Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 10.12.4

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अर्चा॑मि वां॒ वर्धा॒यापो॑ घृतस्नू॒ द्यावा॑भूमी शृणु॒तं रो॑दसी मे । अहा॒ यद्द्यावोऽसु॑नीति॒मय॒न्मध्वा॑ नो॒ अत्र॑ पि॒तरा॑ शिशीताम् ॥
अर्चामि वां वर्धायापो घृतस्नू द्यावाभूमी शृणुतं रोदसी मे । अहा यद्द्यावोऽसुनीतिमयन्मध्वा नो अत्र पितरा शिशीताम् ॥
arcāmi vāṃ vardhāyāpo ghṛtasnū dyāvābhūmī śṛṇutaṃ rodasī me | ahā yad dyāvo 'sunītim ayan madhvā no atra pitarā śiśītām ||

English translation:

“I worship you, waters that pour forth ghī, and you, heaven and earth, for your increase; hear me, youworlds; when worshippers at the daily or nightly rite proceed to their pious purpose, then may the parents (of all)sanctify us with ambrosia.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): havirdhāna āṅgiḥ [havirdhāna āṅgi];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): agniḥ ;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अर्चा॑मि । वा॒म् । वर्धा॑य । अपः॑ । घृ॒त॒स्नू॒ इति॑ घृतऽस्नू । द्यावा॑भूमी॒ इति॑ । शृ॒णु॒तम् । रो॒द॒सी॒ इति॑ । मे॒ । अहा॑ । यत् । द्यावः॑ । असु॑ऽनीतिम् । अय॑न् । मध्वा॑ । नः॒ । अत्र॑ । पि॒तरा॑ । शि॒शी॒ता॒म् ॥
अर्चामि । वाम् । वर्धाय । अपः । घृतस्नू इति घृतस्नू । द्यावाभूमी इति । शृणुतम् । रोदसी इति । मे । अहा । यत् । द्यावः । असुनीतिम् । अयन् । मध्वा । नः । अत्र । पितरा । शिशीताम् ॥
arcāmi | vām | vardhāya | apaḥ | ghṛtasnūitighṛta-snū | dyāvābhūmī iti | śṛṇutam | rodasī iti | me | ahā | yat | dyāvaḥ | asu-nītim | ayan | madhvā | naḥ | atra | pitarā | śiśītām

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 10.12.4 English analysis of grammar]

arcāmi < arc

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“sing; worship; honor; praise; welcome.”

vāṃ < vām < tvad

[noun], genitive, dual


vardhāyāpo < vardhāya < vardha

[noun], dative, singular, masculine

vardhāyāpo < apaḥ < apas

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“work; deed.”

ghṛtasnū < ghṛtasnu

[noun], vocative, dual, masculine


[noun], nominative, singular, feminine

“heaven and earth.”

śṛṇutaṃ < śṛṇutam < śru

[verb], dual, Present imperative

“listen; come to know; hear; hear; listen; study; heed; learn.”

rodasī < rodas

[noun], vocative, dual, neuter

“heaven and earth; Earth.”

me < mad

[noun], genitive, singular

“I; mine.”

ahā < aha

[noun], nominative, plural, neuter

“day; aha [word]; day.”

yad < yat


“once [when]; because; that; if; how.”

dyāvo < dyāvaḥ < div

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“sky; Svarga; day; div [word]; heaven and earth; day; dawn.”

'sunītim < asunītim < asunīti

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine


ayan < i

[verb], plural, Present conjunctive (subjunctive)

“go; travel; enter (a state); return; walk; continue; reach; ask.”

madhvā < madhu

[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter

“honey; alcohol; sweet; nectar; madhu [word].”

no < naḥ < mad

[noun], accusative, plural

“I; mine.”



“now; there; then; then; there; here; here; in the following; alternatively; now.”

pitarā < pitṛ

[noun], nominative, dual, masculine

“father; Pitṛ; ancestor; parent; paternal ancestor; pitṛ [word]; forefather.”

śiśītām < śā

[verb], dual, Present imperative

“sharpen; whet; strengthen.”

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