Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 10.43.7

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

आपो॒ न सिन्धु॑म॒भि यत्स॒मक्ष॑र॒न्त्सोमा॑स॒ इन्द्रं॑ कु॒ल्या इ॑व ह्र॒दम् । वर्ध॑न्ति॒ विप्रा॒ महो॑ अस्य॒ साद॑ने॒ यवं॒ न वृ॒ष्टिर्दि॒व्येन॒ दानु॑ना ॥
आपो न सिन्धुमभि यत्समक्षरन्त्सोमास इन्द्रं कुल्या इव ह्रदम् । वर्धन्ति विप्रा महो अस्य सादने यवं न वृष्टिर्दिव्येन दानुना ॥
āpo na sindhum abhi yat samakṣaran somāsa indraṃ kulyā iva hradam | vardhanti viprā maho asya sādane yavaṃ na vṛṣṭir divyena dānunā ||

English translation:

“When the Soma flows towards Indra, as waters to the sea, as rivers to a lake, then the piousworshippers augment his greatness in the (sacrificial) abode, as the rain by its heavenly gift, (augments) thebarley.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

The rain: the sender of rain, vṛṣṭiḥ = varṣitā


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): kṛṣṇaḥ [kṛṣṇa];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): virāḍjagatī ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

आपः॑ । न । सिन्धु॑म् । अ॒भि । यत् । स॒म्ऽअक्ष॑रन् । सोमा॑सः । इन्द्र॑म् । कु॒ल्याःऽइ॑व । ह्र॒दम् । वर्ध॑न्ति । विप्राः॑ । महः॑ । अ॒स्य॒ । साद॑ने । यव॑म् । न । वृ॒ष्टिः । दि॒व्येन॑ । दानु॑ना ॥
आपः । न । सिन्धुम् । अभि । यत् । सम्अक्षरन् । सोमासः । इन्द्रम् । कुल्याःइव । ह्रदम् । वर्धन्ति । विप्राः । महः । अस्य । सादने । यवम् । न । वृष्टिः । दिव्येन । दानुना ॥
āpaḥ | na | sindhum | abhi | yat | sam-akṣaran | somāsaḥ | indram | kulyāḥ-iva | hradam | vardhanti | viprāḥ | mahaḥ | asya | sādane | yavam | na | vṛṣṭiḥ | divyena | dānunā

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 10.43.7 English analysis of grammar]

āpo < āpaḥ < ap

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“water; body of water; water; ap [word]; juice; jala.”



“not; like; no; na [word].”

sindhum < sindhu

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“river; Indus; sindhu [word].”



“towards; on.”



“once [when]; because; that; if; how.”



“sam; together; together; saṃ.”

akṣaran < kṣar

[verb], plural, Root aorist (Ind.)

“run; melt.”

somāsa < somāsaḥ < soma

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“Soma; moon; soma [word]; Candra.”

indraṃ < indram < indra

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

kulyā < kulyāḥ < kulyā

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“rivulet; canal.”



“like; as it were; somehow; just so.”

hradam < hrada

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“lake; pool; hrada [word]; body of water; pool.”

vardhanti < vṛdh

[verb], plural, Present indikative

“increase; grow; vṛdh; increase; succeed; strengthen; grow up; spread.”

viprā < viprāḥ < vipra

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“Brahmin; poet; singer; priest; guru; Vipra.”

maho < mahaḥ < mahas

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“greatness; festival; glory; reward; gladness.”

asya < idam

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

sādane < sādana

[noun], locative, singular, neuter

“home; dwelling; seat.”

yavaṃ < yavam < yava

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“barley; yava; barleycorn; yava [word]; yava; yavakṣāra; grain.”



“not; like; no; na [word].”

vṛṣṭir < vṛṣṭiḥ < vṛṣṭi

[noun], nominative, singular, feminine

“rain; shower; rainy season.”

divyena < divya

[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter

“divine; celestial; divine; heavenly; divine; beautiful; rain; agreeable.”

dānunā < dānu

[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter

“Dānu; dew; drop.”

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