Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 9.97.40

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अक्रा॑न्त्समु॒द्रः प्र॑थ॒मे विध॑र्मञ्ज॒नय॑न्प्र॒जा भुव॑नस्य॒ राजा॑ । वृषा॑ प॒वित्रे॒ अधि॒ सानो॒ अव्ये॑ बृ॒हत्सोमो॑ वावृधे सुवा॒न इन्दु॑: ॥
अक्रान्त्समुद्रः प्रथमे विधर्मञ्जनयन्प्रजा भुवनस्य राजा । वृषा पवित्रे अधि सानो अव्ये बृहत्सोमो वावृधे सुवान इन्दुः ॥
akrān samudraḥ prathame vidharmañ janayan prajā bhuvanasya rājā | vṛṣā pavitre adhi sāno avye bṛhat somo vāvṛdhe suvāna induḥ ||

English translation:

“The ocean, the royal (Soma), genitive rating progeny in the outstretched (firmament, the) supporter of the water traverses the universe; the showerer (of benefits), the brilliant Soma when effused increases abundantly in the elevated woollen filter.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): parāśaraḥ śākttyaḥ [parāśara śākttya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): pavamānaḥ somaḥ ;
Chandas (meter): bhuriktriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अक्रा॑न् । स॒मु॒द्रः । प्र॒थ॒मे । विऽध॑र्मन् । ज॒नय॑न् । प्र॒ऽजाः । भुव॑नस्य । राजा॑ । वृषा॑ । प॒वित्रे॑ । अधि॑ । सानौ॑ । अव्ये॑ । बृ॒हत् । सोमः॑ । व॒वृ॒धे॒ । सु॒वा॒नः । इन्दुः॑ ॥
अक्रान् । समुद्रः । प्रथमे । विधर्मन् । जनयन् । प्रजाः । भुवनस्य । राजा । वृषा । पवित्रे । अधि । सानौ । अव्ये । बृहत् । सोमः । ववृधे । सुवानः । इन्दुः ॥
akrān | samudraḥ | prathame | vi-dharman | janayan | pra-jāḥ | bhuvanasya | rājā | vṛṣā | pavitre | adhi | sānau | avye | bṛhat | somaḥ | vavṛdhe | suvānaḥ | induḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 9.97.40 English analysis of grammar]

akrān < krand

[verb], singular, Athematic s aor. (Ind.)

“roar; neigh; cry; howl; shout.”

samudraḥ < samudra

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“ocean; Samudra; sea; samudra [word]; four.”

prathame < prathama

[noun], locative, singular, neuter

“first; prathama [word]; third; young; chief(a); best; antecedent.”

vidharmañ < vidharman

[noun], locative, singular, neuter

“receptacle; enclosure.”

janayan < janay < √jan

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“cause; give birth; produce; beget; generate; originate; create; create; make.”

prajā < prajāḥ < prajā

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“people; offspring; being; national; man; prajā [word]; creature; child; descendants; population; race; animal.”

bhuvanasya < bhuvana

[noun], genitive, singular, neuter

“Earth; being; world; bhuvana [word].”

rājā < rājan

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“king; Kshatriya; rājan [word]; best; rājāvarta; Yakṣa.”

vṛṣā < vṛṣan

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“bull; Indra; stallion; Vṛṣan; man.”

pavitre < pavitra

[noun], locative, singular, neuter




“on; from; accordingly.”

sāno < sānu

[noun], locative, singular, masculine

“tableland; ridge; peak; back; ridge; guru.”

avye < avya

[noun], locative, singular, masculine


[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“large; great; loud; high; much(a); exalted; abundant; intensive; strong; huge.”

somo < somaḥ < soma

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Soma; moon; soma [word]; Candra.”

vāvṛdhe < vṛdh

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“increase; grow; vṛdh; increase; succeed; strengthen; grow up; spread.”

suvāna < suvānaḥ < su

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“press out; su.”

induḥ < indu

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“moon; Soma; drop; anusvāra; one; Candra; silver; camphor; point; juice.”

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