Sahitya-kaumudi by Baladeva Vidyabhushana

by Gaurapada Dāsa | 2015 | 234,703 words

Baladeva Vidyabhusana’s Sahitya-kaumudi covers all aspects of poetical theory except the topic of dramaturgy. All the definitions of poetical concepts are taken from Mammata’s Kavya-prakasha, the most authoritative work on Sanskrit poetical rhetoric. Baladeva Vidyabhushana added the eleventh chapter, where he expounds additional ornaments from Visv...

सन्धेर् वैरूप्यं त्रिधा, विश्लेषोऽश्लीलत्वं कष्टत्वं चेति. क्रमेणोदाहरणानि,

sandher vairūpyaṃ tridhā, viśleṣo'ślīlatvaṃ kaṣṭatvaṃ ceti. krameṇodāharaṇāni,

(4) The fault called visandhi (awkward phonetic combination) means a distortion of a phonetic combination. It is threefold: viśleṣa (disjoined), aślīla (unpleasant), and kaṣṭa (harsh). Examples are given in order. This verse shows an instance of viśleṣa-visandhi,

dalite utpale ete akṣinī amalāṅgi te |
balād ākarṣatas tanvi mama īkṣaṇa-ṣaṭ-padau ||

dalite—which have opened; utpale—two lotuses; ete—these; akṣinī—two eyes; amala-aṅgi—O you whose body is spotless; te—your; balāt—by force; ākarṣataḥ—the two attract; tanvi—O slender woman; mama—my; īkṣaṇa—in the form of eyes; ṣaṭ-padau—two bees (“it has six legs”).

Slender girl, you have an immaculate body: These two eyes of yours, two blown lotuses, forcefully attract the two bees of my eyes. (adapted from Sāhitya-darpaṇa 7.8)

atra pragṛhyādi-hetukaḥ sandhi-viśleṣo’sakṛd eva.

Here a disjunction of the phonetic combination, caused by the pragṛhyas, occurs more than once. This is one subdivision of viśleṣa-visandhi. The other subvariety is exemplified in the second half: mama īkṣaṇa, where the phonetic combination was not done, by the will of the writer, out of fear of breaking the meter: This other kind is a fault even if it happens only once.


The term pragṛhya is given to the letters ī, ū, and e, when one of them is the ending of a noun or of a verb in the dual number: īd-ūd-ed dvi-vacanaṃ pragṛhyam (Aṣṭādhyāyī 1.1.11). When a pragṛhya occurs, the phonetic combination with a following vowel is not done, by the rule: pluta-pragṛhyā aci nityam (Aṣṭādhyāyī 6.1.125) (īd-ūd-etāṃ dvi-vacanasya maṇīvādi-varjam, Hari-nāmāmṛta-vyākaraṇa 60). The usage of the pragṛhyas is faulty if it occurs more than once. Again, Mammaṭa shows his disapproval of the alliteration of a vowel.

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