Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 10.3.7

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

स आ व॑क्षि॒ महि॑ न॒ आ च॑ सत्सि दि॒वस्पृ॑थि॒व्योर॑र॒तिर्यु॑व॒त्योः । अ॒ग्निः सु॒तुक॑: सु॒तुके॑भि॒रश्वै॒ रभ॑स्वद्भी॒ रभ॑स्वाँ॒ एह ग॑म्याः ॥
स आ वक्षि महि न आ च सत्सि दिवस्पृथिव्योररतिर्युवत्योः । अग्निः सुतुकः सुतुकेभिरश्वै रभस्वद्भी रभस्वाँ एह गम्याः ॥
sa ā vakṣi mahi na ā ca satsi divaspṛthivyor aratir yuvatyoḥ | agniḥ sutukaḥ sutukebhir aśvai rabhasvadbhī rabhasvām̐ eha gamyāḥ ||

English translation:

“Do you, great Agni, bring the gods to our (sacrifice); do you, the messenger of the young heaven andearth, sit down (at our sacrifice). Agni, who are easily found, who are rapid in movement, do you come with yourdocile and rapid steeds (to our rite).”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

The young heaven and earth: ā ca satsi divaspṛthivyoḥ aratir yuvatyoḥ:yuvatyoḥ = mutually mixed, parasparam miśritayoḥ, or young feminine les, taruṇyoḥ


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): tritaḥ [trita];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): agniḥ ;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

सः । आ । व॒क्षि॒ । महि॑ । नः॒ । आ । च॒ । स॒त्सि॒ । दि॒वःपृ॑थि॒व्योः । अ॒र॒तिः । यु॒व॒त्योः । अ॒ग्निः । सु॒ऽतुकः॑ । सु॒त्ऽउके॑भिः । अश्वैः॑ । रभ॑स्वत्ऽभिः । रभ॑स्वान् । आ । इ॒ह । ग॒म्याः॒ ॥
सः । आ । वक्षि । महि । नः । आ । च । सत्सि । दिवःपृथिव्योः । अरतिः । युवत्योः । अग्निः । सुतुकः । सुत्उकेभिः । अश्वैः । रभस्वत्भिः । रभस्वान् । आ । इह । गम्याः ॥
saḥ | ā | vakṣi | mahi | naḥ | ā | ca | satsi | divaḥpṛthivyoḥ | aratiḥ | yuvatyoḥ | agniḥ | su-tukaḥ | sut-ukebhiḥ | aśvaiḥ | rabhasvat-bhiḥ | rabhasvān | ā | iha | gamyāḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 10.3.7 English analysis of grammar]

sa < saḥ < tad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”



“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”

vakṣi < vah

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“transport; bring; marry; run; drive; vāhay; drive; run; pull; nirvāpay; blow; transport; discharge; assume; remove.”


[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“great; firm.”

na < naḥ < mad

[noun], dative, plural

“I; mine.”



“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”



“and; besides; then; now; even.”

satsi < sad

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“sit down; break down; slow; sink; crumble; fracture; perish; ride; stop; besiege; tire.”

divaspṛthivyor < divaspṛthivyoḥ < divaspṛthivī

[noun], genitive, dual, feminine

“heaven and earth.”

aratir < aratiḥ < arati

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine


yuvatyoḥ < yuvati

[noun], genitive, dual, feminine

“girl; woman.”

agniḥ < agni

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“fire; Agni; sacrificial fire; digestion; cautery; Plumbago zeylanica; fire; vahni; agni [word]; agnikarman; gold; three; jāraṇa; pyre; fireplace; heating.”

sutukaḥ < sutuka

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

sutukebhir < sutukebhiḥ < sutuka

[noun], instrumental, plural, masculine

aśvai < aśvaiḥ < aśva

[noun], instrumental, plural, masculine

“horse; aśva [word]; Aśva; stallion.”

rabhasvadbhī < rabhasvadbhiḥ < rabhasvat

[noun], instrumental, plural, masculine

rabhasvāṃ < rabhasvat

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

eha < ā


“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”

eha < iha


“here; now; in this world; now; below; there; here; just.”

gamyāḥ < gam

[verb], singular, Aorist optative

“go; situate; enter (a state); travel; disappear; [in]; elapse; leave; reach; vanish; love; walk; approach; issue; hop on; gasify; get; come; die; drain; spread; transform; happen; discharge; ride; to be located; run; detect; refer; go; shall; drive.”

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