Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 10.111.2

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ऋ॒तस्य॒ हि सद॑सो धी॒तिरद्यौ॒त्सं गा॑र्ष्टे॒यो वृ॑ष॒भो गोभि॑रानट् । उद॑तिष्ठत्तवि॒षेणा॒ रवे॑ण म॒हान्ति॑ चि॒त्सं वि॑व्याचा॒ रजां॑सि ॥
ऋतस्य हि सदसो धीतिरद्यौत्सं गार्ष्टेयो वृषभो गोभिरानट् । उदतिष्ठत्तविषेणा रवेण महान्ति चित्सं विव्याचा रजांसि ॥
ṛtasya hi sadaso dhītir adyaut saṃ gārṣṭeyo vṛṣabho gobhir ānaṭ | ud atiṣṭhat taviṣeṇā raveṇa mahānti cit saṃ vivyācā rajāṃsi ||

English translation:

“Sustainer of the abode of the water, (the firmament), he shone brightly; the bull, the offspring of a cowwhich has only borne once, met the cows, with a loud roar he sprung up, he pervaded the vast worlds.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): aṣṭrādaṃṣṭro vairūpaḥ [aṣṭrādaṃṣṭra vairūpa];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ऋ॒तस्य॑ । हि । सद॑सः । धी॒तिः । अद्यौ॑त् । सम् । गा॒ऋष्टे॒यः । वृ॒ष॒भः । गोभिः॑ । आ॒न॒ट् । उत् । अ॒ति॒ष्ठ॒त् । त॒वि॒षेण॑ । रवे॑ण । म॒हान्ति॑ । चि॒त् । सम् । वि॒व्या॒च॒ । रजां॑सि ॥
ऋतस्य । हि । सदसः । धीतिः । अद्यौत् । सम् । गाऋष्टेयः । वृषभः । गोभिः । आनट् । उत् । अतिष्ठत् । तविषेण । रवेण । महान्ति । चित् । सम् । विव्याच । रजांसि ॥
ṛtasya | hi | sadasaḥ | dhītiḥ | adyaut | sam | gāṛṣṭeyaḥ | vṛṣabhaḥ | gobhiḥ | ānaṭ | ut | atiṣṭhat | taviṣeṇa | raveṇa | mahānti | cit | sam | vivyāca | rajāṃsi

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 10.111.2 English analysis of grammar]

ṛtasya < ṛta

[noun], genitive, singular, neuter

“truth; order; fixed order; ṛta [word]; law; custom; custom.”



“because; indeed; for; therefore; hi [word].”

sadaso < sadasaḥ < sadas

[noun], ablative, singular, neuter

“mansion; assembly; seat; seat.”

dhītir < dhītiḥ < dhīti

[noun], nominative, singular, feminine

“thinking; prayer; understanding.”

adyaut < dyut

[verb], singular, Athematic s aor. (Ind.)

“shine; inflame.”

saṃ < sam


“sam; together; together; saṃ.”

gārṣṭeyo < gārṣṭeyaḥ < gārṣṭeya

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

vṛṣabho < vṛṣabhaḥ < vṛṣabha

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“bull; Vṛṣabha; Vṛṣabha; best.”

gobhir < gobhiḥ < go

[noun], instrumental, plural

“cow; cattle; go [word]; Earth; bull; floor; milk; beam; sunbeam; leather; hide; horn; language; bowstring; earth; ox; Svarga.”

ānaṭ < naś

[verb], singular, Root aorist (Ind.)

“reach; achieve; enter (a state); reach.”




atiṣṭhat < sthā

[verb], singular, Imperfect

“stay; stand; situate; exist; [in]; resist; endure; put; soak; be; stop; adhere; get stale; concentrate; grow; trust; wake; consociate; last; dwell; lie; stand; stop.”

taviṣeṇā < taviṣeṇa < taviṣa

[noun], instrumental, singular, masculine


raveṇa < rava

[noun], instrumental, singular, masculine

“sound; howl; thunder; cry; talk; cry.”

mahānti < mahat

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter

“large; eminent; great; loud; dangerous; strong; long; high; much(a); mahant [word]; ample; very; great; adult; important; dark; high; abundant; violent; remarkable; mighty; big; long.”



“even; indeed.”

saṃ < sam


“sam; together; together; saṃ.”

vivyācā < vivyāca < vyac

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

rajāṃsi < rajas

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter

“powder; menorrhea; dust; Rajas; atmosphere; rajas; pollen; passion; rajas [word]; sindūra; rust; tin; impurity; dark; sky.”

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