Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 10.27.8

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

गावो॒ यवं॒ प्रयु॑ता अ॒र्यो अ॑क्ष॒न्ता अ॑पश्यं स॒हगो॑पा॒श्चर॑न्तीः । हवा॒ इद॒र्यो अ॒भित॒: समा॑य॒न्किय॑दासु॒ स्वप॑तिश्छन्दयाते ॥
गावो यवं प्रयुता अर्यो अक्षन्ता अपश्यं सहगोपाश्चरन्तीः । हवा इदर्यो अभितः समायन्कियदासु स्वपतिश्छन्दयाते ॥
gāvo yavam prayutā aryo akṣan tā apaśyaṃ sahagopāś carantīḥ | havā id aryo abhitaḥ sam āyan kiyad āsu svapatiś chandayāte ||

English translation:

“The assembled cattle feed upon the barley; I their master have beheld them grazing, tended by theherdsman; when called, they collect around their lord; when they approach, how much milk does he desire (totake)?”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): vasukra aindraḥ [vasukra aindra];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

गाव॑ । यव॑म् । प्रऽयु॑ताः । अ॒र्यः । अ॒क्ष॒न् । ताः । अ॒प॒श्य॒म् । स॒हऽगो॑पाः । चर॑न्तीः । हवाः॑ । इत् । अ॒र्यः । अ॒भितः॑ । सम् । आ॒य॒न् । किय॑त् । आ॒सु॒ । स्वऽप॑तिः । छ॒न्द॒या॒ते॒ ॥
गाव । यवम् । प्रयुताः । अर्यः । अक्षन् । ताः । अपश्यम् । सहगोपाः । चरन्तीः । हवाः । इत् । अर्यः । अभितः । सम् । आयन् । कियत् । आसु । स्वपतिः । छन्दयाते ॥
gāva | yavam | pra-yutāḥ | aryaḥ | akṣan | tāḥ | apaśyam | saha-gopāḥ | carantīḥ | havāḥ | it | aryaḥ | abhitaḥ | sam | āyan | kiyat | āsu | sva-patiḥ | chandayāte

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 10.27.8 English analysis of grammar]

gāvo < gāvaḥ < go

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“cow; cattle; go [word]; Earth; bull; floor; milk; beam; sunbeam; leather; hide; horn; language; bowstring; earth; ox; Svarga.”

yavam < yava

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“barley; yava; barleycorn; yava [word]; yava; yavakṣāra; grain.”

prayutā < prayutāḥ < prayuta

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine


aryo < aryaḥ < ari

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

akṣan < ghas

[verb], plural, Root aorist (Ind.)


< tāḥ < tad

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

apaśyaṃ < apaśyam < paś

[verb], singular, Imperfect

“see; view; watch; meet; observe; think of; look; examine; behold; visit; understand.”

sahagopāś < saha


“together; together; with; jointly; together; saha [word]; along.”

sahagopāś < gopāḥ < gopā

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“herder; defender.”

carantīḥ < car

[verb noun], accusative, plural

“car; wander; perform; travel; bore; produce; make; dwell; dig; act; observe; enter (a state); observe; cause; crop; behave; practice; heed; process; administer.”

havā < havāḥ < hava

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine




“indeed; assuredly; entirely.”

aryo < aryaḥ < ari

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

abhitaḥ < abhitas


“about; around; regarding; about.”



“sam; together; together; saṃ.”

āyan < i

[verb], plural, Imperfect

“go; travel; enter (a state); return; walk; continue; reach; ask.”

kiyad < kiyat

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“some(a); some(a).”

āsu < idam

[noun], locative, plural, feminine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

svapatiś < sva


“own(a); respective(a); akin(p); sva [word]; individual; present(a); independent.”

svapatiś < patiḥ < pati

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“husband; overlord; king; deity; īśvara; ruler; pati [word]; commanding officer; leader; owner; mayor; lord.”

chandayāte < chanday < √chand

[verb], singular, Present conjunctive (subjunctive)


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