Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 9.97.9

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

स रं॑हत उरुगा॒यस्य॑ जू॒तिं वृथा॒ क्रीळ॑न्तं मिमते॒ न गाव॑: । प॒री॒ण॒सं कृ॑णुते ति॒ग्मशृ॑ङ्गो॒ दिवा॒ हरि॒र्ददृ॑शे॒ नक्त॑मृ॒ज्रः ॥
स रंहत उरुगायस्य जूतिं वृथा क्रीळन्तं मिमते न गावः । परीणसं कृणुते तिग्मशृङ्गो दिवा हरिर्ददृशे नक्तमृज्रः ॥
sa raṃhata urugāyasya jūtiṃ vṛthā krīḻantam mimate na gāvaḥ | parīṇasaṃ kṛṇute tigmaśṛṅgo divā harir dadṛśe naktam ṛjraḥ ||

English translation:

“He moves rapidly (following) the path of (him) the much-praised, (other) goers cannot overtake him (though he is) moving easily; sharp-horned he displays manifold (radiance); the Soma appears green-tinted by day, and clearly visible at night.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

The Soma appears green-tinted by day: Soma is not visible in the daylight;

Ṛjra = straight going, ṛju-gāmī, i.e., clearly visible, vispaṣṭaḥ = red or brown


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): vṛṣagaṇo vāsiṣṭhaḥ [vṛṣagaṇa vāsiṣṭha];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): pavamānaḥ somaḥ ;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

सः । रं॒ह॒ते॒ । उ॒रु॒ऽगा॒यस्य॑ । जू॒तिम् । वृथा॑ । क्रीळ॑न्तम् । मि॒म॒ते॒ । न । गावः॑ । प॒री॒ण॒सम् । कृ॒णु॒ते॒ । ति॒ग्मऽशृ॑ङ्गः । दिवा॑ । हरिः॑ । ददृ॑शे । नक्त॑म् । ऋ॒ज्रः ॥
सः । रंहते । उरुगायस्य । जूतिम् । वृथा । क्रीळन्तम् । मिमते । न । गावः । परीणसम् । कृणुते । तिग्मशृङ्गः । दिवा । हरिः । ददृशे । नक्तम् । ऋज्रः ॥
saḥ | raṃhate | uru-gāyasya | jūtim | vṛthā | krīḷantam | mimate | na | gāvaḥ | parīṇasam | kṛṇute | tigma-śṛṅgaḥ | divā | hariḥ | dadṛśe | naktam | ṛjraḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 9.97.9 English analysis of grammar]

sa < tad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

raṃhata < raṃhate < raṃh

[verb], singular, Present indikative


urugāyasya < urugāya

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

jūtiṃ < jūtim < jūti

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine

“jūti [word].”



“vainly; incorrectly; unnecessarily; at will.”

krīᄆantam < krīḍantam < krīḍ

[verb noun], accusative, singular

“frolic; love; play; amuse.”

mimate <

[verb], plural, Present indikative

“weigh; measure; total; last; weigh; measure; give away; transform.”



“not; like; no; na [word].”

gāvaḥ < go

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“cow; cattle; go [word]; Earth; bull; floor; milk; beam; sunbeam; leather; hide; horn; language; bowstring; earth; ox; Svarga.”

parīṇasaṃ < parīṇasam < parīṇas

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine


kṛṇute < kṛ

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“make; perform; cause; produce; shape; construct; do; put; fill into; use; fuel; transform; bore; act; write; create; prepare; administer; dig; prepare; treat; take effect; add; trace; put on; process; treat; heed; hire; act; produce; assume; eat; ignite; chop; treat; obey; manufacture; appoint; evacuate; choose; understand; insert; happen; envelop; weigh; observe; practice; lend; bring; duplicate; plant; kṛ; concentrate; mix; knot; join; take; provide; utter; compose.”

tigmaśṛṅgo < tigma


“sharp; pointed; fiery.”

tigmaśṛṅgo < śṛṅgaḥ < śṛṅga

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“peak; horn; tusk; śṛṅga [word].”



“by day; divā [indecl.].”

harir < hariḥ < hari

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“reddish brown; yellow; pale; yellow; aureate.”

dadṛśe < dṛś

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“see; observe; view; visit; look; learn; meet; read; teach; examine; watch; see; notice; perceive; diagnose; travel to; show; detect; know; know; understand; understand; follow.”

naktam < nakta

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“night; night.”

ṛjraḥ < ṛjra

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine


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