Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 10.89.14

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

कर्हि॑ स्वि॒त्सा त॑ इन्द्र चे॒त्यास॑द॒घस्य॒ यद्भि॒नदो॒ रक्ष॒ एष॑त् । मि॒त्र॒क्रुवो॒ यच्छस॑ने॒ न गाव॑: पृथि॒व्या आ॒पृग॑मु॒या शय॑न्ते ॥
कर्हि स्वित्सा त इन्द्र चेत्यासदघस्य यद्भिनदो रक्ष एषत् । मित्रक्रुवो यच्छसने न गावः पृथिव्या आपृगमुया शयन्ते ॥
karhi svit sā ta indra cetyāsad aghasya yad bhinado rakṣa eṣat | mitrakruvo yac chasane na gāvaḥ pṛthivyā āpṛg amuyā śayante ||

English translation:

“Where was your (shaft) Indra, (which ought) to be hurled (against your enemies) when you did cleavethe rākṣasas hastening to war, and when the Mitrakru lay on the ground there in confusion like cattle at theplace of immolation?”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Mitrakrus: perhaps a demon; those who treat their friends with cruelty


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): reṇuḥ;
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

कर्हि॑ । स्वि॒त् । सा । ते॒ । इ॒न्द्र॒ । चे॒त्या । अ॒स॒त् । अ॒घस्य॑ । यत् । भि॒नदः॑ । रक्षः॑ । आ॒ऽईष॑त् । मि॒त्र॒ऽक्रुवः॑ । यत् । शस॑ने । न । गावः॑ । पृ॒थि॒व्याः । आ॒ऽपृक् । अ॒मु॒या । शय॑न्ते ॥
कर्हि । स्वित् । सा । ते । इन्द्र । चेत्या । असत् । अघस्य । यत् । भिनदः । रक्षः । आईषत् । मित्रक्रुवः । यत् । शसने । न । गावः । पृथिव्याः । आपृक् । अमुया । शयन्ते ॥
karhi | svit | sā | te | indra | cetyā | asat | aghasya | yat | bhinadaḥ | rakṣaḥ | āīṣat | mitra-kruvaḥ | yat | śasane | na | gāvaḥ | pṛthivyāḥ | āpṛk | amuyā | śayante

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 10.89.14 English analysis of grammar]



svit < svid


“svid [word].”

< tad

[noun], nominative, singular, feminine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

ta < te < tvad

[noun], genitive, singular



[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

cetyāsad < cetyā

[noun], nominative, singular, feminine

cetyāsad < asat < as

[verb], singular, Present conjunctive (subjunctive)

“be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”

aghasya < agha

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“bad; dangerous; ill; iniquitous; bad.”

yad < yat


“once [when]; because; that; if; how.”

bhinado < bhinadaḥ < bhid

[verb], singular, Present conjunctive (subjunctive)

“break; incise; burst; divide; cut; cleave; destroy; cure; disturb; lance; break; distinguish; disclose; pierce; tear; separate; transgress; break open; scratch; penetrate; sever; bribe; grind; betray; fester; strike.”

rakṣa < rakṣaḥ < rakṣas

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“Rākṣasa; Rakṣas; rakṣas [word].”

eṣat < _ < √_



mitrakruvo < mitrakruvaḥ < mitrakrū

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

yacchasane < yat


“once [when]; because; that; if; how.”

yacchasane < śasane < śasana

[noun], locative, singular, neuter



“not; like; no; na [word].”

gāvaḥ < go

[noun], nominative, plural

“cow; cattle; go [word]; Earth; bull; floor; milk; beam; sunbeam; leather; hide; horn; language; bowstring; earth; ox; Svarga.”

pṛthivyā < pṛthivyāḥ < pṛthivī

[noun], genitive, singular, feminine

“Earth; pṛthivī; floor; Earth; earth; pṛthivī [word]; land.”

āpṛg < āpṛk


amuyā < adas

[noun], instrumental, singular, feminine

“that; John Doe; yonder; from here.”

śayante < śī

[verb], plural, Present indikative

“lie; sleep.”

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