Sahitya-kaumudi by Baladeva Vidyabhushana

by Gaurapada Dāsa | 2015 | 234,703 words

Baladeva Vidyabhusana’s Sahitya-kaumudi covers all aspects of poetical theory except the topic of dramaturgy. All the definitions of poetical concepts are taken from Mammata’s Kavya-prakasha, the most authoritative work on Sanskrit poetical rhetoric. Baladeva Vidyabhushana added the eleventh chapter, where he expounds additional ornaments from Visv...

निकुञ्जं हन्ति माधवः. अत्र हन्तीति गतौ पठितम् अपि तत्र न समर्थम्.

nikuñjaṃ hanti mādhavaḥ. atra hantīti gatau paṭhitam api tatra na samartham.

(4) An instance of asamartha (unable to be meaningful, i.e. not the intended meaning) is: nikuñjaṃ hanti mādhavaḥ, “Mādhava goes to the pleasure grove” (or Mādhava kills the pleasure grove). Here, although the verbal root han hiṃsā-gatyoḥ (to hurt, kill; to go) is listed with the sense of gati (to go), the verb hanti is unable to convey that meaning.

Commentary:

Consequently, nikuñjaṃ hanti mādhavaḥ should be changed to: nikuñjaṃ gacchati mādhavaḥ (Mādhava goes to the pleasure grove). Mammaṭa explains the fault called asamartha as follows: asamarthaṃ yat tad arthaṃ paṭhyate na ca tatrāsya śaktiḥ, “Asamartha means the word has no ability (samartha = śakti) to convey that sense although it is listed” (Kāvya-prakāśa, verse 144 preliminary). In truth, asamartha should be merged in nihatārtha (obstructed meaning) (7.7). Viśvanātha Kavirāja eliminated asamartha from his list of faults (Sāhitya-darpaṇa 7.2-4).

As a double meaning, some commentators refer to the meaning of gati of the verbal root han. For instance, as a second explanation, Sanātana Gosvāmī glosses hatam (struck) in Bhāgavatam 10.7.7 as gatam (gone).[1] Similarly, as a double meaning Śrīnātha Paṇḍita glosses āhatāḥ, in Bhāgavatam 10.22.18, as āgatāḥ (arrived).[2] In like manner, as a second meaning Vīra-Rāghava interprets the verbal root han in paśu-ghna, in Bhāgavatam 10.1.4, in the meaning of gati, which he interprets in the sense of jñāna (to know).369

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

hataṃ prahatam. yadvā hanter gaty-arthād gataṃ prāptaṃ spṛṣṭam ity arthaḥ (Bṛhad-vaiṣṇava-toṣaṇī 10.7.7).

[2]:

yadvā āhatā āgatā han hiṃsā-gatyoḥ iti gaty-arthāt (Caitanya-mata-mañjūṣā 10.22.18). 369 yadvā paśu-vad hanti gacchati vyāpriyata iti paśu-ghnaḥ taṃ vinety arthaḥ. paśu-tulya-vṛttiḥ kevala-mūrkha iti yāvat. yadvā apaśu-ghnād iti cchedaḥ. paśv iti samyag arthakam avyayam. na paśu asamyak hanti gacchati buddhyatīti tathā ‘han hiṃsā-gatyoḥ’ gaty-arthās sarve jñānārthakāḥ. samyag upakāram avidvān kṛta-ghna iti yāvat (Bhāgavata-candra-candrikā 10.1.4).

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