Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 10.65.4

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

स्व॑र्णरम॒न्तरि॑क्षाणि रोच॒ना द्यावा॒भूमी॑ पृथि॒वीं स्क॑म्भु॒रोज॑सा । पृ॒क्षा इ॑व म॒हय॑न्तः सुरा॒तयो॑ दे॒वाः स्त॑वन्ते॒ मनु॑षाय सू॒रय॑: ॥
स्वर्णरमन्तरिक्षाणि रोचना द्यावाभूमी पृथिवीं स्कम्भुरोजसा । पृक्षा इव महयन्तः सुरातयो देवाः स्तवन्ते मनुषाय सूरयः ॥
svarṇaram antarikṣāṇi rocanā dyāvābhūmī pṛthivīṃ skambhur ojasā | pṛkṣā iva mahayantaḥ surātayo devāḥ stavante manuṣāya sūrayaḥ ||

English translation:

“They have sustained by their strength the leader of all (the sun), the luminaries of the firmament,heaven and earth, the outstretched (firmament), honouring (their worshippers) like those who give food (to thepoor), the genitive rous gods bestowing wealth on man are glorified (at this sacrifice).”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Those who give food to thepoor: bringing riches into contact with the poor; derived from pṛc, to touch


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): vasukarṇo vāsukraḥ [vasukarṇa vāsukra];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): viśvedevā:;
Chandas (meter): nicṛjjagatī ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

स्वः॑ऽनरम् । अ॒न्तरि॑क्षाणि । रो॒च॒ना । द्यावा॒भूमी॒ इति॑ । पृ॒थि॒वीम् । स्क॒म्भुः॒ । ओज॑सा । पृ॒क्षाःऽइ॑व । म॒हय॑न्तः । सु॒ऽरा॒तयः॑ । दे॒वाः । स्त॒व॒न्ते॒ । मनु॑षाय । सू॒रयः॑ ॥
स्वःनरम् । अन्तरिक्षाणि । रोचना । द्यावाभूमी इति । पृथिवीम् । स्कम्भुः । ओजसा । पृक्षाःइव । महयन्तः । सुरातयः । देवाः । स्तवन्ते । मनुषाय । सूरयः ॥
svaḥ-naram | antarikṣāṇi | rocanā | dyāvābhūmī iti | pṛthivīm | skambhuḥ | ojasā | pṛkṣāḥ-iva | mahayantaḥ | su-rātayaḥ | devāḥ | stavante | manuṣāya | sūrayaḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 10.65.4 English analysis of grammar]

svarṇaram < svarṇṛ

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

antarikṣāṇi < antarikṣa

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter

“sky; atmosphere; air; abhra.”

rocanā < rocana

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter

“light; celestial sphere.”


[noun], accusative, dual, feminine

“heaven and earth.”

pṛthivīṃ < pṛthivīm < pṛthivī

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine

“Earth; pṛthivī; floor; Earth; earth; pṛthivī [word]; land.”

skambhur < skambhuḥ < skambh

[verb], plural, Perfect indicative

“fixate; establish.”

ojasā < ojas

[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter

“strength; power; ojas; ojas [word]; potency; might.”

pṛkṣā < pṛkṣāḥ < pṛkṣa

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“strong; full of life.”



“like; as it were; somehow; just so.”

mahayantaḥ < mahay < √mah

[verb noun], nominative, plural


surātayo < su


“very; well; good; nicely; beautiful; su; early; quite.”

surātayo < rātayaḥ < rāti

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“gift; bounty; favor.”

devā < deva

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

stavante < stu

[verb], plural, Present indikative

“laud; praise; declare; stu.”

manuṣāya < manuṣa

[noun], dative, singular, masculine

sūrayaḥ < sūri

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine


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