Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 10.89.12

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

प्र शोशु॑चत्या उ॒षसो॒ न के॒तुर॑सि॒न्वा ते॑ वर्ततामिन्द्र हे॒तिः । अश्मे॑व विध्य दि॒व आ सृ॑जा॒नस्तपि॑ष्ठेन॒ हेष॑सा॒ द्रोघ॑मित्रान् ॥
प्र शोशुचत्या उषसो न केतुरसिन्वा ते वर्ततामिन्द्र हेतिः । अश्मेव विध्य दिव आ सृजानस्तपिष्ठेन हेषसा द्रोघमित्रान् ॥
pra śośucatyā uṣaso na ketur asinvā te vartatām indra hetiḥ | aśmeva vidhya diva ā sṛjānas tapiṣṭhena heṣasā droghamitrān ||

English translation:

“May your unbroken weapon, Indra, proceed (against your foes), like the banner of the shining dawn,like a stone cast down from heaven, pierce those whose friendship is deceitful with your consumingloud-sounding (weapon).”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): reṇuḥ;
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

प्र । शोशु॑चत्याः । उ॒षसः॑ । न । के॒तुः । अ॒सि॒न्वा । ते॒ । व॒र्त॒ता॒म् । इ॒न्द्र॒ । हे॒तिः । अश्मा॑ऽइव । वि॒ध्य॒ । दि॒वः । आ । सृ॒जा॒नः । तपि॑ष्ठेन । हेष॑सा । द्रोघ॑ऽमित्रान् ॥
प्र । शोशुचत्याः । उषसः । न । केतुः । असिन्वा । ते । वर्तताम् । इन्द्र । हेतिः । अश्माइव । विध्य । दिवः । आ । सृजानः । तपिष्ठेन । हेषसा । द्रोघमित्रान् ॥
pra | śośucatyāḥ | uṣasaḥ | na | ketuḥ | asinvā | te | vartatām | indra | hetiḥ | aśmāiva | vidhya | divaḥ | ā | sṛjānaḥ | tapiṣṭhena | heṣasā | drogha-mitrān

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 10.89.12 English analysis of grammar]



“towards; ahead.”

śośucatyā < śośucatyāḥ < śośuc < √śuc

[verb noun], genitive, singular


uṣaso < uṣasaḥ < uṣas

[noun], genitive, singular, feminine

“Ushas; dawn; uṣas [word]; morning.”



“not; like; no; na [word].”

ketur < ketuḥ < ketu

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“banner; ketu; sunbeam; enemy; sign; Premna spinosa Roxb.; comet; signal; signal; luminosity.”

asinvā < _ < √_



te < tvad

[noun], genitive, singular


vartatām < vṛt

[verb], singular, Present imperative

“behave; happen; exist; return; dwell; die; roll; continue; act; exist; feed on; issue; move; travel; proceed; turn; situate; drive; account for; begin; do; inhere; revolve.”


[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

hetiḥ < heti

[noun], nominative, singular, feminine

“projectile; heti [word].”

aśmeva < aśmā < aśman

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“stone; aśmarī; rock; aśman [word]; adri; mineral; piṇḍatālaka; mountain.”

aśmeva < iva


“like; as it were; somehow; just so.”

vidhya < vyadh

[verb], singular, Present imperative

“pierce; vedhay; pierce; transfix; bleed; pierce; cut off; injure.”

diva < divaḥ < div

[noun], ablative, singular, masculine

“sky; Svarga; day; div [word]; heaven and earth; day; dawn.”



“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”

sṛjānas < sṛjānaḥ < sṛj

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“create; shoot; discharge; free; cause; throw; emit; send; produce; use; be born; make.”

tapiṣṭhena < tapiṣṭha

[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter

“burning; ablaze(p).”

heṣasā < heṣas

[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter

droghamitrān < droghamitra

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

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