Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 8.101.16

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

व॒चो॒विदं॒ वाच॑मुदी॒रय॑न्तीं॒ विश्वा॑भिर्धी॒भिरु॑प॒तिष्ठ॑मानाम् । दे॒वीं दे॒वेभ्य॒: पर्ये॒युषीं॒ गामा मा॑वृक्त॒ मर्त्यो॑ द॒भ्रचे॑ताः ॥
वचोविदं वाचमुदीरयन्तीं विश्वाभिर्धीभिरुपतिष्ठमानाम् । देवीं देवेभ्यः पर्येयुषीं गामा मावृक्त मर्त्यो दभ्रचेताः ॥
vacovidaṃ vācam udīrayantīṃ viśvābhir dhībhir upatiṣṭhamānām | devīṃ devebhyaḥ pary eyuṣīṃ gām ā māvṛkta martyo dabhracetāḥ ||

English translation:

“The divine cow, who herself utters, speech and gives speech to others, who comes attended by everykind of utterance, who helps me for my worship of the gods-- it is only the fool who abandons her.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Gives speechto others: men are silent while they are hungry,but begin to speak when they have eaten food


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): jamadagnibhārgavaḥ [jamadagnibhārgava];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): gauḥ ;
Chandas (meter): virāṭtrisṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

व॒चः॒ऽविद॑म् । वाच॑म् । उ॒त्ऽई॒रय॑न्तीम् । विश्वा॑भिः । धी॒भिः । उ॒प॒ऽतिष्ठ॑मानाम् । दे॒वीम् । दे॒वेभ्यः॑ । परि॑ । आ॒ऽई॒युषी॑म् । गाम् । आ । मा॒ । अ॒वृ॒क्त॒ । मर्त्यः॑ । द॒भ्रऽचे॑ताः ॥
वचःविदम् । वाचम् । उत्ईरयन्तीम् । विश्वाभिः । धीभिः । उपतिष्ठमानाम् । देवीम् । देवेभ्यः । परि । आईयुषीम् । गाम् । आ । मा । अवृक्त । मर्त्यः । दभ्रचेताः ॥
vacaḥ-vidam | vācam | ut-īrayantīm | viśvābhiḥ | dhībhiḥ | upa-tiṣṭhamānām | devīm | devebhyaḥ | pari | āīyuṣīm | gām | ā | mā | avṛkta | martyaḥ | dabhra-cetāḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 8.101.16 English analysis of grammar]

vacovidaṃ < vacaḥ < vacas

[noun], neuter

“statement; command; speech; words; advice; word; voice.”

vacovidaṃ < vidam < vid

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine


vācam < vāc

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine

“speech; statement; voice; voice; speech; language; vāc [word]; word; literary composition; conversation; sound; Sarasvati; cry; assurance; spell.”

udīrayantīṃ < udīrayantīm < udīray < √īr

[verb noun], accusative, singular

“state; name; agitate; define; recommend; cause; shoot; describe; intensify.”

viśvābhir < viśvābhiḥ < viśva

[noun], instrumental, plural, feminine

“all(a); whole; complete; each(a); viśva [word]; completely; wholly.”

dhībhir < dhībhiḥ < dhī

[noun], instrumental, plural, feminine

“intelligence; prayer; mind; insight; idea; hymn; purpose; art; knowledge.”

upatiṣṭhamānām < upasthā < √sthā

[verb noun], accusative, singular

“approach; approach; worship; serve; originate; enter (a state); entertain; arise; stand; happen; become.”

devīṃ < devīm < devī

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine

“Parvati; queen; goddess; Devi.”

devebhyaḥ < deva

[noun], ablative, plural, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

pary < pari


“from; about; around.”

eyuṣīṃ < eyuṣīm < i

[verb noun], accusative, singular

“go; travel; enter (a state); return; walk; continue; reach; ask.”

gām < go

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine

“cow; cattle; go [word]; Earth; bull; floor; milk; beam; sunbeam; leather; hide; horn; language; bowstring; earth; ox; Svarga.”



“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”

māvṛkta < < mad

[noun], accusative, singular

“I; mine.”

māvṛkta < avṛkta < vṛj

[verb], singular, Root aorist (Ind.)

martyo < martyaḥ < martya

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“man; people; martya [word]; Earth.”

dabhracetāḥ < dabhra


“few; little(a); deficient.”

dabhracetāḥ < cetāḥ < cetas

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“mind; heart; consciousness; intelligence; purpose; cetas [word].”

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