Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 10.85.40

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

सोम॑: प्रथ॒मो वि॑विदे गन्ध॒र्वो वि॑विद॒ उत्त॑रः । तृ॒तीयो॑ अ॒ग्निष्टे॒ पति॑स्तु॒रीय॑स्ते मनुष्य॒जाः ॥
सोमः प्रथमो विविदे गन्धर्वो विविद उत्तरः । तृतीयो अग्निष्टे पतिस्तुरीयस्ते मनुष्यजाः ॥
somaḥ prathamo vivide gandharvo vivida uttaraḥ | tṛtīyo agniṣ ṭe patis turīyas te manuṣyajāḥ ||

English translation:

Soma first obtained the bride; the Gandharva obtained her next. Agni was your third husband; yourfourth (husband) is born of man.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Gandharva: the Sun


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): sūryā sāvitrī;
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): sūryā ;
Chandas (meter): bhuriganuṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

सोमः॑ । प्र॒थ॒मः । वि॒वि॒दे॒ । ग॒न्ध॒र्वः । वि॒वि॒दे॒ । उत्ऽत॑रः । तृ॒तीयः॑ । अ॒ग्निः । ते॒ । पतिः॑ । तु॒रीयः॑ । ते॒ । म॒नु॒ष्य॒ऽजाः ॥
सोमः । प्रथमः । विविदे । गन्धर्वः । विविदे । उत्तरः । तृतीयः । अग्निः । ते । पतिः । तुरीयः । ते । मनुष्यजाः ॥
somaḥ | prathamaḥ | vivide | gandharvaḥ | vivide | ut-taraḥ | tṛtīyaḥ | agniḥ | te | patiḥ | turīyaḥ | te | manuṣya-jāḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 10.85.40 English analysis of grammar]

somaḥ < soma

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Soma; moon; soma [word]; Candra.”

prathamo < prathamaḥ < prathama

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“first; prathama [word]; third; young; chief(a); best; antecedent.”

vivide < vid

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“find; detect; marry; get; think.”

gandharvo < gandharvaḥ < gandharva

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Gandharva; castor-oil plant; horse; Gandharva; Indian cuckoo.”

vivida < vivide < vid

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“find; detect; marry; get; think.”

uttaraḥ < uttara

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“northern; following; upper; additional; better; more(a); last; concluding; superior; later(a); uttara [word]; prevailing; future; left; northerly; northerly; higher; second; dominant; excellent; chief(a).”

tṛtīyo < tṛtīyaḥ < tṛtīya

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“third; neuter; tṛtīya [word]; homosexual.”

agniṣ < agniḥ < agni

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“fire; Agni; sacrificial fire; digestion; cautery; Plumbago zeylanica; fire; vahni; agni [word]; agnikarman; gold; three; jāraṇa; pyre; fireplace; heating.”

ṭe < te < tvad

[noun], genitive, singular


patis < patiḥ < pati

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“husband; overlord; king; deity; īśvara; ruler; pati [word]; commanding officer; leader; owner; mayor; lord.”

turīyas < turīyaḥ < turīya

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine


te < tvad

[noun], genitive, singular


manuṣyajāḥ < manuṣya

[noun], masculine

“man; people; man; manuṣya [word].”

manuṣyajāḥ < jāḥ <

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine


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