Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 10.123.4

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

जा॒नन्तो॑ रू॒पम॑कृपन्त॒ विप्रा॑ मृ॒गस्य॒ घोषं॑ महि॒षस्य॒ हि ग्मन् । ऋ॒तेन॒ यन्तो॒ अधि॒ सिन्धु॑मस्थुर्वि॒दद्ग॑न्ध॒र्वो अ॒मृता॑नि॒ नाम॑ ॥
जानन्तो रूपमकृपन्त विप्रा मृगस्य घोषं महिषस्य हि ग्मन् । ऋतेन यन्तो अधि सिन्धुमस्थुर्विदद्गन्धर्वो अमृतानि नाम ॥
jānanto rūpam akṛpanta viprā mṛgasya ghoṣam mahiṣasya hi gman | ṛtena yanto adhi sindhum asthur vidad gandharvo amṛtāni nāma ||

English translation:

“The pious, knowing his form, praised him, for they followed the city of the great deer; approaching hmwith sacrifice, they reached the flowing (water), for the sustainer of the waters knows the ambrosial (fluids).”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Great deer: i.e., Vena, whose cry is the thunder; sustainer of the waters: gandharva

Details:

Ṛṣi (sage/seer): venaḥ [vena];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): venaḥ;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

जा॒नन्तः॑ । रू॒पम् । अ॒कृ॒प॒न्त॒ । विप्राः॑ । मृ॒गस्य॑ । घोष॑म् । म॒हि॒षस्य॑ । हि । ग्मन् । ऋ॒तेन॑ । यन्तः॑ । अधि॑ । सिन्धु॑म् । अ॒स्थुः॒ । वि॒दत् । ग॒न्ध॒र्वः । अ॒मृता॑नि । नाम॑ ॥
जानन्तः । रूपम् । अकृपन्त । विप्राः । मृगस्य । घोषम् । महिषस्य । हि । ग्मन् । ऋतेन । यन्तः । अधि । सिन्धुम् । अस्थुः । विदत् । गन्धर्वः । अमृतानि । नाम ॥
jānantaḥ | rūpam | akṛpanta | viprāḥ | mṛgasya | ghoṣam | mahiṣasya | hi | gman | ṛtena | yantaḥ | adhi | sindhum | asthuḥ | vidat | gandharvaḥ | amṛtāni | nāma

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 10.123.4 English analysis of grammar]

jānanto < jānantaḥ < jñā

[verb noun], nominative, plural

“know; diagnose; perceive; know; come to know; notice; determine; think of; find; learn; perceive; identify; recognize; understand; know; learn; ascertain; detect; deem.”

rūpam < rūpa

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“form; appearance; beauty; look; shape; shape; symptom; feature; nature; guise; rūpa [word]; one; appearance; likeness; color; kind; vowel; type; disguise; aspect; form; derivative; omen; vision.”

akṛpanta < kṛp

[verb], plural, Imperfect

viprā < viprāḥ < vipra

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“Brahmin; poet; singer; priest; guru; Vipra.”

mṛgasya < mṛga

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“game; deer; animal; antelope; mṛga [word]; Mṛgaśiras.”

ghoṣam < ghoṣa

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“sound; noise; cry; voice; ghoṣa [word]; station; Ghoṣa; post; twang.”

mahiṣasya < mahiṣa

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“Old World buffalo; Mahiṣa; Mahiṣa.”

hi

[adverb]

“because; indeed; for; therefore; hi [word].”

gman < gam

[verb], plural, Aorist inj. (proh.)

“go; situate; enter (a state); travel; disappear; [in]; elapse; leave; reach; vanish; love; walk; approach; issue; hop on; gasify; get; come; die; drain; spread; transform; happen; discharge; ride; to be located; run; detect; refer; go; shall; drive.”

ṛtena < ṛta

[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter

“truth; order; fixed order; ṛta [word]; law; custom; custom.”

yanto < yantaḥ < i

[verb noun], nominative, plural

“go; travel; enter (a state); return; walk; continue; reach; ask.”

adhi

[adverb]

“on; from; accordingly.”

sindhum < sindhu

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“river; Indus; sindhu [word].”

asthur < asthuḥ < sthā

[verb], plural, Root aorist (Ind.)

“stay; stand; situate; exist; [in]; resist; endure; put; soak; be; stop; adhere; get stale; concentrate; grow; trust; wake; consociate; last; dwell; lie; stand; stop.”

vidad < vidat < vid

[verb], singular, Aorist inj. (proh.)

“find; detect; marry; get; think.”

gandharvo < gandharvaḥ < gandharva

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Gandharva; castor-oil plant; horse; Gandharva; Indian cuckoo.”

amṛtāni < amṛta

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter

“immortal; amṛta; imperishable.”

nāma < nāman

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“name; appellation; nāman [word]; nāmakaraṇa; surname; noun; word.”

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