Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 9.97.41

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

म॒हत्तत्सोमो॑ महि॒षश्च॑कारा॒पां यद्गर्भोऽवृ॑णीत दे॒वान् । अद॑धा॒दिन्द्रे॒ पव॑मान॒ ओजोऽज॑नय॒त्सूर्ये॒ ज्योति॒रिन्दु॑: ॥
महत्तत्सोमो महिषश्चकारापां यद्गर्भोऽवृणीत देवान् । अदधादिन्द्रे पवमान ओजोऽजनयत्सूर्ये ज्योतिरिन्दुः ॥
mahat tat somo mahiṣaś cakārāpāṃ yad garbho 'vṛṇīta devān | adadhād indre pavamāna ojo 'janayat sūrye jyotir induḥ ||

English translation:

“The mighty Soma has achieved this mighty (work) that, being the germ of the waters, he has nourished the gods; purified he has given strength to Indra; Indu has genitive rated the light in the sun.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): parāśaraḥ śākttyaḥ [parāśara śākttya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): pavamānaḥ somaḥ ;
Chandas (meter): svarāḍārcītriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

म॒हत् । तत् । सोमः॑ । म॒हि॒षः । च॒का॒र॒ । अ॒पाम् । यत् । गर्भः॑ । अवृ॑णीत । दे॒वान् । अद॑धात् । इन्द्रे॑ । पव॑मानः । ओजः॑ । अज॑नयत् । सूर्ये॑ । ज्योतिः॑ । इन्दुः॑ ॥
महत् । तत् । सोमः । महिषः । चकार । अपाम् । यत् । गर्भः । अवृणीत । देवान् । अदधात् । इन्द्रे । पवमानः । ओजः । अजनयत् । सूर्ये । ज्योतिः । इन्दुः ॥
mahat | tat | somaḥ | mahiṣaḥ | cakāra | apām | yat | garbhaḥ | avṛṇīta | devān | adadhāt | indre | pavamānaḥ | ojaḥ | ajanayat | sūrye | jyotiḥ | induḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 9.97.41 English analysis of grammar]


[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“large; eminent; great; loud; dangerous; strong; long; high; much(a); mahant [word]; ample; very; great; adult; important; dark; high; abundant; violent; remarkable; mighty; big; long.”

tat < tad

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

somo < somaḥ < soma

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Soma; moon; soma [word]; Candra.”

mahiṣaś < mahiṣaḥ < mahiṣa

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Old World buffalo; Mahiṣa; Mahiṣa.”

cakārāpāṃ < cakāra < kṛ

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“make; perform; cause; produce; shape; construct; do; put; fill into; use; fuel; transform; bore; act; write; create; prepare; administer; dig; prepare; treat; take effect; add; trace; put on; process; treat; heed; hire; act; produce; assume; eat; ignite; chop; treat; obey; manufacture; appoint; evacuate; choose; understand; insert; happen; envelop; weigh; observe; practice; lend; bring; duplicate; plant; kṛ; concentrate; mix; knot; join; take; provide; utter; compose.”

cakārāpāṃ < apām < ap

[noun], genitive, plural, feminine

“water; body of water; water; ap [word]; juice; jala.”

yad < yat


“once [when]; because; that; if; how.”

garbho < garbhaḥ < garbha

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“fetus; garbha; inside; cavity; embryo; uterus; child; pit; garbhadruti; filling; pregnancy; room; abdomen; fertilization; inside; hole; baby; calyx; midst.”

'vṛṇīta < avṛṇīta < vṛ

[verb], singular, Imperfect

“choose; ask.”

devān < deva

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

adadhād < adadhāt < dhā

[verb], singular, Imperfect

“put; give; cause; get; hold; make; provide; lend; wear; install; have; enter (a state); supply; hold; take; show.”

indre < indra

[noun], locative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

pavamāna < pavamānaḥ <

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“purify; filter; blow; purify; purge; sift.”

ojo < ojaḥ < ojas

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“strength; power; ojas; ojas [word]; potency; might.”

'janayat < ajanayat < janay < √jan

[verb], singular, Imperfect

“cause; give birth; produce; beget; generate; originate; create; create; make.”

sūrye < sūrya

[noun], locative, singular, masculine

“sun; Surya; sūrya [word]; right nostril; twelve; Calotropis gigantea Beng.; sūryakānta; sunlight; best.”

jyotir < jyotiḥ < jyotis

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“light; star; luminosity; fire; jyotis [word]; digestion; planet; light; sunlight.”

induḥ < indu

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“moon; Soma; drop; anusvāra; one; Candra; silver; camphor; point; juice.”

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