Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 10.68.11

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अ॒भि श्या॒वं न कृश॑नेभि॒रश्वं॒ नक्ष॑त्रेभिः पि॒तरो॒ द्याम॑पिंशन् । रात्र्यां॒ तमो॒ अद॑धु॒र्ज्योति॒रह॒न्बृह॒स्पति॑र्भि॒नदद्रिं॑ वि॒दद्गाः ॥
अभि श्यावं न कृशनेभिरश्वं नक्षत्रेभिः पितरो द्यामपिंशन् । रात्र्यां तमो अदधुर्ज्योतिरहन्बृहस्पतिर्भिनदद्रिं विदद्गाः ॥
abhi śyāvaṃ na kṛśanebhir aśvaṃ nakṣatrebhiḥ pitaro dyām apiṃśan | rātryāṃ tamo adadhur jyotir ahan bṛhaspatir bhinad adriṃ vidad gāḥ ||

English translation:

“The protecting (deities) have decorated the heaven with constellations as (men decorate) a brownhorse with golden trappings; they established darkness in the night and light in the day; Bṛhaspati fractured therock and recovered the cows.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Protecting deities: pitṛs, or progenitors, the Aṅgirasas, who appear to have beenamong the ancient astronomers, the inventors of the lunar asterisms (nakṣatras)

Details:

Ṛṣi (sage/seer): ayāsyaḥ [ayāsya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): bṛhaspatiḥ ;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अ॒भि । श्या॒वम् । न । कृश॑नेभिः । अश्व॑म् । नक्ष॑त्रेभिः । पि॒तरः॑ । द्याम् । अ॒पिं॒श॒न् । रात्र्या॑म् । तमः॑ । अद॑धुः । ज्योतिः॑ । अह॑न् । बृह॒स्पतिः॑ । भि॒नत् । अद्रि॑म् । वि॒दत् । गाः ॥
अभि । श्यावम् । न । कृशनेभिः । अश्वम् । नक्षत्रेभिः । पितरः । द्याम् । अपिंशन् । रात्र्याम् । तमः । अदधुः । ज्योतिः । अहन् । बृहस्पतिः । भिनत् । अद्रिम् । विदत् । गाः ॥
abhi | śyāvam | na | kṛśanebhiḥ | aśvam | nakṣatrebhiḥ | pitaraḥ | dyām | apiṃśan | rātryām | tamaḥ | adadhuḥ | jyotiḥ | ahan | bṛhaspatiḥ | bhinat | adrim | vidat | gāḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 10.68.11 English analysis of grammar]

abhi

[adverb]

“towards; on.”

śyāvaṃ < śyāvam < śyāva

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“brown; dark; śyāva [word].”

na

[adverb]

“not; like; no; na [word].”

kṛśanebhir < kṛśanebhiḥ < kṛśana

[noun], instrumental, plural, masculine

“pearl.”

aśvaṃ < aśvam < aśva

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“horse; aśva [word]; Aśva; stallion.”

nakṣatrebhiḥ < nakṣatra

[noun], instrumental, plural, masculine

“Nakṣatra; celestial body; nakṣatra [word]; pearl.”

pitaro < pitaraḥ < pitṛ

[noun], nominative, plural

“father; Pitṛ; ancestor; parent; paternal ancestor; pitṛ [word]; forefather.”

dyām < div

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“sky; Svarga; day; div [word]; heaven and earth; day; dawn.”

apiṃśan < piś

[verb], plural, Imperfect

“decorate.”

rātryāṃ < rātryām < rātri

[noun], locative, singular, feminine

“night; night; rātri [word]; turmeric; Rātri; day; night.”

tamo < tamaḥ < tamas

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“dark; darkness; Tamas; tamas [word]; faint; tamas; gloom; ignorance.”

adadhur < adadhuḥ < dhā

[verb], plural, Imperfect

“put; give; cause; get; hold; make; provide; lend; wear; install; have; enter (a state); supply; hold; take; show.”

jyotir < jyotiḥ < jyotis

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“light; star; luminosity; fire; jyotis [word]; digestion; planet; light; sunlight.”

ahan < ahar

[noun], locative, singular, neuter

“day; day; ahar [word]; day; day.”

bṛhaspatir < bṛhaspatiḥ < bṛhaspati

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Brihaspati; Jupiter; Bṛhaspati.”

bhinad < bhinat < bhid

[verb], singular, Present injunctive

“break; incise; burst; divide; cut; cleave; destroy; cure; disturb; lance; break; distinguish; disclose; pierce; tear; separate; transgress; break open; scratch; penetrate; sever; bribe; grind; betray; fester; strike.”

adriṃ < adrim < adri

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“mountain; rock; seven; stone; adri; grindstone; adri; rock.”

vidad < vidat < vid

[verb], singular, Aorist inj. (proh.)

“find; detect; marry; get; think.”

gāḥ < go

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“cow; cattle; go [word]; Earth; bull; floor; milk; beam; sunbeam; leather; hide; horn; language; bowstring; earth; ox; Svarga.”

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