Sahitya-kaumudi by Baladeva Vidyabhushana

by Gaurapada Dāsa | 2015 | 234,703 words

Baladeva Vidyabhusana’s Sahitya-kaumudi covers all aspects of poetical theory except the topic of dramaturgy. All the definitions of poetical concepts are taken from Mammata’s Kavya-prakasha, the most authoritative work on Sanskrit poetical rhetoric. Baladeva Vidyabhushana added the eleventh chapter, where he expounds additional ornaments from Visv...

उदाहरणम्,
मतिर् अघूर्णत सार्धम् अलि-व्रजैर् धृतिर् अभून् मधुभिः सह विच्युता ।
व्यकसद् उत्कलिका कलिकालिभिः समम् इह प्रियया वियुतस्य मे ॥

udāharaṇam,
matir aghūrṇata sārdham ali-vrajair dhṛtir abhūn madhubhiḥ saha vicyutā |
vyakasad utkalikā kalikālibhiḥ samam iha priyayā viyutasya me ||

matiḥ—the mind; aghūrṇata—whirled; sārdham—with; ali—of bees; vrajaiḥ—the multitudes; dhṛtiḥ—the composure; abhūt—became; madhubhiḥ—the honeys; saha—with; vicyutā—dropped; vyakasat—expanded; utkalikā—the longing; kalikā—of flower buds; ālibhiḥ—multitudes; samam—with; iha—here; priyayā—from the beloved; viyutasya—who am separated; me—of Mine.

For instance (Kṛṣṇa thinks):

Now I feel the pang of separation from Her. My mind is whirling, and so are the bees. My composure drops, and so does honey. My longing is expanding, and so do flower buds. (Lalita-mādhava 4.2.24)

atra maty-ādi-gatasya ghūrṇanādeḥ sahārtha-balād ali-vrajādiṣv anvayaḥ. “sahādhara-talenāsyā yauvane rāgavān priyaḥ” ity ādau śleṣād vicchitti-viśeṣaḥ.

By the force of the sense of saha (with), there is a syntactical connection of whirling, dropping, and expanding, which primarily belong to the mind, the composure, and the longing, with the bees, honey, and buds.

A distinct astonishment is generated because of paronomasia. For example: “In her youth, her lover has rāga (passion), and so does the petal of her netherlip (redness).” (Sāhitya-darpaṇa 10.55)

Commentary:

The concept of sahokti, sourced in grammar,[1] does not always turn out as a literary ornament. Strikingness is the essence of every figure.[2] The following verse from Bhagavad-gītā features sahokti, according to Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa[3] : amī ca tvāṃ dhṛtarāṣṭrasya putrāḥ sarve sahaivāvani-pāla-saṅghaiḥ, bhīṣmo droṇaḥ sūta-putras tathāsau sahāsmadīyair api yodha-mukhyaiḥ, vaktrāṇi te tvaramāṇā viśanti, “All the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra are rushing into Your mouths, and so are their allied kings. Bhīṣma, Droṇa and Karṇa are rushing into Your mouths, and so are our best fighters” (Bhagavad-gītā 11.26-27). This instance of sahokti can be taken as an ornament in the sense that it adorns Arjuna’s fear (bhayānaka-rasa).

This is Mammaṭa’s example of sahokti,

saha divasa-niśābhir dīrgha-śvāsa-daṇḍāḥ saha maṇi-valayādyair bāṣpa-dhārā galanti |
tava subhaga-viyoge tasyā udvignāyāḥ saha ca tanu-latayā durbalā jīvitāśā || (Sanskrit rendering)

“In separation from you, O handsome man, her breaths became long, and so did the days and the nights. Her tears continued to fall, and so did her gem-studded bracelets. Her will to live became weak, and so did the creeper of her slender body” (Kāvya-prakāśa, verse 495).

Jagannātha illustrates sahokti,

māntharyam āpa gamanaṃ saha śaiśavena raktaṃ sahaiva manasādhara-bimbam āsīt |
kiṃ cābhavan mṛga-kiśora-dṛśo nitambaḥ sarvādhiko gurur ayaṃ saha manmathena ||

“Her motion became slow, and so did the childishness. The glow of her netherlip became rakta (red), and so did the heart (passionate). Moreover, the hips of that doe-eyed woman became sarvādhika-guru (most heavy), and so did Cupid (the topmost instructor)” (Rasa-gaṅgādhara, KM p. 363).

In this verse, the last two sahoktis are founded upon paronomasia (śabda-śleṣa). In such a paronomastic sahokti, Jagannātha sees one thing as the upameya and the other as the upamāna. He says the word rakta in the sense of “red” is the color of the netherlip, the upameya, and the word rakta which means “passionate” applies to the heart, the upamāna. This means the redness of the underlip resembles the passion of the heart. In like manner, he says the word guru in the sense of “heavy” relates to the hips, the upameya, and the word guru which means “instructor” applies to Cupid, the upamāna.[4] Thus Jagannātha follows Ruyyaka’s statement that in sahokti the reader is free to imagine the relation of upameya and upamāna.[5]

Moreover, Jagannātha specifies that sahokti can be construed without the word saha or a synonym, provided the word in the third case is understood to have the sense of saha. Such a sahokti is called an implicit sahokti, just like an utprekṣā without one of its typical words is called an implicit utprekṣā.[6]

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

The word saha (with),or a synonym such as sārdham, samam or sākam, is used in one of two ways. For instance, the sentence putreṇa sahāgataḥ pitā means either “The father came, and so did the son,” or “The father came with the son.” Only the first interpretation is in the scope of sahokti. Pāṇini’s referential sūtra is: saha-yukte’pradhāne (Aṣṭādhyāyī 2.3.19).

[2]:

guṇa-pradhāna-bhāvāvacchinna-sahārtha-sambandhaḥ sahoktiḥ || hṛdyatvaṃ cālaṅkārasāmānya-lakṣaṇa-gataṃ sakalālaṅkāra-sādhāraṇam evety asakṛd uktam (Rasa-gaṅgādhara, KM p. 357).

[3]:

na kevalaṃ ta eva kintv asmadīyā ye yodha-mukhyā dhṛṣṭadyumnādayaḥ taiḥ saheti te’pi praviśantīti sahoktir alaṅkāraḥ (Gītā-bhūṣaṇa 11.26).

[4]:

śoṇatvāsaktatvābhyām adhika-bhāratvopadeśa-kartṛtvābhyāṃ ca bhinnayor apy upameyopamāna-gatayor nirukta-guṇayoḥ śleṣeṇa piṇḍī-karaṇāt saha-bhāvopapattiḥ. evaṃ śleṣābhāve’pi kevalādhyavasānena bodhyam (Rasa-gaṅgādhara, KM p. 363).

[5]:

sahārtha-prayuktaś cātra guṇa-pradhāna-bhāvaḥ. upamānopameyatvaṃ cātra vaivakṣikam (Alaṅkāra-sarvasva, KM p. 81).

[6]:

sahādi-śabda-prayogābhāve’py eṣā sambhavati. vṛddho yūnā [Aṣṭādhyāyī 1.2.65] iti nirdeśena tṛtīyāyāḥ sāmrājyāt. paraṃ tv ivādi-śabda-rahitotprekṣādi-vad gamyā (Rasa-gaṅgādhara, KM p. 359). Pāṇini’s sūtra 1.2.65 (vṛddho yūnā tal-lakṣaṇaś ced eva viśeṣaḥ) implicitly allows the sense of saha even if the word saha or a synonym is not used.

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