Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 8.48.4

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

शं नो॑ भव हृ॒द आ पी॒त इ॑न्दो पि॒तेव॑ सोम सू॒नवे॑ सु॒शेव॑: । सखे॑व॒ सख्य॑ उरुशंस॒ धीर॒: प्र ण॒ आयु॑र्जी॒वसे॑ सोम तारीः ॥
शं नो भव हृद आ पीत इन्दो पितेव सोम सूनवे सुशेवः । सखेव सख्य उरुशंस धीरः प्र ण आयुर्जीवसे सोम तारीः ॥
śaṃ no bhava hṛda ā pīta indo piteva soma sūnave suśevaḥ | sakheva sakhya uruśaṃsa dhīraḥ pra ṇa āyur jīvase soma tārīḥ ||

English translation:

“O soma, drunk by us, be bliss to our hearts, as a father is indulgent to a son or a friend to a friend; OSoma, worthy of wide praise, do you, wise one, extend our years that we may live.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): pragāthaḥ kāṇvaḥ [pragātha kāṇva];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): somaḥ ;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

शम् । नः॒ । भ॒व॒ । हृ॒दे । आ । पी॒तः । इ॒न्दो॒ इति॑ । पि॒ताऽइ॑व । सो॒म॒ । सू॒नवे॑ । सु॒ऽशेवः॑ । सखाऽइ॑व । सख्ये॑ । उ॒रु॒ऽशं॒स॒ । धीरः॑ । प्र । नः॒ । आयुः॑ । जी॒वसे॑ । सो॒म॒ । ता॒रीः॒ ॥
शम् । नः । भव । हृदे । आ । पीतः । इन्दो इति । पिताइव । सोम । सूनवे । सुशेवः । सखाइव । सख्ये । उरुशंस । धीरः । प्र । नः । आयुः । जीवसे । सोम । तारीः ॥
śam | naḥ | bhava | hṛde | ā | pītaḥ | indo iti | pitāiva | soma | sūnave | su-śevaḥ | sakhāiva | sakhye | uru-śaṃsa | dhīraḥ | pra | naḥ | āyuḥ | jīvase | soma | tārīḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 8.48.4 English analysis of grammar]

śaṃ < śam

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“luck; well-being; fortune.”

no < naḥ < mad

[noun], genitive, plural

“I; mine.”

bhava < bhū

[verb], singular, Present imperative

“become; be; originate; transform; happen; result; exist; be born; be; be; come to life; grow; elapse; come to mind; thrive; become; impend; show; conceive; understand; stand; constitute; serve; apply; behave.”

hṛda < hṛde < hṛd

[noun], dative, singular, neuter

“heart; heart; mind; breast; hṛd [word].”



“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”

pīta < pītaḥ <

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“drink; gulp; soak; drink; suck; inhale.”

indo < indu

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“moon; Soma; drop; anusvāra; one; Candra; silver; camphor; point; juice.”

piteva < pitā < pitṛ

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“father; Pitṛ; ancestor; parent; paternal ancestor; pitṛ [word]; forefather.”

piteva < iva


“like; as it were; somehow; just so.”


[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Soma; moon; soma [word]; Candra.”

sūnave < sūnu

[noun], dative, singular, masculine

“son; offspring.”

suśevaḥ < su


“very; well; good; nicely; beautiful; su; early; quite.”

suśevaḥ < śevaḥ < śeva

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“friendly; favorable; dear.”

sakheva < sakhā < sakhi

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“friend; companion; sakhi [word].”

sakheva < iva


“like; as it were; somehow; just so.”

sakhya < sakhye < sakhi

[noun], dative, singular, masculine

“friend; companion; sakhi [word].”

uruśaṃsa < uru


“wide; broad; great; uru [word]; much(a); excellent.”

uruśaṃsa < śaṃsa

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“praise; śaṃs; recitation.”

dhīraḥ < dhīra

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“expert; wise; intelligent; versed; adept.”



“towards; ahead.”

ṇa < naḥ < mad

[noun], genitive, plural

“I; mine.”

āyur < āyuḥ < āyus

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“life; longevity; āyus; life; āyus [word]; Āyus.”

jīvase < jīv

[verb noun]

“survive; be; exist; live on; dwell.”


[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Soma; moon; soma [word]; Candra.”

tārīḥ < tṛ

[verb], singular, Aorist inj. (proh.)

“traverse; overcome; float; rescue; reach; satisfy.”

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