दयतीति तु युक्तम्। भासि त्वं कल्प-वल्लीव राधेऽभीष्ट-फल-प्रदा। अत्र पुरुष-भेदः। कल्प-वल्ली हि भाति। कृष्णे प्रवहतु प्रीतिस् तव गङ्गेव सर्वदा। अत्र विधि-भेदः। गङ्गा तु वहति। एषु धर्मोभय-निष्ठतायाः प्रक्रान्तायाः स्फुटम् अनिर्वाहात् तथा।

upamānopameyayor liṅga-vacana-bhedaḥ kāla-puruṣa-vidhyādi-bhedaś ca bhagna-prakramatā. krameṇodāharaṇam. sudheva madhuraṃ vāri atra liṅga-bhedaḥ. kīrtir jyotsnā ivojjvalā. atra vacana-bhedaḥ. harir ānandayad rādhāṃ padminīm iva dīptimān. atra kāla-bhedaḥ. ānandayatīti tu yuktam. bhāsi tvaṃ kalpa-vallīva rādhe'bhīṣṭa-phala-pradā. atra puruṣa-bhedaḥ. kalpa-vallī hi bhāti. kṛṣṇe pravahatu prītis tava gaṅgeva sarvadā. atra vidhi-bhedaḥ. gaṅgā tu vahati. eṣu dharmobhaya-niṣṭhatāyāḥ prakrāntāyāḥ sphuṭam anirvāhāt tathā.

These other faults in a simile fall in the category of bhagna-prakrama (broken symmetry) (7.76): (1) A difference of gender between the upamāna and the upameya, (2) A difference of number between the upamāna and the upameya, (3) A difference in the verbal tense, (4) A difference in the person (first, second, or third person), (5) A difference with regard to the enjoinment. Examples are shown in order:

(1) “The water is sweet like nectar.” There is a mismatch of gender between vāri (water), a neuter word, and sudhā (nectar), a feminine word.

(2) “Your fame is bright like moonrays.” There is a discrepancy in the number.

(3) “Hari delighted Rādhā like the sun lotuses.” Here the verb is in the past tense, but when it is carried forward it is understood to be in the present tense (“like the sun delights lotuses”). The first verb should be in the present tense.

(4) “O Rādhā, You, who bestow the intended results, are resplendent like a wish-fulfilling creeper.” There is a discrepancy in the person: The verb bhāsi is in the second person, but when it is carried forward in connection with the creeper, there is a mismatch because the verb should be in the third person (bhāti). Therefore the verb bhāti should be supplied to the sentence.

(5) “May your love always flow toward Kṛṣṇa, like the Ganges.” There is a difference with regard to the enjoinment: When the verb pravahatu (may it flow), in the imperative tense, is carried forward, in connection with the Ganges the verb should be in the present tense (pravahati). Therefore the verb vahati (flows) should be supplied to “the Ganges”.

In these examples, the fault called bhagna-prakrama (broken symmetry) occurs since there clearly is no completion of what had begun, whether it relates to a common attribute or to the upamāna and the upameya.

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